Aikido (Japanese: 合気道 Hepburn: aikidō)
: 合氣道) [aikiꜜdoː]
is a modern Japanese martial art
developed by Morihei Ueshiba
as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury, making zero damage to the attacker. Aikido is often translated as the art of peace, the power of love. "the way of unifying (with) life energy
" or as "the way of harmonious spirit".
Aikido's techniques include: irimi (entering), and tenkan (turning) movements (that redirect the opponent's attack momentum), various types of throws and without pain joint locks.
Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu.
Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him. Today, aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker because Morihei Ueshiba is the founder of Aikido.
Mitsuyo Maeda (前田 光世 Maeda Mitsuyo, born November 18, 1878 – November 28, 1941)
a Brazilian naturalized as Otávio Maeda (Portuguese pronunciation: [oˈtavju mɐˈedɐ]),
was a Japanese judōka (judo expert) and prizefighter in no holds barred competitions. He was also known as Count Combat or Conde Koma in Spanish and Portuguese, a nickname he picked up in Spain in 1908. Along with Antônio Soshihiro Satake (another naturalized Brazilian), he pioneered judo in Brazil, the United Kingdom, and other countries.
Maeda was fundamental to the development of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, including through his teaching of Carlos Gracie and others of the Gracie family. He was also a promoter of Japanese emigration to Brazil. Maeda won more than 2,000 professional fights in his career. His accomplishments led to him being called the "toughest man who ever lived" and being referred to as the father of Brazilian Jiu-jitsu.