The Baseball Portal
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objectives of the offensive team (batting team) are to hit the ball into the field of play, and to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team (fielding team) is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate (the place where the player started as a batter). The team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner.
The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either immediately or during teammates' turns batting. The fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play. Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch back and forth between batting and fielding; the batting team's turn to bat is over once the fielding team records three outs. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is usually composed of nine innings, and the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are usually played. Baseball has no game clock, although most games end in the ninth inning.
Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century. This game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and East Asia, particularly in Japan and South Korea.
In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball (MLB) teams are divided into the National League (NL) and American League (AL), each with three divisions: East, West, and Central. The MLB champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series. The top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world.
Jackie Robinson Day
is a traditional event which occurs annually in Major League Baseball
, commemorating and honoring the day Jackie Robinson
made his major league debut. Initiated for the first time on April 15, 2004, Jackie Robinson Day is celebrated each year on the same date. The festivity is a result of Robinson's memorable career, best known for becoming the first African-American
major league baseball
player of the modern era in 1947. His debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers
(today known as the Los Angeles Dodgers) ended approximately eighty years of baseball segregation, also known as the baseball color line
, or color barrier. He also was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame
in 1962, remembered for his services with the number 42 jersey. The gala is often celebrated at varied ballparks
by Major League team players. Shea Stadium
was one of the prominent venues hosting the event, having commemorated the retirement of Robinson's number 42 jersey in 1997
. The numbered jersey is still worn to mark the event every year. Bob DuPuy
, the President and Chief Operating Officer of Major League baseball, described Jackie Robinson Day as a significance "not only for baseball, but for our country
A shortstop tries to tag out a runner who is sliding headfirst, attempting to reach second base.
Defensive positions on a baseball field, with abbreviations and scorekeeper's position numbers (not uniform numbers)
An Afghan girl playing baseball in August 2002
David Ortiz, the batter, awaiting a pitch, with the catcher and umpire
Rickey Henderson—the major leagues' all-time leader in runs and stolen bases—stealing third base in a 1988 game
Diagram of a baseball field (the term diamond may be used to refer to the square area defined by the four bases or to the entire playing field). The dimensions given are for professional and professional-style games. Children often play on smaller fields.
Robert William Meusel
(July 19, 1896 – November 28, 1977) was an American left
and right fielder
in Major League Baseball
who played 11 seasons from 1920 to 1930, all but the last for the New York Yankees
. He was best known as a member of the Yankees championship teams of the 1920s, nicknamed the "Murderers' Row
", during which time the team won its first six American League
pennants and first three World Series
titles. Meusel, noted for his strong throwing arm in the outfield, batted fifth behind Baseball Hall of Famers Babe Ruth
and Lou Gehrig
. In 1925 he joined Ruth in becoming the second Yankee to lead the AL in either home runs
(33), runs batted in
(138) or extra base hits
(79). Nicknamed "Long Bob" because of his 6-foot (1.8 m), 3 inch (1.91 m) stature, Meusel batted
.313 or better in seven of his first eight seasons, finishing with a .309 career average; his 1,005 RBI during the 1920s were the fourth most by any major leaguer, and trailed only Harry Heilmann
's total of 1,131 among AL right-handed hitters. Meusel ended his career in 1930 with the Cincinnati Reds
. He hit for the cycle
three times, a feat accomplished by only one other player previously and one since. His older brother, Emil "Irish" Meusel
, was a star outfielder in the National League
during the same period, primarily for the New York Giants
, who shared a stadium with the Yankees during part of their careers. He had a comparable career batting average (.310) but, unlike Bob, had a weak throwing arm which prevented him from being a great outfielder.
All-Star Final Vote
is an annual Internet
and text message
ballot by Major League Baseball
fans to elect the final player for each team that participates in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game
after all other selections have been made and announced on national television. The first 32 players are selected by a combination of procedures. The 2009 edition of the process, which ran from 2:00 p.m of July 5 until 4:00 pm on July 9, 2009, was named the "2009 All-Star Game Sprint Final Vote." In the most recent ballot for the 2009 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
announced on July 5, 2009, National League
players Cristian Guzmán
, Matt Kemp
, Mark Reynolds
, Pablo Sandoval
, and Shane Victorino
and American League
players Chone Figgins
, Brandon Inge
, Ian Kinsler
, Adam Lind
, and Carlos Peña
were on the ballot. Ultimately, Inge and Victorino were elected to represent their respective leagues. A record 68.6 million votes were cast. That figure far exceeded the previous year's record of 47.8 million votes that elected Evan Longoria
and Corey Hart
to the 2008 Major League Baseball All-Star Game
. The 68.6 million votes representing 34.3 million ballots exceeded the 17.8 million ballots cast for the starting lineup.
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