Krav Maga (/ˌkrɑːv məˈɡɑː/ KRAHV mə-GAH; Hebrew: קְרַב מַגָּע, IPA: [ˈkʁav maˈɡa]; lit.'contact combat') is an Israeli martial art. Developed for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF),[1][2] it is derived from a combination of techniques used in Aikido, Boxing, Judo, Karate and Wrestling.[3][4] It is known for its focus on real-world situations.[5]

Krav Maga
קְרַב מַגָּע
Krav Maga course at an Israeli paratroopers school in 1955
Country of origin Israel
CreatorImi Lichtenfeld
Olympic sportNo

Krav Maga was originally developed by Hungarian-born Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld. Having grown up in Bratislava during a time of anti-Semitic unrest, Lichtenfeld used his training as a boxer and wrestler to defend Jewish neighborhoods against attackers in the mid-to-late 1930s, becoming an experienced street fighter.[6][7] After his immigration to Mandatory Palestine in the late 1940s, he began to provide lessons on combat training to Jewish paramilitary groups that would later form the IDF during the 1948 Palestine war. As an instructor, he compiled his knowledge and experience into the combat system that would later become known as Krav Maga. This system would continue to be taught long after he left the IDF.[2][8]

From the outset, the original concept of Krav Maga was to take the most effective and practical techniques of other fighting styles (originally European boxing, wrestling, and street fighting) and make them rapidly teachable to conscripted soldiers.[9] It has a philosophy emphasizing aggression[10] and simultaneous defensive and offensive manoeuvres.[11] It has been used by Israeli special forces and regular infantry units alike.[12] Closely related variations have been developed and adopted by Israeli law enforcement and intelligence organizations, and there are several organizations teaching variations of Krav Maga internationally.[13] There are two forms of Krav Maga, with one type adapted for Israeli security forces and the other type adapted for civilian use.[13]



The term krav maga in Hebrew is literally translated as 'contact combat' – the three letter root of the first word is k-r-v (קרב), and the noun derived from this root means either "combat" or "battle",[14][15] while the second word is a participle form derived from the verb root n-g-'a (נגע), that literally means either "contact" or "touch".[15][14]

Basic principles

IDF soldier sparring in full combat gear
US Air Force and British Royal Air Force security personnel during Krav Maga training.

Like most martial arts, Krav Maga encourages students to avoid physical confrontation.[5] If this is impossible or unsafe, it promotes finishing a fight as quickly and aggressively as possible. Attacks are aimed at the most vulnerable parts of the body, and training is not limited to techniques that avoid severe injury; some even permanently injure or cause death to the opponent.

Students learn to defend against all variety of attacks and are taught to counter in the quickest and most efficient way.

Ideas in Krav Maga include:[16]

  • Simultaneous defense and attack.
  • Developing physical aggression (not to be confused with emotional aggression or anger), with the view that physical aggression is the most important component in a fight.[17]
  • Continuing to strike the opponent until they are completely incapacitated.[18]
  • Attacking pre-emptively or counterattacking as soon as possible.
  • Using any objects at hand that could be used to hit an opponent.[19]
  • Targeting attacks to the body's most vulnerable points, such as: the eyes, neck or throat, face, solar plexus, groin, ribs, knee, foot, fingers, liver, etc.
  • Using simple and easily repeatable strikes.[19]
  • Maintaining awareness of surroundings while dealing with the threat in order to look for escape routes, further attackers, or objects that could be used to strike an opponent.
  • Developing muscle memory for quick reaction in fight.
  • Recognizing the importance of and expanding on instinctive response under stress.[20][21][22]

Training can also cover the study and development of situational awareness to develop an understanding of one's surroundings, learning to understand the psychology of a street confrontation, and identifying potential threats before an attack occurs. It may also cover physical and verbal methods to avoid violence whenever possible. It also teaches mental toughness, using controlled scenarios to strengthen mental fortitude in order for students to control the impulse and not do something rash, but instead attack only when necessary and as a last resort.


Media footage demonstrating Krav Maga techniques to deal with assailants in mock combat using multiple different types of weapons; namely a pole, a knife, a pistol, a rifle and hand-to-hand.
Krav Maga training

Some of the key focuses of techniques[23] in Krav Maga are—as described above—effectiveness and instinctive response under stress. To that end, Krav Maga is an eclectic system that has not sought to replace existing effective techniques, taking what is useful from available systems, for example:

  • Strikes – as per karate and boxing;
  • Takedowns and throws – as per judo, aikido and wrestling;
  • Ground work – as per judo and wrestling;
  • Escapes from chokes and holds – as per judo, aikido and wrestling;
  • Empty-hand weapon defenses – as per aikido.



Imre "Imi" Lichtenfeld (also known as Imi S'de-Or) was born in 1910 in Budapest, Austro-Hungary to a Jewish family and grew up in Pozsony, today's Bratislava (Slovakia). Lichtenfeld became active in a wide range of sports, including gymnastics, wrestling, and boxing. In 1928, Lichtenfeld won the Slovak Youth Wrestling Championship, and in 1929 the adult championship (light and middle weight divisions).[24] That same year, he also won the national boxing championship and an international gymnastics championship. During the ensuing decade, Lichtenfeld's athletic activities focused mainly on wrestling, both as a contestant and a trainer.

In the mid-1930s, anti-Semitic riots began to threaten the Jews of Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Lichtenfeld became the leader of a group of Jewish boxers and wrestlers who took to the streets to defend Jewish neighborhoods against the growing numbers of anti-Semitic Nazis. Lichtenfeld quickly discovered, however, that actual fighting was very different from competition fighting, and although boxing and wrestling were good sports, they were not always practical for the aggressive and brutal nature of street combat. It was then that he started to re-evaluate his ideas about fighting and started developing the skills and techniques that would eventually become Krav Maga. Having become a thorn in the side of the equally anti-Semitic local authorities, in 1940 Lichtenfeld left his home with his family and friends on the last refugee ship to escape Europe.

US Air Force Security forces members during Krav Maga training.

After making his way to Mandatory Palestine, Lichtenfeld joined the Haganah paramilitary organization.[25] In 1944 Lichtenfeld began training fighters in his areas of expertise: physical fitness, swimming, wrestling, use of the knife, and defense against knife attacks. During this period, Lichtenfeld trained several elite units of the Haganah, including the Palmach (striking force of the Haganah and forerunner of the special units of the Israel Defense Forces) and the Palyam, as well as groups of police officers.

In 1948, when the State of Israel was founded and the IDF was formed, Lichtenfeld became Chief Instructor for Physical Fitness and Krav Maga at the IDF School of Combat Fitness. He served in the IDF for about 20 years, during which time he developed and refined his unique method for self-defense and hand-to-hand combat.[26] Self-defense was not a new concept, since nearly all martial arts had developed some form of defensive techniques in their quest for tournament or sport dominance. However, self-defense was based strictly upon the scientific and dynamic principles of the human body. In 1965 judo training was added as part of the Krav Maga training. Until 1968 there were no grades in Krav Maga. Then a trainee's grades were determined largely by his knowledge in judo.[27][28]

In 1968, Eli Avikzar, one of Lichtenfeld's principal students and first black belt,[29] began learning aikido. In 1971 Eli left for France, where he received a black belt in aikido.[30] Upon his return, Avikzar started working as an instructor alongside Imi to integrate more traditional martial arts into Krav Maga.[31] Then in 1974 Imre retired and gave Eli Avikzar control over the Krav Maga training center in Netanya.[32] Shortly after, in 1976, Avikzar joined the permanent force of IDF, as head of the Krav Maga section. The role of Krav Maga in the army advanced greatly after Eli's appointment. More courses were given, and every P.E. instructor was obliged to learn Krav Maga. Avikzar continued to develop Krav Maga within the IDF until his retirement in 1987. Up to this date, Eli had trained 80,000 male soldiers and 12,000 female soldiers.[29]

Further pursuing excellence as a student of martial arts, Eli went to Germany in 1977 and received a black belt in aikido from the European Federation.[33] In 1978 the Krav Maga association was established, and in 1989, as an active member of the judo association, Eli Avikzar helped to contribute to the general development of professional and rank committees within the larger Krav Maga community by founding the Israeli Krav Magen Association (KAMI).[33][34] KAMI is a parallel discipline to the original Krav Maga. Eli retired as the Chief Krav Maga instructor in 1987 and Boaz Aviram became the third person to hold the position, being the last head instructor to have studied directly with both Lichtenfeld and Avikzar.[28][35]

Israeli Defense Forces


The IDF offers a five-week Krav Maga instructor course.[36] It has held an annual Krav Maga competition since May 2013.[37]

Civilian use

Krav Maga Grand Master Imi Lichtenfeld and Yaron Lichtenstein

Upon Imi Lichtenfeld's retirement from the IDF, he decided to open a school and teach Krav Maga to civilians.[38] The first Krav Maga course took place at the Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel, in 1971, under his direct supervision.[39][40]

Grading system


Most of the Krav Maga organizations in Israel use Imi Lichtenfeld's colored belt grading system which is based upon the Judo ranking system. It starts with white belt, and then yellow, orange, green, blue, brown and black belts. Black belt students can move up the ranks from 1st to 9th Dan. The time and requirements for advancing have some differences between the organizations.

Other organizations that teach Krav Maga in and outside of Israel use similar grading systems.[41]

A patch system was developed by Eyal Yanilov in the late 1980s. The grades are divided into three main categories: Practitioner, Graduate and Expert. Each of the categories, which are often abbreviated to their initials, has five ranks. Grades P1 through to P5 are the student levels and make up the majority of the Krav Maga community.[42] After P5 are G1-G5, and in order to achieve Graduate level the student has to demonstrate a proficiency in all of the P level techniques before advancing.[43]

Belt colors and IKMF patches
White Yellow Orange Green Blue Brown Black

Although there are some subtle differences, the various organizations teach the same core techniques and principles.[44] Some other organizations have less formal grading ranks without belts or patches but do have levels by which students can monitor their progress.[45]



In some organizations, sparring is slow and light until the student reaches G2 level. This takes approximately four to six years because rising one level in the Practitioner and Graduate categories takes at minimum half a year of consistent training. It is, however, more common to observe regular trainees grading only once a year from P3 and up.[46]

Once in G2, students also practice simulated "real" fighting with protective gear.[47]

In media


See also



  1. ^ "About Krav Maga".
  2. ^ a b Green, Thomas A. (2001). Martial Arts of the World: En Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576071502. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  3. ^ "Traditional Krav Maga(TM): Eli Avikzar the Second in Israeli Defense Force Krav Maga Chief Instructor".
  4. ^ "Krav Maga Federation – Israeli Martial Arts and Self-Defense". Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Krav Maga is the best self-defense for the streets". Krav Maga Los Angeles.
  6. ^ Hodsdon, Amelia (8 February 2005). "Get your kicks with Israeli tricks". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  7. ^ Levine, Darren; Whitman, John (2009). Complete Krav Maga: The Ultimate Guide to Over 200 Self-Defense and Combative Techniques. ISBN 978-1569751794. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  8. ^ "Imi Lichtenfeld". Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  9. ^ Inside Israel, Nov 2002, Vol. 40, No. 11, p. 68 Black Belt Magazine, Active Interest Media
  10. ^ Black Belt Magazine, July 2000, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 37 Krav Maga’s Top 10, Active Interest Media
  11. ^ "All change on the buses". BBC News. 15 January 1998. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  12. ^ "Elite soldiers fight it out in IDF's first-ever Krav Maga tournament". IDF Blog. 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2016.
  13. ^ a b Jim Wagner and Maj. Avi Nardia. "Inside Israel". Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
  14. ^ a b Ben-Yehuda, Ehud; Weinstein, David (1961). Ben-Yehuda's Pocket English-Hebrew Hebrew-English Dictionary. New York: Pocket books. ISBN 978-0671688622.
  15. ^ a b Brown, Francis; Driver, S.; C., Briggs (2012). The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. ISBN 978-1565632066.
  16. ^ Poulomi Banerjee (28 January 2009). "Contact combat: Self-Defence classes to stay safe". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  17. ^ Black Belt, July 2000, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 37 Krav Maga’s Top 10, Active interest Media
  18. ^ Black Belt, July 2000, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 35
  19. ^ a b Black Belt, July 2000, Vol. 38, No. 7, p. 37
  20. ^ Kahn, David (2016). Krav Maga Defence: How to Defend Yourself Against the 12 Most Common Unarmed Street Attacks. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1250090836. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  21. ^ Levine, Darren; Hoover, Ryan (2009). Krav Maga for Beginners: A Step-by-Step Guide to the World's Easiest-to-Learn, Most-Effective Fitness and Fighting Program. Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1569755372. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  22. ^ "What is Krav Maga?". Tactica Krav Maga Institute. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  23. ^ "List of Krav Maga Techniques (Beginner & Advanced)".
  24. ^ "Bio Imi Lichtenfeld | Fédération Européenne de Krav-maga". Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  25. ^ Martins, Victor Figueiredo, João Carlos, Marcelo. "Krav Maga". Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "Krav Maga Toronto | Imi Lichtenfeld, Founder of Krav Maga". Krav Maga Toronto. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
  27. ^ "Eli Avikzar". Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Eli Avikzar".
  29. ^ a b "What is K.A.M.I?".
  30. ^ Aviram, Boaz (11 November 2019). The Krav Maga Expert – Mental Training to become Pure Krav Maga and Hand-to ... ISBN 978-1794739185 – via Google Books.
  31. ^ "About the Founder Eli Avikzar".
  32. ^ "History of Krav-Maga".
  33. ^ a b "Israeli Krav Maga vs. Commando Krav Maga".
  34. ^ "Founder Of K.A.M.I | kami". Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  35. ^ "Founder of Krav Maga". Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
  36. ^ "Rare Glimpse into the Ultimate Martial Arts: Krav Maga Instructors' Course". IDF Blog – The Official Blog of the Israel Defense Forces. 21 March 2012. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
  37. ^ "Elite soldiers fight it out in IDF's first-ever Krav Maga tournament". Israeli Defense Forces. 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016.
  38. ^ Gonzalez Jr., Arturo (15 November 1976). "It's Called 'Kosher Kungfu' but Imi Lichtenfeld's New Martial Art Is a Deadly Affair". People Magazine. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
  39. ^ Krav Maga Practical Instructors Course May 2014 23 January 2014 Archived 8 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Emrich Lichtenfeld (sde-or)". K.A.M.I. – Krav Magen History. Archived from the original on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
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  45. ^ "Becoming An OIS Instructor". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
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  47. ^ "Fighting Drills G2 – Training Syllabus Sample". Archived from the original on 26 September 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  48. ^ "Most Dicked Over Fighter In UFC History: Moti Horenstein". Bleacher Report. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  49. ^ Downey, Ryan J.; Yago, Gideon (16 May 2002). "Jennifer Lopez On Getting Buff & Having 'Enough'". MTV. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  50. ^ "DiCaprio, Kutcher, and Craig Use Israeli Fighting Technique Krav Maga -". 6 April 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  51. ^ "JESSICA CHASTAIN LEARNS KRAV MAGA & GERMAN FOR 'THE DEBT'". Hollywood Outbreak. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  52. ^ Taylor, Ella (31 August 2011). "'The Debt': History's Burden, And A Moral Calculus". Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  53. ^ Tom Cruise [@TomCruise] (12 August 2013). "There's a bit of Krav Maga in there...WHAM! -TeamTC @philipWdd who did u learn the fighting style from, in Jack Reacher? Its pretty badass" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  54. ^ Kurchak, Sarah (4 November 2015). "How Daniel Craig Developed James Bond's Street Fighting Skills". Vice. Retrieved 31 May 2023.
  55. ^ GUNMAN - Featurette "Krav Maga" - Sean Penn (2015) on YouTube