The Yomiuri Giants (読売ジャイアンツ, Yomiuri Jaiantsu, formally Yomiuri Kyojingun (読売巨人軍)) are a Japanese professional baseball team competing in Nippon Professional Baseball's Central League. Based in Bunkyo, Tokyo, they are one of two professional baseball teams based in Tokyo, the other being the Tokyo Yakult Swallows. They have played their home games in the Tokyo Dome since its opening in 1988. The team's owner is Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings, Japan's largest media conglomerate which also owns two newspapers (including the eponymous Yomiuri Shimbun) and the Nippon Television Network (which includes flagship Nippon TV).

Yomiuri Giants
Team logo Cap insignia
LeagueNippon Professional Baseball
Central League (1950–present)

Japanese Baseball League (1936–1949)

Independent (1934–1935)
LocationBunkyō, Tokyo, Japan
BallparkTokyo Dome
FoundedDecember 26, 1934; 89 years ago (1934-12-26)
Nickname(s)Kyojin (巨人, giant)
CL pennants38 (1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1981, 1983, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2019, 2020)
Japan Series championships22 (1951, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1981, 1989, 1994, 2000, 2002, 2009, 2012)
JBL championships9 (1936 Fall, 1937 Spring, 1938 Fall, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1949)
Former name(s)
  • Tokyo Giants (1935–1946)
  • Great Japan Tokyo Baseball Club (1934)
Former ballparks
ColorsOrange, Black, White
Playoff berths13 (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2018, 2019, 2021)
Retired numbers
OwnershipLegally as KK Yomiuri Kyojingun (株式会社読売巨人軍) 100% owned by The Yomiuri Shimbun Holdings
ManagementToshikazu Yamaguchi
ManagerShinnosuke Abe

The Giants are the oldest professional sports team in Japan. They are also by far the most successful, having won 22 Japan Series titles and an additional nine in the era of NPB's forerunner, the Japanese Baseball League. Their main rivalry is with the Hanshin Tigers, a team especially popular in the Kansai region. The Yomiuri Giants are regarded as "The New York Yankees of Japan" due to their widespread popularity, past dominance of the league, and polarizing effect on fans. (Baseball fans who are indifferent about teams other than their local team often have an intense dislike for the Giants; on the other hand, the Giants have a large fan base even in cities that have a team of their own.)

The English-language press occasionally calls the team the "Tokyo Giants", but that name has not been in use in Japan for decades. (Lefty O'Doul, a former Major League Baseball player, named the team "Tokyo Giants" in the mid-1930s.) Instead, the team is officially known by the name of its corporate owner, just like the Hanshin Tigers and Orix Buffaloes. The team is often referred by fans and in news headlines and tables simply as Kyojin (巨人, the Japanese word for "giant(s)"), instead of the usual corporate owner's name or the English nickname.

The Yomiuri Giants name and uniforms were based on the New York (now San Francisco) Giants. The team's colors (orange and black) are the same colors worn by the National League's Giants (both then as now in both New York and San Francisco). The stylized lettering on the team's jerseys and caps is similar to the fancy lettering used by the Giants when they played in New York in the 1930s, although during the 1970s the Yomiuri Giants modernized their lettering to follow the style worn by the San Francisco Giants.

Franchise history edit

Great Japan Tokyo Baseball Club edit

The team began in 1934 as The Great Japan Tokyo Baseball Club (大日本東京野球倶楽部, Dai-Nippon Tōkyō Yakyū Kurabu), a team of all-stars organized by media mogul Matsutarō Shōriki that toured the United States[1] and matched up against an American all-star team that included Babe Ruth, Jimmie Foxx, Lou Gehrig, and Charlie Gehringer. While prior Japanese all-star contingents had disbanded, Shōriki went pro with this group, playing in an independent league.

In 1935, the team traveled to the United States and faced off against college and minor league teams, ultimately playing 109 games in 128 days (including 34 games on 17 days as doubleheaders) across the country. The tour ended with a record of 75 wins, 33 losses, and 1 draw.

When they faced off against the San Francisco Seals, the manager of the Seals, Lefty O'Doul, stated the team needed a promotional name [citation needed]. He suggested that since Tokyo was the New York of Japan, they should emulate one of the two named MLB teams in New York; either the Yankees or the Giants (New York's third team, which would eventually be called the Dodgers, lacked an official nickname at the time). As "Yankees" was immediately out of the question, O'Doul suggested the name "Giants", and the team adopted the Tokyo Giants moniker mid-tour.

Tokyo Kyojin edit

In 1936, with the formation of the Japanese Baseball League, the team changed its name to the Tokyo Kyojin, often called the Tokyo Giants in non-Japanese sources. It won eight league championships under that name from 1936 to 1943, including six championships in a row from 1938 to 1943.

Russian-born pitcher Victor Starffin, nicknamed "the blue-eyed Japanese", starred for the team until 1944. One of the league's premier pitchers, he won two MVP awards and a Best Nine award, and won at least 26 games in six different years, winning a league-record 42 games in 1939. He followed his record-setting performance with another 38 wins in 1940. Pitcher Eiji Sawamura co-starred with Starffin on the Kyojin. He pitched the first no-hitter in Japanese pro baseball, on September 25, 1936, as well as two others. In 1937, he went 33–10 with a 1.38 earned run average. From 1937 to 1943 Sawamura had a record of 63–22, 554 strikeouts, and a 1.74 ERA. Sawamura was conscripted into the Japanese Imperial Army in 1938, 1941, and 1943; he returned to play for the Giants between deployments, though injuries and time away hindered his form and velocity.[2] He was released by the team in 1943, then killed in battle when his ship was torpedoed near the end of the Second World War.

Outfielder Haruyasu Nakajima was a featured hitter during the franchise's first decade-and-a-half, and as player-manager led the Kyojin to a championship in 1941. Tetsuharu Kawakami was a team fixture from 1938 to 1958, winning the batting title five times, two home run crowns, three RBI titles, and had six titles for the most hits in a season. He was the first player in Japanese pro baseball to achieve 2,000 hits and was named the league's MVP three times. Leadoff man Shosei Go starred for the team from 1937 to 1943, winning league MVP in 1943. Only 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and 140 lb (64 kg), he was nicknamed "The Human Locomotive" due to his speed.

Pitcher Hideo Fujimoto (also known as Hideo Nakagami) pitched for the team for 12 seasons from 1942 to 1955. He holds the Japanese records for lowest career ERA (1.90) and seasonal ERA (0.73 in 1943), as well as best all-time winning percentage (.697). He threw two career no-hitters, including the first perfect game in Japanese professional baseball. In addition, he served as the Giants' player-manager in 1944 (there was no 1945 season) and part of 1946.

Yomiuri Giants edit

In 1947 the team became the Yomiuri Giants, winning the final JBL championship in 1949 (again under player-manager Haruyasu Nakajima). From 1938 to 1987 the Giants played at Korakuen Stadium, moving to their current home the Tokyo Dome in 1988.

In 1950, the Giants were one of the founding members of Nippon Professional Baseball, joining the Central League.

Slugger Noboru Aota starred for the Giants from 1948 to 1952, winning the home run championship twice, and hitting a home run in the 1951 Japan Series, when the Giants defeated the Nankai Hawks 4 games to 2 for their first NPB championship. Hawaiian Wally Yonamine was the first American to play professional baseball in Japan after World War II when he joined the Giants in 1951. A multi-skilled outfielder, as a Giant Yonamine was a member of four Japan Series Championship teams, the Central League Most Valuable Player in 1957, a consecutive seven-time Best Nine Award winner (1952–58), an eleven-time All-Star, and a three-time batting champion.

The team was the Central League champion every year from 1955 to 1959, winning the Japan Series championship in 1955, but they lost four consecutive Japan Series thereafter.

World career home run record holder Sadaharu Oh starred for the Giants from 1959 to 1980, and fellow Hall of Famer Shigeo Nagashima played for the team from 1958 to 1974. The Giants lineup, consisting of Oh batting third and Nagashima batting fourth, was nicknamed the ON Hou, ("Oh-Nagashima Cannon") as the two players emerged as the best hitters in the league. Now the team's manager, Tetsuharu Kawakami led the Giants to nine consecutive Japan Series championships from 1965 to 1973,[3] and Oh and Nagashima dominated the batting titles during this period. During his career, Oh was a five-time batting champion and fifteen-time home-run champion, and won the Central League most valuable player award nine times. Nagashima won the season MVP award five times, and the Best Nine Award every single year of his career (a total 17 times). Future Hall of Famer Tsuneo Horiuchi pitched for the team during its heyday, from 1966 to 1983. The renowned left-hander Masaichi Kaneda pitched for the team from 1965 to 1969, later having his number retired by the Giants.

Shigeo Nagashima was appointed manager of the Giants almost immediately after his retirement in 1974, staying in that position until 1980. After a couple of down years the Giants re-assumed their dominant position in the Central League, winning league championships in 1976 and 1977. Sadaharu Oh rejoined the team as manager from 1984 to 1988. Nagashima returned as Giants manager from 1993 to 2001, winning Japan Series championships in 1994, 1996, and 2000.

Outfielder Hideki Matsui starred for the Giants for ten seasons in the 1990s and early 2000s before migrating to Major League Baseball. He was a three-time NPB MVP, leading his team to four Japan Series, winning three titles (1994, 2000 and 2002), and earning the popular nickname "Godzilla". He also made nine consecutive All-Star Games and led the league in home runs and RBIs three times.

Managerial history and lifetime records edit

Name Nationality From To G W D T Wp
Sadayoshi Fujimoto   Japan 1936 1942 604 422 168 14 .715
Haruyasu Nakajima   Japan 1943 1943 84 54 27 3 .667
Hideo Fujimoto   Japan 1944 1944 35 19 14 2 .576
Hideo Fujimoto (2)   Japan 1946 1946 25 15 9 1 .625
Haruyasu Nakajima (2)   Japan 1946 1947 171 96 74 1 .564
Osamu Mihara   Japan 1947 1949 302 177 118 7 .600
Shigeru Mizuhara   Japan 1950 1960 1407 881 497 29 .639
Tetsuharu Kawakami   Japan 1961 1974 1868 1066 741 61 .590
Shigeo Nagashima   Japan 1975 1980 780 387 386 55 .533
Motoshi Fujita   Japan 1981 1983 390 211 148 31 .588
Sadaharu Oh   Taiwan 1984 1988 650 347 264 39 .568
Motoshi Fujita (2)   Japan 1989 1992 520 305 213 2 .587
Shigeo Nagashima (2)   Japan 1993 2001 1202 647 551 4 .538
Tatsunori Hara   Japan 2002 2003 280 147 138 5 .535
Tsuneo Horiuchi   Japan 2004 2005 284 133 144 7 .480
Tatsunori Hara (2)   Japan 2006 2015 1441 795 595 51 .572
Yoshinobu Takahashi   Japan 2016 2018 429 210 208 11 .502
Tatsunori Hara (3)   Japan 2019 2023 657 344 313 35 .524
Shinnosuke Abe   Japan 2024 ongoing

[page needed][4]

Roster edit

First squad Second squad













Second squad
Third squad
Patrol Coaches
Development Players
Updated December 27, 2023 All NPB rosters

Players of note edit

Former players edit

Retired numbers edit

Top starting pitchers edit

Player Years Games Win Defeat Save Innings Pitched Strikeout ERA
Takehiko Bessho 1949–1961 476 221 102 0 2925 2/3 1372 2.20
Teruzo Nakao 1939–1957 516 209 127 0 3057 1597 2.48
Tsuneo Horiuchi 1966–1983 560 203 139 6 3045 1865 3.27
Victor Starffin 1936–1944 311 199 61 0 2245 1225 1.37
Hideo Fujimoto 1942–1946 1948–1955 332 183 72 0 2353 2/3 1100 1.90
Masaki Saito 1983–2001 426 180 96 11 2375 2/3 1707 2.77
Masumi Kuwata 1986–2006 442 173 141 14 2761 2/3 1980 3.53
Hiromi Makihara 1982–2001 463 159 108 56 2485 2111 3.19
Kunio Jonouchi 1962–1971 354 141 88 0 1966 2/3 927 2.56
Suguru Egawa 1979–1987 266 135 72 3 1857 1/3 1366 3.02

Sourse:Nippon Professional Baseball League (NPB)[citation needed]

Top leading hit players edit

Player Years Games Number Hit Homerun RBI Stolen base Strikes Batting average
Sadaharu Oh 1959–1980 2831 9250 2786 868 2170 84 1319 .301
Shigeo Nagashima 1958–1974 2186 8094 2471 444 1522 190 729 .305
Tetsuharu Kawakami 1938–1955 1979 7500 2351 181 1319 220 422 .313
Hayato Sakamoto 2008–ongoing 1985 7580 2205 266 944 160 1315 .291
Shinnosuke Abe 2001–2019 2282 7514 2132 406 1285 13 1306 .284
Isao Shibata 1962–1981 2208 7570 2018 194 708 579 1087 .267
Yoshinobu Takahashi 1998–2015 1819 6028 1753 321 986 29 1173 .291
Kazunori Shinozuka 1976–1994 1651 5372 1696 92 628 55 580 .309
Tatsunori Hara 1981–1995 1697 6012 1675 382 1093 82 899 .279
Shigeru Chiba 1938–1956 1512 5645 1605 96 691 155 575 .284

Sourse:Nippon Professional Baseball League (NPB)[citation needed]

Top leading homerun players edit

Most caps
Rank Player Homeruns Years
1 Sadaharu Oh 868 1959–1980
2 Shigeo Nagashima 444 1958–1974
3 Shinnosuke Abe 406 2001–2019
4 Tatsunori Hara 382 1981–1995
5 Hideki Matsui 332 1993–2002
6 Yoshinobu Takahashi 321 1998–2015
7 Hayato Sakamoto 266 2008–ongoing
8 Isao Shibata 194 1962–1981
9 Kazuhiro Kiyohara 185 1997–2005
10 Tetsuharu Kawakami 181 1938–1958

Sourse:Nippon Professional Baseball League (NPB)[citation needed]

Season-by-season record edit

Note: GP = Games played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, % = Win Percentage

Season GP W L T % Finish Playoffs
2017 143 72 68 3 .514 4th, Central Did not qualify
2018 143 67 71 5 .486 3rd, Central Lost in League Final Stage, 0–4 (Carp)
2019 143 77 64 2 .546 1st, Central Lost in Japan Series, 0–4 (Hawks)
2020 120 67 45 8 .598 1st, Central Lost in Japan Series, 0–4 (Hawks)
2021 143 61 62 20 .496 3rd, Central Lost in League Final Stage, 0–3 (Swallows)
2022 143 68 72 3 .514 4th, Central Did not qualify
2023 143 71 70 2 .504 4th, Central Did not qualify

"Japan's team" and allegations of corruption edit

Tokyo Dome is the Giants' home field since 1988

Due to the Yomiuri company's vast influence in Japan as a major media conglomerate, the Giants have long been branded as "Japan's Team". In fact, for some years the Giants' uniforms had "Tokyo" on the jersey instead of "Yomiuri" or "Giants", seeming to imply that the Giants represent the vast metropolis and geopolitical center of Japan, even though the Yakult Swallows are also based in Tokyo and three other teams play in the Greater Tokyo Area. This bandwagon appeal has been compared with the marketability of the New York Yankees, Real Madrid, and Manchester United, except that support for the Giants nearly exceeds 50% of those polled, while in the United States and England, support is judged to be between 30% and 40% for the Yankees and Manchester United, respectively. Correspondingly, fans of other professional baseball teams in Japan are often openly derisive and contemptuous of the Giants' bandwagon marketing tactics, and an "anti-Giants" movement exists in protest of the Giants' near-hegenomy.[1]

In addition, despite the Giants having employed many foreign players over the years, many Japanese point proudly to the "pure-blooded period" of 1958–1974 when the team enjoyed continued success — 13 pennants — despite having no foreign players.[1]

It has also long been alleged that the Giants rely on underhanded tactics to recruit the best players, involving bribes to players and amateur coaches, or using their influence on the governing council of Japanese professional baseball to pass rules that favors their recruiting efforts. This may be one explanation for the Giants' abundance of success in league play.[1] In August 2004, Yomiuri president Tsuneo Watanabe resigned after it was revealed that the club had violated scouting rules by paying ¥2 million to pitching prospect Yasuhiro Ichiba. Ten months later, Watanabe was hired as chairman of the Yomiuri corporation.[5] In 2012, Asahi Shimbun discovered that the Giants had violated NPB rules by secretly paying pitcher Takahiko Nomaguchi while he was still an amateur playing in Japan's corporate league.[6]

In 2009, the Giants played the Japan national baseball team in an unofficial goodwill game before the World Baseball Classic.

Controversies edit

1973 First nine consecutive victories in professional baseball history edit

As of October 21 before this game was played, the teams only had a 0.5 game difference the Hanshin Tigers, this game resulted 9 to 0 win over Tigers on October 22, infielder Shozo Doi and catcher Masaaki Mori each had 3 hits and Doi hit a two run homerun in the fifth inning off Kenji Furusawa in the Giants 4 to 1 win from Nankai Hawks (now Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks) in Japan Series, starter Kazumi Takahashi (23 wins, 13 losses) contribution this season.[7]

Oh home run controversy edit

In 1985, American Randy Bass, playing for the Hanshin Tigers, came into the last game of the season against the Oh-managed Giants with 54 home runs, one short of manager Sadaharu Oh's single-season record of 55. Bass was intentionally walked four times on four straight pitches each time, leading Bass to famously hold his bat upside down. Bass reached over the plate on the fifth occasion and batted the ball into the outfield for a single. After the game, Oh denied ordering his pitchers to walk Bass, but Keith Comstock, an American pitcher for the Giants, later stated that an unnamed Giants coach had threatened a fine of $1,000 for every strike that any Giants pitcher threw to Bass. The magazine Takarajima investigated the incident and reported that the Giants front office had likely ordered the team not to allow Bass an opportunity to tie or break Oh's record. For the most part the Japanese media remained silent on the incident as did league commissioner Takeso Shimoda.[8] A similar situation to this was presented in the 1992 movie Mr. Baseball.

1994 Central League tie-breaker game edit

For the first time in Japanese professional baseball history, the Giants and Chunichi Dragons were tied at the end of the regular season, so both teams competed in a tie-breaker game to determine who gets to go to the Japan Series. The Giants won 6 to 3 against Chunichi, and took the Central League pennant and advanced to the Japan Series.

1996 Nagashima controversy edit

The team accelerates at a stretch when winning in nine consecutive hits of professional baseball tie-record in one inning of July 9 against Hiroshima Carp's game. Both main starter, Masaki Saito, Dominican Balvino Galvez raised 16 won games the most wins on this season, relief pitcher, Mario Brito who reinforced during the season and Hirofumi Kono supported the team, Hideki Matsui was very success as a main season. Rookies Toshihisa Nishi and Takayuki Shimizu were active and generation change was also decided admirably. At the time I reached the biggest 11.5 game difference in league history and accomplished the league championship. Although defeated lost 1 to 4 games by Orix BlueWave (now Orix Buffaloes) on Japan Series.[page needed]

2008 Miracle season edit

Despite losing five consecutive games from the opening game on March 28, On May 26, a banned drug was detected to be used by Luis Gonzalez, so he was suspended for 1 year from Nippon Professional Baseball for violating league anti-doping policies,[9] and on the following day, the Giants decided to release Gonzalez from his contract. At the time, October reached the biggest 13 game (as July) difference in league history and accomplished the league championship, from September 19, including their 3rd consecutive victory against the Hanshin Tigers, they recorded a total of 12 consecutive victories for the first time in 32 years, followed by 3 to 1 winning the final direct confrontation on October 8. Contributors included Shinnosuke Abe, Yoshinobu Takahashi, Michihiro Ogasawara, Alex Ramirez, Seth Adam Greisinger, Marc Jason Kroon, Hisanori Takahashi, and Tetsuya Utsumi, The Giants, however, lost 3 games to 4 to the Saitama Seibu Lions in the 2008 Japan Series.[page needed]

2011 Kiyotake controversy edit

On 18 November 2011, Giants' general manager Hidetoshi Kiyotake was fired by the Yomiuri organization for "defamation of the team and Yomiuri newspaper group". Kiyotake had recommended that Kaoru Okazaki be retained as the team's 2012 head coach. After Yomiuri chairman Tsuneo Watanabe ordered Kiyotake to replace Okazaki with Suguru Egawa, Kiyotake called a public press conference on 11 November 2011 to complain about Watanabe's interference in the club's decision-making processes. Yomiuri's response was to fire Kiyotake.[5]

Okazaki was eventually selected to remain as the next season's coach. The story made major headlines in the Japanese media.[10] On 13 December 2011, Kiyotake sued Yomiuri for ¥62 million for unfair dismissal and defamation and demanded that the company issue him a formal apology, printed in the Yomiuri Shimbun.[11] Yomiuri counter-sued Kiyotake for ¥100 million, saying that he had damaged the team's image. The suits, combined into one case, opened in Tokyo District Court on 2 February 2012.[12]

2012 Hara controversy edit

In 2012 Japanese weekly Shukan Bunshun reported that current team manager Tatsunori Hara had paid ¥100 million to a former yakuza gangster in response to a threat to go public on an extra-marital affair that Hara had been involved in. The Yomiuri corporation admitted that the payout had been made, but sued Shukan Bunshun for insinuating that the incident had underworld connections. The suit is pending.[13]

2015 gambling controversy edit

In 2015, an investigation by the league found that three Giants pitchers: Shoki Kasahara, Ryuya Matsumoto, and Satoshi Fukuda had bet on NPB and other sporting events with underworld bookmakers. The Giants claimed that the three did not bet on Giants games. Placing wagers on baseball games or associating with criminal elements is expressly prohibited in the contracts that all NPB players must sign, a rule similar to Major League Baseball's Rule 21 in North America, intended to prevent a repeat of the Black Sox Scandal of 1919 in Chicago, Illinois, USA.[14] On 9 November 2015, the Giants organization terminated the contracts of all three players, with the league placing an indefinite disqualification on the players.

MLB players edit

Hideki Matsui

Mascots edit

The Giants have 6 mascots, known as the Giabbits. They are based on one of the older logos of the Giants. They have 2 adult male mascots named Giabyi and Giabba (their jersey numbers are 333 and 555 respectively), an adult female mascot named Vicky, and 2 children mascots (a boy and a girl respectively), Tsuppy and Chappy (the former wears shorts and the latter wears a skirt and a headband on their left ear). The most recent one, Grandpa Giabbit, was introduced in 2014, the team's 80th anniversary. His jersey number is 1934, the year the team was founded.

Minor League team edit

The Giants farm team plays in the Eastern League. It was founded in 1949.

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Whiting, Robert. You Gotta have Wa (Vintage Departures, 1989).
  2. ^ "The story of Eiji Sawamura, the Japan baseball ace lost in sunk WWII transport ship". Mainichi Daily News. 2021-05-01. Retrieved 2023-09-18.
  3. ^ Whiting, Robert (28 November 2013). "Kawakami's philosophy as manager never wavered". The Japan Times. p. 16. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  4. ^ ja::読売ジャイアンツの年度別成績一覧 Retrieved date on 24 October 2017 (in Japanese)
  5. ^ a b Kyodo News, "Giants ax Kiyotake after vocal Watanabe slight", The Japan Times, 19 November 2011, p. 16.
  6. ^ Metropolis, "The Small Print: Groovin' to the Olympic Beat", #942, 13–26 April 2012, p. 4
  7. ^ Yomiuri Giants Yearly Results List Retrieved 16 November 2017. (in Japanese)
  8. ^ Whiting, Robert, "Equaling Oh's HR record proved difficult", The Japan Times, October 31, 2008, p. 12.
  9. ^ "Gonzalez fails drug test in Japan, banned a year - International Herald Tribune". 2008-05-29. Archived from the original on 2008-05-29. Retrieved 2022-08-02.
  10. ^ Nagata, Kazuaki, "Giants ex-GM Kiyotake tells his side of the story", The Japan Times, 26 November 2011, p. 1.
  11. ^ Kyodo News, "Giants ex-boss Kiyotake sues Yomiuri", The Japan Times, 15 December 2011, p. 2.
  12. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, "Axed Giants general manager Kiyotake, Yomiuri face off in court", The Japan Times, 3 February 2012, p. 2.
  13. ^ Metropolis, "The Small Print: How Low Can You Go?", Issue #956, 20 July – 2 August 2012, p. 4
  14. ^ Kyodo News, "Two more Giants pitchers involved in baseball gambling, panel finds", The Japan Times, 21 October 2015

Further reading edit

  • Fitts, Robert K. (2005). Remembering Japanese Baseball: An Oral History of the Game. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-2630-2.
  • Whiting, Robert (2005). The Samurai Way of Baseball: The Impact of Ichiro and the New Wave from Japan. Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 0-446-69403-7.
  • Whiting, Robert (1990). You Gotta Have Wa. Vintage. ISBN 0-679-72947-X.

External links edit