Busch Stadium II
|Former names||Civic Center Busch Memorial Stadium (1966–1981)|
Busch Stadium (1982–2005)
|Location||250 Stadium Plaza|
St. Louis, Missouri
|Owner||St. Louis Cardinals|
|Operator||St. Louis Cardinals|
|Capacity||Baseball: 49,676 (1997–2005)|
|Field size||Left Field – 330 ft (101 m)|
Left-Center – 372 ft (113 m)
Center Field – 402 ft (123 m)
Right-Center – 372 ft (113 m)
Right Field – 330 ft (101 m)
Backstop – 64 ft (20 m)
Original Dimensions (1966)
Left Field – 330 ft (101 m)
Left-Center – 386 ft (118 m)
Center Field – 414 ft (126 m)
Right-Center – 386 ft (118 m)
Right Field – 330 ft (101 m)
Backstop – 64 ft (20 m)
|Surface||Natural grass (1996–2005)|
Natural grass (1966–1969)
|Broke ground||May 25, 1964|
|Opened||May 12, 1966|
|Closed||October 19, 2005|
|Demolished||November 7 – December 8, 2005|
|Construction cost||US$24 million|
($200 million in 2021 dollars)
|Architect||Sverdrup & Parcel|
Edward Durell Stone
Schwarz & Van Hoefen, Associated
|St. Louis Cardinals (MLB) (1966–2005)|
St. Louis Cardinals (NFL) (1966–1987)
St. Louis Stars (NPSL / NASL) (1967–1974)
St. Louis Rams (NFL) (1995)
The stadium served as the home of the St. Louis Cardinals National League baseball team for its entire operating existence, while also serving as home to the National Football League's Cardinals team for 22 seasons, from 1966 through 1987, as well as the St. Louis Rams during part of the 1995 season. It opened four days after the last baseball game was played at Sportsman's Park (which had also been known since 1953 as Busch Stadium).
The stadium was designed by Sverdrup & Parcel and built by Grün & Bilfinger. Edward Durell Stone designed the roof, a 96-arch "Crown of Arches". The Crown echoed the Gateway Arch, which had been completed only a year before Busch Stadium opened. It was one of the first multipurpose "cookie-cutter" facilities built in the United States, popular from the early 1960s through the early 1980s.
Its final event was the sixth game of the 2005 NLCS on October 19. The stadium was demolished by wrecking ball in late 2005 and part of its former footprint is occupied by its replacement stadium—the new Busch Stadium (a.k.a. Busch Stadium III), located just south.
With new stadiums such as the Astrodome and Shea Stadium, St. Louis felt the need to modernize. Many of these stadiums demonstrated modern feats of engineering and architecture, but also demonstrated a transition occurring for the American public at the time: traditional to the cutting edge. At the time of design, the Busch Stadium II was planned to be used for several purposes. The stadium was named Civic Center Busch Memorial Stadium. Just weeks after opening the new stadium hosted the All-Star Game followed by a performance by the Beatles. The landmark that distinguishes St. Louis’s skyline today, the Gateway Arch, was built across the street. To complement this historic landmark, the new stadium had 96 open arches on its roof. As a testament to the design, St. Louis’s Stadium was one of the last built in the 60’s to be torn down. After serving the St. Louis Cardinals for 40 seasons, the Memorial Stadium was torn down in 2005.
The Cardinals had long since passed the Browns as St. Louis' premier team, and chafed at having the Browns as landlords. At least as early as the 1940s, the Cardinals had sought to build their own park. Longtime owner Sam Breadon had set aside $3 million to build a new park. However, he was unable to find any land to do so, and World War II put those plans on hold in any case. By 1947, Breadon faced the prospect of having to pay a heavy tax bill on his stadium fund. Tax lawyer Fred Saigh convinced Breadon to sell him the team, arguing this would save the Cardinals from this stuff tax burden.
When this tax dodge came to light in 1953 following an IRS audit, Saigh was subsequently charged with tax evasion, and pleaded no contest. Facing certain banishment from baseball, he put the team up for sale. Ultimately, Anheuser-Busch bought the Cardinals with the specific goal of keeping them in St. Louis.
However, the Cardinals would have needed a new park in any event. Sportsman's Park had been built in its final form in 1909, and had not aged well. By 1953, even with the rent from the Cardinals, there was not nearly enough revenue to bring the stadium up to code, with city officials even threatening to have it condemned. With this in mind, soon after Anheuser-Busch bought the Cardinals, Browns owner Bill Veeck sold the park to the Cardinals, who heavily renovated the park and renamed it Busch Stadium, while Veeck relocated his team to Baltimore (rebranding it the Orioles).
By the late 1950s, however, the need for a new park could no longer be staved off. Sportsman's Park/Busch Stadium had almost no parking, and the neighborhood around it had gone to seed.
In 1958, Charles Farris, the city's head of development, proposed a new stadium downtown as the core of a plan to revive a 31-block area of the business district. The original design of the stadium called for a baseball-only format, but after the NFL's Chicago Cardinals moved to St. Louis at the end of the 1959 season, becoming known as the football Cardinals in St. Louis, the design was altered to accommodate football as well: the football Cardinals would share Sportsman's Park/Busch Stadium with the baseball Cardinals.
With support from the local Chamber of Commerce, the Civic Center Redevelopment Corporation was established in September 1959, and it was given power of eminent domain, which was used to condemn several areas that were rundown or had gone to seed years before, including the small Chinatown district, the Grand Theater strip club, and various flophouses and abandoned warehouses.
Groundbreaking occurred on May 25, 1964, and construction took just under two years. The plan also included parking garages, a hotel (a Stouffer's hotel), and office buildings. A few years later, it also became the new home of the Spanish Pavilion from the 1964 New York World's Fair.
The stadium opened on May 12, 1966, one month into the baseball season, as Civic Center Busch Memorial Stadium. However, the "Civic Center" part was rarely used, and most people called it simply Busch Memorial Stadium.
The stadium's grass was replaced with AstroTurf in 1970. St. Louis' notoriously hot summers made it difficult to keep the grass alive, especially when the football Cardinals insisted on practicing on the field during the end of the baseball Cardinals' season. The Cardinals retained a full dirt infield for eight seasons. A removable, sectioned Astroturf surface covered the infield during football season. The infield was converted to sliding pits when the surface was replaced for the 1978 baseball season. With artificial turf, the playing conditions at Busch Stadium were among the hottest in baseball, with temperatures well above the local official readings.
Anheuser-Busch (who owned the baseball Cardinals at the time) bought the stadium in 1981 for $53 million and removed the "Memorial" from the stadium's name, becoming simply Busch Stadium; the price included the parking garages.
Over the years the grounds became home to bronze statues of Stan Musial, Enos Slaughter, Dizzy Dean, Rogers Hornsby, Red Schoendienst, Lou Brock, Bob Gibson, James "Cool Papa" Bell, George Sisler, Jack Buck, and Ozzie Smith.
Following Busch's last 1995 event—the Rams' October 22 game before the opening of the now-Dome at America's Center—the Cardinals retrofitted it into a baseball-only stadium. A large section of the upper deck outfield seats was closed, replaced with a hand-operated scoreboard and flags commemorating the Cardinals' retired numbers and World Series championships. The stadium's original natural grass field was restored, and the outfield walls were re-painted green from their original blue.
Busch Memorial Stadium was originally slated to be imploded like most modern-day stadium demolitions to be able to finish construction on the new stadium in time for the 2006 season. Due to fear of damaging the nearby Stadium MetroLink station, it was decided to tear down the stadium with a wrecking ball, piece-by-piece, over a few weeks.
Demolition of the stadium began at 3:07 p.m. CST on November 7 and was completed shortly after midnight on December 8, 2005.
Part of the footprint of the old stadium is now occupied by the outfield of the current stadium. The Cardinals had planned to build Ballpark Village on the site of the stadium ($320 million for the first phase). It was to consist of boutiques and restaurants, condominium apartments anchored by the new headquarters of Centene Corporation—all to be built in time for the All-Star Game in 2009.
None of the construction had occurred until groundbreaking ceremonies on February 8, 2013, and locals derisively referred to its rain-soaked unfinished status before that date as "Lake DeWitt"—after Cardinal President William DeWitt, Jr. In March 2009, the Cardinals announced the site would be used for a softball field and parking during the game.
In its opening year, Busch Stadium hosted the All-Star Game, a 2–1 National League victory in 10 innings, mostly remembered for the humidity and 105 °F (41 °C) temperatures. The stadium hosted World Series games in six different seasons: 1967, 1968, 1982, 1985, 1987, and 2004. The Cardinals won the World Series in 1967 and 1982 while playing in the stadium (the seventh game of the 1982 Series was won at Busch). The 1968 and 2004 World Series were clinched in Busch Stadium by visitors: the Detroit Tigers in the seventh game and the Boston Red Sox in a four-game sweep, respectively.
The stadium was also the site of Mark McGwire's historic 62nd home run of the 1998 season that broke Roger Maris' single-season record, and also of McGwire's 70th of that season, for a record which lasted until Barry Bonds surpassed it in 2001. The dimensions in the center and the power alleys had been altered from time to time over the years. Initially, the park was very favorable to pitchers, with spacious outfield dimensions. Consequently, its design (as well as the Astroturf surface) was favorable to the Cardinals' style of play for most of the time from the 1960s through the 1990s, which emphasized good baserunning and extra-base hits. Later changes attempted to make the outfield better balanced between pitching and power hitting.
Before the 1996 season, the stadium was retrofitted to become a baseball-only stadium. Part of the top deck in center field was permanently closed, and in 1997, flags were put in place to honor the team's retired numbers and pennants. Even before then, the stadium had come under less scorn from baseball purists than other cookie-cutter stadiums built during the same era, partly because the "crown of arches" gave it a more traditional look than its cousins and partially because it was alone amongst cookie-cutters in having field-level outfield seating.
The stadium was one of, and later the smallest, facilities in the NFL: while the Cardinals played there, it seated 54,692 people, barely more than the NFL's minimum capacity of 50,000 (mandated in 1970). Various efforts were made to get a new larger stadium or expansion of Busch Stadium, but after these failed, Cardinals owner Bill Bidwill relocated the team to Phoenix, Arizona after the 1987 season.
The football Cardinals never hosted a playoff game during their 28 seasons in St. Louis, while the "Gridbirds" made only three playoff appearances during that stretch, losing on the road against the Minnesota Vikings in 1974, Los Angeles Rams in 1975, and Green Bay Packers in 1982. Despite this lack of success, they won the third place Playoff Bowl after the 1964 season, upsetting Vince Lombardi's Packers 31–24 at the Orange Bowl in Miami.
Busch Stadium was also briefly the home of the St. Louis Rams, who had relocated from Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim, California. Due to completion of their new home stadium, the new and nearby Trans World Dome (later renamed the Dome at America's Center) being delayed, the Rams played the first half of the 1995 season at Busch Stadium: for these four home games, Busch Stadium seated 60,000 people.
The Rams played their last game at Busch Stadium on October 22, while the new indoor venue hosted its first NFL game on November 12, 1995.
Between the Cardinals' 1987 departure and the Rams' 1995 arrival, the stadium hosted two NFL pre-season games: one between the Seattle Seahawks and the New England Patriots in 1989, and one between the New York Jets and the Kansas City Chiefs in 1991.
Acts who have performed at Busch Stadium include:
- The Beatles, on August 21, 1966, during their final North American tour.
- Jeff Beck, Ted Nugent, Jefferson Starship and Fleetwood Mac, as part of "Super Jam 76"
- The Rolling Stones, on September 17, 1989, during their Steel Wheels Tour
- New Kids on the Block on August 26, 1990, during The Magic Summer Tour
- U2 on September 20, 1992, during their Zoo TV Tour
- Paul McCartney on April 29, 1993, during The New World Tour
- Elton John and Billy Joel on August 9, 1994, during their first Face to Face Tour
- O'Neil, Tim (May 11, 2013). "In 1966, new Busch Stadium was a tub-thumping civic cause". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Football Cards remain undecided on Atlanta". St. Petersburg Times. Florida. Associated Press. May 26, 1964. p. 2C.
- 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved April 16, 2022.
- O'Neil, Tim (May 11, 2013). "In 1966, New Busch Stadium Was a Tub-Thumping Civic Cause". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- Newberry, Paul (October 13, 2005). "Cardinals want to close out old home with title". Southeast Missourian. Cape Girardeau. Associated Press. p. 4B.
- Bilfinger Berger Corporate history animation Archived 2010-03-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Save the Arches – jbauer.com – Retrieved January 22, 2008 Archived February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Fitzpatrick, Mike (October 20, 2005). "Busch stadium closes in disappointing fashion". Southeast Missourian. Cape Girardeau. Associated Press. p. 1B.
- Reichard, Kevin (2015-04-13). "The birth of modern baseball design: 1965". Ballpark Digest. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
- O'Neill, Dan (October 2005). "Old Busch Stadium served its purpose well: Ready for wrecking ball: [Toronto Edition]". National Post. ProQuest 330390044.
- O'Neill, Dan (October 2005). "A toast to Busch Old stadium isn't quite ready to turn job over to newcomer: [Fourth Edition]". St.Louis Dispatch. ProQuest 402662094.
- "Busch Stadium". ballparks.com. Retrieved 2019-12-03.
- Purdy, Dennis (2006). The Team-by-Team Encyclopedia of Major League Baseball. New York City: Workman. ISBN 0-7611-3943-5.
- Held, Kevin (May 25, 2010). "May 24, 1969: Spanish International Pavilion Moves to St. Louis". KSDK. St. Louis. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- "Mixed feeling on Astroturf in St. Louis". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. April 14, 1970. p. 2–C.
- "Busch Stadium will get artificial turf". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. December 20, 1977. p. 2–C.
- Smith, Curt (2001). Storied Stadiums. New York City: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1187-6.
- Hertzel, Bob (August 3, 1987). "Busch Stadium holds the heat". Pittsburgh Press. p. D2.
- "Turf gives Cards hotfoot". St. Petersburg Independent. Associated Press. June 16, 1970. p. 1–C.
- "Busch Astroturf hits 152 degrees". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Associated Press. July 2, 1970. p. 21.
- "Busch Stadium rolls out the grass". Southeast Missourian. Cape Girardeau. Associated Press. February 14, 1996. p. 1B.
- Ballpark Village site to become softball field, parking lot for now Archived April 22, 2009, at the Wayback Machine St. Louis Post-Dispatch March 19, 2009,
- "NL box scores". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. August 25, 1975. p. 2, part 2.
- "Cards inject Busch Stadium with the second dose of tradition". Southeast Missourian. Cape Girardeau. Associated Press. December 13, 1996. p. 3B.
- "Official Baseball Rules, 2021 Edition" (PDF). mlb.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2022.
- "The Beatles Setlist at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. Louis, Missouri, USA". setlist.fm. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
- Holden, Stephen (11 July 1989). "Rolling Stones' Tour". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Corrigan, Patricia. "'The Cute Beatle' Wows Crowd Here". newspapers.com. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Derrick, Sean (3 February 2017). "BILLY JOEL TO PLAY BUSCH STADIUM ON SEPTEMBER 21". midwestrewind.com. First Mag. Retrieved 27 October 2019.
- "Cardinals Set New Record for Attendance". St. Petersburg Times. August 29, 1966. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- "Cardinals Send Briles Against Bell in Hopes of Winning Series at Home". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. October 7, 1967. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- "A View From the Bleachers" (PDF). Modern Steel Construction. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-26. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- "Some 22,000 Series Tickets Go On Sale in St. Louis Saturday". St. Joseph News-Press. October 1, 1982. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Snyder, John (2010). Cardinals Journal: Year by Year and Day by Day with the St. Louis Cardinals Since 1882 (Second ed.). Cincinnati: Clerisy Press. p. 622. ISBN 978-1-57860-338-1. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- "Departure of Football Cardinals Helped Baseball Cardinals". RetroSimba. March 13, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Jackson, Andre; Scales–Cobbs, Ann (December 31, 1990). "Murders Up In City, County For 1990 Property Crimes Show Decline". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 3A.
- Scales, Ann (April 13, 1991). "Baseball Fans Suffer Cold, Rain for Tickets". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 23. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- Kohn, Edward H. (April 3, 1992). "Workers Prepare Stadium for Opening Day". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. pp. 1, 20. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- Kohn, Edward H. (April 11, 1993). "Civic Center Has a 'Vision' for Busch". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 39. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- McGuire, John M. (April 7, 1996). "Turf's Up! The Cardinals Have a New Field of Dream". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 6.
- Salter, Jim (December 13, 1996). "Busch Stadium Adds Old–Fashioned Scoreboard". Fort Scott Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Merron, Jeff. "Sea of Red Helps Busch Grade". ESPN. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Shontz, Lori (February 25, 2006). "Cardinals Halt Season Ticket Sales". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. B4.
- "Brooks Unfazed that Rams Won't Have Dome for Home". The Register-Guard. Eugene. October 14, 1995. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Ballparks of Baseball-Busch Stadium-St. Louis Cardinals
- Ballparks by Munsey and Suppes – Busch Stadium
- Busch Stadium III Construction Time-Lapse at the Wayback Machine (archived 2005-12-10)
- Busch Stadium history at the Library of Congress Web Archives (archived 2002-09-15), from the Major League Baseball website
- Busch Stadium at the Wayback Machine (archived 2006-02-09), from the Sporting News
- A toast to Busch[permanent dead link], article from the Saint Louis Post-Dispatch
- Busch Stadium Demolition Diary