Portal:Martial arts


Introduction

The martial art of boxing was practiced in ancient Thera.

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia] it originally referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s. The term is derived from Latin and means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors.

Although the earliest evidence of martial arts goes back millennia, the true roots are difficult to reconstruct. Inherent patterns of human aggression which inspire practice of mock combat (in particular wrestling) and optimization of serious close combat as cultural universals are doubtlessly inherited from the pre-human stage and were made into an "art" from the earliest emergence of that concept. Indeed, many universals of martial art are fixed by the specifics of human physiology and not dependent on a specific tradition or era.

Specific martial traditions become identifiable in Classical Antiquity, with disciplines such as shuai jiao, Greek wrestling or those described in the Indian epics or the Spring and Autumn Annals of China.

Selected article

Shihōnage technique performed in "half-seated" position (hanmi hantachi waza).
Aikido (合気道, aikidō, Japanese pronunciation: [aikiꜜdoː], kyūjitai: 合氣道) is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba, as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attackers from injury. Aikido is often translated as "the way of unifying (with) life energy" or as "the way of harmonious spirit". According to the founder's philosophy, the primary goal in the practice of aikido is to overcome oneself instead of cultivating violence or aggressiveness. Morihei Ueshiba used the phrase "masakatsu agatsu katsuhayabi" (Japanese: 正勝吾勝勝速日) ("true victory, final victory over oneself, here and now") to refer to this principle.

Aikido's fundamental principles include: irimi (entering), atemi, kokyu-ho (breathing control), sankaku-ho (triangular principle) and tenkan (turning) movements that redirect the opponent's attack momentum. Its curriculum comprises various techniques, primarily throws and joint locks. It also includes a weapons system encompassing the bokken, tantō and .

Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu.

Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending partly on when they studied with him. Today, aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker.


Selected biography

Jon Jones during a U.S. Senate event in support of a Cleveland Clinic brain study.
Jonathan Dwight Jones (born July 19, 1987) is an American professional mixed martial artist currently signed to the Ultimate Fighting Championship, where he competes in the light heavyweight division. Widely regarded as one of the greatest mixed martial artists ever, he is the former two-time UFC Light Heavyweight Champion. Jones first held the title from March 2011 to April 2015, and then from December 2018 to when he vacated the title on August 17, 2020. Jones also held the interim UFC Light Heavyweight Championship. As of August 19, 2019, he is #1 in the UFC men's pound-for-pound rankings.

At age 23, with his victory over Maurício Rua at UFC 128, Jones became the youngest champion in UFC history. He holds many UFC records in the light heavyweight division, including the most title defenses, most wins, longest win streak, and most submission victories. During much of his championship reign, Jones has been widely considered to be the best pound-for-pound fighter in the world. Never stopped nor outscored during his career, Jones's only professional loss is a controversial disqualification against Matt Hamill, a result that Hamill and UFC President Dana White dispute.

Between 2015 and 2017, Jones was involved in several controversies and lost his title three times as a result of disciplinary action. He was first stripped of his title and removed from the official rankings by the UFC in 2015 after he was arrested on felony hit-and-run charges. His subsequent returns to the UFC in 2016 and 2017 saw him emerge victorious in title bouts against Ovince Saint Preux and Daniel Cormier, but were both cut short by Jones testing positive for banned substances and receiving further suspensions, with the latter reversed to a 'no contest'. After his 2017 suspension was lifted, Jones reclaimed the championship in 2018 by defeating Alexander Gustafsson and successfully defended it in his three following fights.


Selected entertainment

Over the Edge was a professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) on May 23, 1999, at Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri, United States.

Owen Hart was scheduled to face The Godfather for the WWF Intercontinental Championship during the event. Wrestling under his Blue Blazer gimmick, Hart was set to make a superhero-like ring entrance, which would have seen him descend from the arena rafters into the ring. He was, however, released prematurely when the harness line malfunctioned, and fell more than 78 feet (24 m) into the ring and died. Criticism later arose over Vince McMahon's decision to continue the show after Hart's accident. In court, his widow Martha, children, and parents sued the organization, contending that poor planning of the dangerous stunt caused Owen's death. WWF settled the case out of court, paying US$18 million (equivalent to $27M in 2019) to his widow, children, and parents. Due to the accident and controversy surrounding the event, the Over the Edge name was retired. The event was also not released for home video viewing until the launch of the WWE Network in 2014 where an edited version of the show removing any mention of Hart's death was released.

In the main event, The Undertaker defeated Stone Cold Steve Austin in a singles match (with Vince McMahon and Shane McMahon as the guest referees) to win the WWF Championship. Of the six scheduled bouts on the undercard, two received more promotion than the others. The first was a singles match, in which The Rock defeated Triple H by disqualification. The other was an eight-man elimination tag team match involving The Union's (Mankind, Ken Shamrock, Test, and the Big Show) victory over the Corporate Ministry (Viscera, the Big Boss Man, and the Acolytes (Bradshaw and Faarooq).


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Right, a bearded white man wearing a yellow loin-cloth wrestles with a black man, left, who is on one knee. Rich green background.
Credit: York Museums Trust staff

The Wrestlers is an oil painting on millboard by English artist William Etty, painted around 1840 and currently in the York Art Gallery, in York, England. It depicts a wrestling match between a black man and a white man, both glistening with sweat and under an intense light emphasising their curves and musculature. While little documentation of the painting exists prior to 1947, it is likely that it was painted over a period of three evenings at the life class of the Royal Academy.


Selected quote


It's not how much you know that counts, but how much you can recall under stress.
John Danaher, Mastering Jujitsu


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