Sambo (Russian: сaмбо, pronounced [ˈsambə]) is a martial art with Soviet origins, an internationally practiced combat sport,[2][3] and a recognized style of amateur wrestling included by UWW in the World Wrestling Championships along with Greco-Roman wrestling and freestyle wrestling.[4][5]

Russian: сaмбо
International Federation
of Amateur Sambo
Also known asSombo (in English-speaking countries)
Country of originSoviet Union
Famous practitionersList of Practitioners
Ancestor artsJudo, Jujutsu, Boxing, Folk wrestling
Olympic sportNo, but IOC recognized
Sambo at the 2015 European Games
Highest governing bodyFédération Internationale de Sambo
Registered as a sport disciplineSoviet Union, 16 November 1938 (Goskomsport)[1]
TypeMartial art
Country or regionWorldwide
World Games1985, 1993

Etymology edit

It originated in the Russian SFSR in the Soviet Union. The word sambo is an acronym of samozashchita bez oruzhiya (Russian: самозащита без оружия), which literally translates to 'self-defence without weapons'.[6]

Origins edit

Sambo is relatively modern since its development began in the early 1920s by the Soviet NKVD and Red Army to improve hand-to-hand combat abilities of their servicemen.[2] It was intended to merge the most effective techniques of other martial arts.

The pioneers of sambo were Viktor Spiridonov and Vasili Oshchepkov. Oshchepkov spent several years living in Japan and training in Judo under its founder Kano Jigoro.[7] Oshchepkov died in prison as a result of the Great Purge after being accused of being a Japanese spy,[8] and judo was banned in the USSR for decades until the 1964 Olympics, where Sambists won four bronze medals.[9]

Spiridonov and Oshchepkov independently developed two different styles, which eventually cross-pollinated and became what is known as sambo. Compared to Oshchepkov's system, called "free wrestling" in Russia (known in the West as catch-as-catch-can wrestling or simply catch wrestling), Spiridonov's style was softer and less brutal. It was also less strength-dependent, which in large part was due to injuries Spiridonov sustained during World War I.[10]

Anatoly Kharlampiev, a student of Vasili Oshchepkov, is also considered a founder of sambo. In 1938, it was recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee.[8]

Styles edit

There are multiple competitive sport variations of sambo (though sambo techniques and principles can be applied to many other combat sports). Below are the main formats that are recognized by FIAS.[11]

Freestyle Sambo edit

This type of Sambo was introduced by the American Sambo Association in 2004. Its purpose was to encourage non-Sambo practitioners such as Judo and Jiu-Jitsu to participate in Sambo. Freestyle Sambo allows the use of chokeholds and other submission techniques that are not used in Sambo wrestling.

Self Defense Sambo edit

This kind of Sambo is about defending yourself. In it, practitioners are taught to guard against weapons. Most of the moves that are taught include using the attacker's aggression against them, which is similar to what is done in both Jiu-Jitsu and Aikido. Spiridonov's influence is strong in this style of Sambo.

Concrete Sambo edit

This type of Sambo was made for the Argentinian Army during the military dictatorship. It is similar to special sambo in terms of origin and uses.

Special Sambo edit

This type of Sambo was made for Army Special Forces and other rapid response forces. It is only designed for the particular group that uses it. In that sense, it's similar to sambo combat, which is also designed for a specific purpose.

Beach Sambo edit

Sambo beach, as the name suggests, is held on soft beaches or strips of sand.

FCF-MMA edit

Was developed in 2003 as a form of Sambo without competing in the traditional uniform of Kurtka (jacket), shorts and boots. Competitors just wear fight shorts and gloves. One competitor wears blue and the other red, the same as traditional Sambo. Matches are held on a traditional wrestling mat, not a cage or ring like normal MMA fights. Techniques from all martial arts are used to defeat an opponent by knock out, submission or point victory.

Sport Sambo edit

Sport Sambo
Also known asSambo Wrestling
FocusGrappling, Wrestling
Country of originRussia
Famous practitionersList of Practitioners
ParenthoodJudo, Jujutsu, Bokh, Chidaoba, Freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, Catch wrestling, Ssireum
Olympic sportNo, but IOC recognized

Sport sambo or Sambo wrestling (Russian: Борьбa Самбо, romanizedBor'ba Sambo, lit.'Sambo Wrestling') is stylistically similar to old-time judo, and in a lot of ways influenced by it, but with some differences in rules, protocol, and uniform. Sambo allows various types of leg locks like old Judo before the ban of the Ashi Garami techniques, while not allowing chokeholds. It also focuses on throwing, groundwork, and submissions, with very few restrictions on gripping and holds.[12] Sambo is an international style of amateur wrestling recognized by the FILA (now UWW) Congress in 1966.

Combat Sambo edit

Combat Sambo
FocusHybrid, Striking, Grappling, Self-Defense
Country of originRussia
Famous practitionersList of Practitioners
ParenthoodFreestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, Catch wrestling, Folk wrestling, Bokh, Judo, Jujutsu, Brazilian Jiu-jitsu, Wrestling, Ssireum, Boxing, Kickboxing, Pankration, Savate
Olympic sportNo, but IOC recognized

Combat sambo (Russian: Боевое Самбо, romanizedBoyevoye Sambo). Utilized and developed for the military, combat sambo resembles modern mixed martial arts, including forms of striking and grappling. Combat sambo allows regular punches, kicks, elbows, and knees, as well as soccer kicks, headbutts and groin strikes, in addition to throws, holds, chokes and locks, except for a standing or flying wristbar.[13] The chief distinction from Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), apart from striking techniques, is that combat sambo rules and regulations do not permit a one-sided resort to ground fighting without throws or other combative maneuvers (i.e., by simply sitting down and continuing from the ground without touching his opponent that BJJ allows). In terms of aliveness, combat sambo surpasses ARB by design, though both were designed for combat situations only. Competitors wear jackets as in sport sambo, but also hand protection and sometimes shin protection and headgear. The first FIAS World Combat Sambo Championships were held in 2001. The World Combat Sambo Federation, based in Russia, also sanctions international combat sambo events. Combat sambo is designed to tackle certain tasks. The effectiveness of this martial art determined by its structure, namely by three components: boxing, sambo, and adapters. Adapters of combat sambo were developed by the academician G. S. Popov. The task of adapters is to ensure the safe transition from middle distance to close one, as well as the consistent usage of sambo and boxing techniques. The given configuration provides the fusion of two martial arts into a single system.

Both Sambo wrestling (left) and Combat sambo competitions require Sambovka jacket and shirts as a uniform, and held at a standard wrestling mat. However, Combat sambo competitions also require gloves, headgear, mouthpiece, groin, and shin protection equipment to minimize injuries.

Women participated in Combat Sambo for the first time in an official tournament in the Paris Grand Prix 2015. The first recognized instance of women competing in an international combat Sambo tournament was in the 2022 Asian and Oceania Sambo Championships.[14][15] In 2022 First time Australia and New Zealand compete in Asian sambo championship.[16] Specialized for professionals in Army, Police and Security Service.

Derivatives of sambo edit

Systema (or System) is also known as "Combat Sambo Spetsnaz". This Russian martial art is the evolutionary form of Spiridonov's Samoz. Systema falls into the category of military Sambo. The evolution of Spiridonov's Samoz and Ochtchepkov's Sambo was maintained in parallel by the NKVD which itself became the KGB. It is out of the official path of the evolution of Military and Sports Sambo that Systema was created, even if the latter is based on similar bases to Sambo. The Systema design has been designed to be highly adaptable and practical. It uses breathing exercises, "drills" and "sparring" exercises to replace traditional kata. Because it is open and scalable in nature, Systema is very effective in many situations and against many fighting styles. This is also why the special units, the spetsnaz, are trained in Systema. There are two major streams of Systema; one more "flexible", the other more "hard"

History edit

Origins and influences edit

Sambo's early development stemmed from the independent efforts of Vasili Oshchepkov and Viktor Spiridonov to integrate the techniques of Catch wrestling, Judo, Jujutsu, and other foreign martial arts into native Turkic wrestling styles, Armenian kokh, Romanian trîntǎ, Mongolian khapsagay and Georgian chidaoba (ru:Чидаоба, ka:ქართული ჭიდაობა). Oschepkov taught judo to elite Red Army forces at the Central Red Army House.

Vasili Oschepkov was one of the first foreigners to learn Judo in Japan and had earned his Nidan (second-degree black belt, out of then five) from judo's founder, Kano Jigoro. Spiridonov's background involved indigenous martial arts from various Soviet regions as well as an interest in Japanese jujutsu (though he never formally trained it). His reliance on movement over strength was in part because during World War I, he received a bayonet wound which would leave his left arm lame. Both Oschepkov and Spiridonov independently hoped that Soviet military hand-to-hand combat techniques could be improved with an infusion of the techniques distilled from other foreign martial arts. Contrary to common lore, Oschepkov and Spiridonov did not cooperate on the development of their hand-to-hand systems.[17] Rather, their independent notions of hand-to-hand combat merged through cross-training between students and formulating efforts by their students and military staff. While Oschepkov and Spiridonov did have occasion to collaborate, their efforts were not completely united.

Each technique was carefully dissected and considered for its merits, and if found acceptable in unarmed combat, refined to reach sambo's ultimate goal: to stop an armed or unarmed adversary in the least time possible.[18] Thus, many techniques from jujutsu, judo, and other martial systems joined with the indigenous fighting styles to form the sambo repertoire.[19] When the techniques were perfected, they were woven into sambo applications for personal self-defense, police, crowd control, border guards, secret police, dignitary protection, psychiatric hospital staff, military, and commandos.[20]

Development edit

In 1918, Lenin created Vsevobuch (General Military Training) under the leadership of N. I. Podvoyskiy to train the Red Army. The task of developing and organizing Red Army military hand-to-hand combat training fell to K. Voroshilov, who in turn, created the NKVD physical training center, Dynamo Sports Society.

Spiridonov was a combat veteran of World War I and one of the first wrestling and self-defense instructors hired for Dynamo. His background included Free wrestling (i.e. Catch wrestling), Greco-Roman wrestling, many Turkic folk wrestling styles, and Japanese jujutsu. As a combative investigator for Dynamo, he traveled to Mongolia and China to observe their native fighting styles.

In 1923, Oschepkov and Spiridinov collaborated (independently) with a team of other experts on a grant from the Soviet government to improve the Red Army's hand-to-hand combat system. Spiridonov had envisioned integrating the most practical aspects of the world's fighting systems into one comprehensive style that could adapt to any threat. Oschepkov had observed Kano Jigoro's distillation of Tenjin Shinyo Ryu, Kito Ryu and Fusen-ryū jujutsu into judo, and he had developed the insight required to evaluate and integrate combative techniques into a new system. Their developments were supplemented by Anatoly Kharlampiyev and I. V. Vasiliev who also traveled the globe to study the native fighting arts of the world. Ten years in the making, their catalog of techniques was instrumental in formulating the early framework of the art to be eventually referred to as sambo.

Kharlampiyev is often called the "father of sambo". This may be largely semantics since only he had the longevity and political connections to remain with the art while the new system was named "sambo". However, Kharlampiyev's political maneuvering is single-handedly responsible for the USSR Committee of Sport's accepting sambo as the official combat sport of the Soviet Union in 1938 – decidedly the "birth" of sambo.[21] So, more accurately, Kharlampiyev could be considered the father of "sport" sambo.

Spiridonov was the first to begin referring to the new system with a name similar to 'sambo'. He eventually developed a softer style called Samoz that could be used by smaller, weaker practitioners or even wounded soldiers and secret agents. Spiridonov's inspiration to develop 'Samoz' stemmed from his World War I bayonet injury, which greatly restricted his left arm and thus his ability to practice wrestling. Refined versions of sambo are still used today or fused with specific sambo applications to meet the needs of Russian commandos.

Running up to an Olympic sport status edit

After being recognized by FILA (known since September 2014 as United World Wrestling) in 1968, by the U.S. National Amateur Athletic Union in 1972, and after being included to the program of the 1973 World Wrestling Championships along with Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling (which are indeed Olympic sports,) Sambo was rapidly making its way to become an Olympic sport.[22]

The first World Cup was contested in 1969. Don Curtis, a member of the U.S. Olympic Wrestling Committee, had predicted in 1975, that the Russians will introduce the Sambo wrestling in the 1980 Olympics program in Moscow.[23] In 1975 the first United States National Sambo Championships were held in Mesa, Arizona, in 1977 it was contested along with G.R. and Freestyle at the first Pan American Wrestling Championships in Mexico City, and included in the schedule of the upcoming 1983 U.S. Olympic Festival[24][25] and the 1983 Pan American Games (the 1983 Pan American event in Caracas became the first and subsequently the last edition of Sambo at the Pan Am Games.) In 1979 the National AAU Sambo Committee established several annual awards to honor outstanding persons in the sport of Sambo wrestling.[26] By the 1980s it has been included to Pan American Games, National Sports Festival and AAU Junior Olympics program.[27]

But as a result of political complications of the 1980 Olympic boycott which arose after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Sambo was at first reduced to a demonstration sport at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, USSR. But later, because of the sport's strong association with the Soviet Union, it was removed from demonstration sport status. It is true that youth sambo was demonstrated in the Games' opening ceremonies; however, sambo was never formally recognized as a demonstration sport. This common error in history books is noted in several sources including From SAMOZ to SAMBO by Anatoly Makovetskii and Lukashev's History of Hand-to-Hand Combat in the First Half of the 20th Century: Founders and Authors.[28] Furthermore, the official documents of the 1980 Olympic Organizing Committee do not mention sambo as a participating sport in the Games.[29] Nevertheless, Jerry Matsumoto, Head of the U.S. Sambo Association, saw in 1990 Sambo becoming an Olympic sport, at least at the demonstration level, within the next eight years.[30]

Today edit

In 1968, FILA accepted sambo as the third style of international wrestling. In 1985, the sambo community formed its own organization, Federation International Amateur Sambo (FIAS). In 1993, FIAS split into two organizations, both of which used the same name and logo, and the two groups were often referred to as FIAS "East" (under Russian control) and FIAS "West" (under US and Western European control). This split mirrored the last days of Cold War politics of the time as well as the recent break-up of the Soviet Union. In the U.S., disagreements between the sport's organizers and the rise of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu in the 1990s slowed down the growth of sambo before the success of several sambo fighters increased its popularity a decade later.[31] In 2005, FILA reached an agreement with FIAS "West" and re-assumed sanctioning over sport sambo.[32] However, in 2008, FILA again discontinued sanctioning sambo and sambo is now notably missing from the UWW website.[33] At present, only FIAS sanctions international competition in sport sambo. In 2014 FIAS and FILA signed a cooperative agreement.[34] While this does not place sambo back on UWW's recognized list, it does move towards unity and prevents future 'turf wars' regarding the sport's promotion. A similar agreement was signed by FIAS and the International Judo Federation in 2014 as well.[35] Both FIAS and the World Combat Sambo Federation host international combat sambo competition. The American Sambo Association has continued to host freestyle sambo tournaments in the US and Canada since 2004. These events are unrecognized by UWW. Rumors rising in 2012 stating that sambo will be included as a demonstration sport in the 2016 Olympics are therefore not supported by any facts, and thus sambo is still a very long way from maturing into an Olympic sport, notwithstanding the effort that is being put into the matter. Indeed, given the intention of the Olympic Committee to remove classic wrestling from the Olympic roster, there are rumors that sambo is highly unlikely to ever make it to the Olympics. However, sambo has been included in the 27th Annual Summer Universiade for the first time in history.[36] FIAS submitted an application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to consider sambo for the 2020 Games and has devoted 2010–2013 to creating a sambo commission in the International Sports Press Association (AIPS). As of 30 November 2018, sambo has indeed received temporary recognition by the IOC.[37] This close relationship is reestablishing the global popularity and media emphasis on sambo.

Uniform and ranking edit

Similar to wrestling, a sambo practitioner normally wears either a red or a blue competition outfit. The kurtka (куртка), also called a sambovka (самбовка), looks similar to a Judogi top and belt but has belt loops, shoulder straps, wrestling style shorts, and shoes which match the uniform's color. The sambo uniform does not reflect rank or competitive rating. Sport rules require an athlete to have both red and blue sets to visually distinguish competitors on the mat.

Also similar to the wrestling ranking system used in Russia, a competitive rating system is used (rather than the belt color ranking system used in judo and gendai jujutsu). Various sport organizations distribute these ranks for high levels of competition achievement or in some cases coaching merits. People who have earned these ranks are known as 'Masters of Sport.' Institutions that grant a sambo 'Master of Sport' in Russia include FIAS,[38] FKE,[39] and the International Combat Sambo Federation. Other nations have governing bodies that award 'Masters of Sport' as well, including the American Sambo Association in the United States. [40]

Competitions edit

FIAS World SAMBO Championships edit

Number Year Dates Host Champion Events Participating
1 1973 6–11 September   Tehran, Iran   Soviet Union 10 11
2 1974 26–28 July   Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia   Soviet Union 10 5
3 1979 11–14 December   Madrid, Spain   Soviet Union 10 11
4 1980 30–31 May   Madrid, Spain   Soviet Union 10 11
5 1981 28 February – 1 March   Madrid, Spain   Soviet Union 10 12
6 1982 3–4 July   Paris, France   Soviet Union 10 11
7 1983 30 September – 1 October   Kyiv, Soviet Union   Soviet Union 10 8
8 1984 14–15 June   Madrid, Spain   Soviet Union 10 10
9 1985 19–21 September   San Sebastián, Spain   Soviet Union 10 11
10 1986 21–24 November   Saint-Jean-de-Luz, France   Soviet Union 10 8
11 1987 November   Milan, Italy   Soviet Union 10 9
12 1988 1–5 December   Montreal, Canada   Soviet Union 10 11
13 1989 8–11 November   West Orange, United States   Soviet Union 10 9
14 1990 7–10 December   Moscow, Soviet Union   Soviet Union 10 18
15 1991 28–29 December   Montreal, Canada   Soviet Union 10 8
16 1992 6–10 November   Herne Bay, England   Russia 10 14
17 1993 9–15 November   Kstovo, Russia   Russia 10 28
18 1994 7–9 October   Novi Sad, Yugoslavia   Russia 10 20
19 1995 1–3 September   Sofia, Bulgaria   Russia 9 23
20 1996 1–3 November   Tokyo, Japan   Russia 18 23
21 1997 10–12 October   Tbilisi, Georgia   Georgia 18 20
22 1998 16–18 October   Kaliningrad, Russia   Russia 18 20
23 1999 12–14 November   Gijón, Spain   Russia 18 20
24 2000 25 November   Kyiv, Ukraine   Russia 18 21
25 2001 20–21 October   Krasnoyarsk, Russia   Russia 18 26
26 2002 26–29 November   Panama City, Panama   Russia 18 19
27 2003 18 October
6–10 November
  Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France (Combat Sambo)
  St. Petersburg, Russia
  Russia 27 32
28 2004 16–21 June
25–26 September
  Prague, Czech Republic (Combat Sambo)
  Chișinău, Moldova
  Russia 27 23
29 2005 21–23 October
11–14 November
  Prague, Czech Republic (Combat Sambo)
  Astana, Kazakhstan
  Russia 27 27
30 2006 30 September – 2 October
3–5 November
  Tashkent, Uzbekistan (Combat Sambo)
  Sofia, Bulgaria
  Russia 27 33
31 2007 7–11 November   Prague, Czech Republic   Russia 27 43
32 2008 13–17 November   St. Petersburg, Russia   Russia 27 48
33 2009 5–9 November   Thessaloniki, Greece   Russia 27 46
34 2010 4–8 November   Tashkent, Uzbekistan   Russia 27 26
35 2011 10–14 November   Vilnius, Lithuania   Russia 27 65
36 2012 8–12 November   Minsk, Belarus   Russia 27 64
37 2013 7–11 November   St. Petersburg, Russia   Russia 27 70
38 2014 20–24 November   Narita, Japan   Russia 27 82
39 2015 12–16 November   Casablanca, Morocco   Russia 27 80
40 2016 10–14 November   Sofia, Bulgaria   Russia 27 77
41 2017 9–13 November   Sochi, Russia   Russia 27 90
42 2018 8–12 November   Bucharest, Romania   Russia 27 80
43 2019 7–11 November   Cheongju, South Korea   Russia 27 80
44 2020 4–8 November   Novi Sad, Serbia   Russia 27 30
45 2021 12–14 November   Tashkent, Uzbekistan   Russia 27 50

FIAS World Cup edit

Sambo World Cup and Supercup have been contested since 1969, initially held by FILA, and since 1985 by FIAS.

Sambo World Cup editions
Year Dates Location
1969   Riga
1970   Sochi
1975   Moscow
1976   Tokyo
1977 9–12 June   Oviedo[41]
1980   Madrid
1981 18–20 September   Pontevedra
1982 11 June   Bilbao
1983   Lyon
1984 12–14 October   Puerto la Cruz
1985 22 September   San Sebastián
1986   Tokyo
1987 4–5 April   Casablanca
1988 June   Moscow
1990   Caracas
1992   Spain
1993   Nizhny Novgorod
1994 May   Kstovo
1999 28 November   Nice
2000 27–29 November   Nice
2001   Moscow
2006 26 November   Nice
2012   Kazan

United States National Sambo Championships edit

United States National Sambo Championships known initially as the National AAU Sambo Wrestling Championships are the annual championships held in the United States. American enthusiasts of martial arts took up Sambo shortly before it was contested at the 1973 World Wrestling Championships and was rapidly making its way to become an Olympic sport in 1980.[22]

Year Dates Location Venue Events
1975 10 May Mesa, Arizona Community College 10
1976 5 June Chandler, Arizona Chandler High School gym 10
1977 23 April Southeast San Diego, California Jackie Robinson Memorial YMCA 10
1978 20 May Chula Vista, California Southwestern College 10[42]
1979 21 April Walnut, California 10
1980 2 August Kansas City, Missouri 20
1984 3 March Kansas City, Missouri Kansas City North Community Center
1984 30 March Washington, D.C.
1987 28 March Kansas City, Missouri Bishop Ward High School
1988 9 April Newark, New Jersey Essex County College 29+3(t)[43]
1989 10 November Newark, New Jersey
1990 13 May Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 27
1991 31 March Covington, Kentucky
1992 28 March Cincinnati, Ohio
1993 27 March Norman, Oklahoma Norman High School
1994 26 March Chula Vista, California Southwestern College
1996 South Annville, Pennsylvania Annville-Cleona High School
1998 11 April Washington, D.C.
2006 19–20 August North Palm Beach, Florida North Palm Beach Community Center
Note: (t) stands for team events.

Sambo at the National Wrestling Championships edit

The national Sambo competition also was held along with Greco-Roman and Freestyle events at the 1987 and 1988 AAU/USA Grand National Wrestling Championships on July 1, 1987, and July 6, 1988, respectively, both held at Market Square Arena in Indianapolis, Indiana.[44] Next year it was contested at the 1989 AAU/Carrier Grand National Wrestling Championships on July 5 at Metra in Billings, Montana.[45] 1990 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also hosted a national Sambo competition at Market Square Arena in Indianapolis, Indiana, on July 10.[46] 1992 AAU Grand National edition hosted a national Sambo competition in July in Amarillo, Texas. 1994 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also hosted a national Sambo competition at Kellogg Arena in Battle Creek, Michigan, on July 13.[47] 1995 AAU Grand National edition hosted a national Sambo competition in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The 1999 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships also offered Sambo to competitors on June 30 at Metra in Billings, Montana.[48] The 2002 AAU Grand National Wrestling Championships saw Sambo competition on June 19 at Hirsch Coliseum in Shreveport, Louisiana.[49]

USA Wrestling has added Sambo as a style since the 2007 U.S. National Wrestling Championships in Las Vegas, Nevada.[50]

Notable practitioners edit

Name controversy edit

Although sambo is a Russian acronym, exponents of the sport in the English-speaking world have faced problems concerning the linguistically unrelated racist term. Sambo representatives have opted to use the alternative spelling Sombo to avoid offence.[51] In Swedish, "sambo" is the term for an unmarried couple living together on permanent basis.[citation needed] FIAS references the sport with its acronym spelling: SAMBO.[52]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Sombo wrestling history and basic rules BY JOSH HENSON | MAY 01, 2006 | United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Official Website.
  2. ^ a b Schneiderman, R. M. (19 June 2010). "Once-Secret Martial Art Rises in Ring's Bright Lights". the New York Times.
  3. ^ "Once-secret KGB martial art fights for recognition". The Independent. 25 April 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
  4. ^ The final report of the President's Commission on Olympic Sports, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977, p. 261.
  5. ^ Combs, Steve ; Frank, Chuck. Winning Wrestling, Contemporary Books, Chicago, 1980, p. 3.
  6. ^ "Black Belt". Active Interest Media, Inc. 2 November 1964. p. 13 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ "Борьба САМБО — ИСТОРИЯ — Михаил ЛУКАШЕВ, Сотворение САМБО". Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b Andavolu, Krishna (4 February 2013). "Sambo's Gulag Past and MMA Future | FIGHTLAND". Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  9. ^ Egorov, Boris (29 May 2019). "Why Vladimir Putin would have struggled to be a black belt in the Soviet Union". Russia Beyond.
  10. ^ Виктор Афанасьевич Спиридонов (Viktor Spiridonov) – biography at (in Russian).
  11. ^ "Sambo Ranking System (Approved on XVI FIAS Congress in Astana, Kazakhstan, 2005) | SAMBO.COM – Federation Internationale de Sambo". Sambo.Com. 31 July 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  12. ^ Classic Sambo – Get the Upper Hand on Your Opponent With Nasty Leglocks Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine by Stephen Koepfer, in Grappling magazine
  13. ^ "UNITED KINGDOM SAMBO ASSOCIATION". Mixed Martial Arts – Knucklepit. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Combat Sambo among women and other surprising moments of the Paris Grand Prix 2015 | International SAMBO Federation (FIAS)".
  15. ^ "Results of the first day of the Asian SAMBO Championships and the Asian Youth and Junior SAMBO Championships in Lebanon | International SAMBO Federation (FIAS)".
  16. ^ "Congress of the SAMBO Union of Asia was held in Lebanon | International SAMBO Federation (FIAS)".
  17. ^ T.P. Grant (8 August 2013). "MMA Fan's Guide to Grappling: Sambo". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  18. ^ Adams, Andy (26 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 3) – – Black Belt". Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  19. ^ Adams, Andy (22 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 2) – – Black Belt". Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  20. ^ T.P. Grant (8 March 2013). "MMA Origins: Russian Revolution". Bloody Elbow. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  21. ^ Adams, Andy (21 March 2013). "Classic Black Belt Article From 1967: Russia Prepares to Export Sambo (Part 1) – – Black Belt". Black Belt Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
  22. ^ a b Nishioka, Hayward (July 1977). "Can America "Sambo" Its Way to the 1980 Olympics". Black Belt. 15 (7): 23–27.
  23. ^ "Curtis has a few ideas". The Argus: 19. 10 August 1975.
  24. ^ National Sports Festival Schedule By The Associated Press
  25. ^ COLORADO (UPI). Results from Saturday's events at the fifth National Sports Festival
  26. ^ SOMBO NEWS, AAU News, 1979, p. 8.
  27. ^ National Sombo Group Being Formed, Black Belt, January 1985, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 116.
  28. ^ Sambo a demo sport in 1980 Olympics? Archived 2008-01-07 at the Wayback Machine (Worldwide Grappling Forums)
  29. ^ Games of the XXIII Olympiad (Volume 3 – Participants and Results) Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (640 pages)
  30. ^ Part judo, part wrestling, Sombo has CV resident captivated By Phillip Brents, The Star-News, Chula Vista, California, August 31- Sept 1, 1991, Page D4.
  31. ^ Schneiderman, R.M. (19 July 2008). "Once-Secret Martial Art Rises in Ring's Bright Lights". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  32. ^ Struggling To Survive – Can FILA End Sambo's Civil War? Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine – in Grappling magazine
  33. ^ FILA/USAW Drops Sambo (Again) – (Wide Grappling Forums)
  34. ^ Talanoa, Simione (23 July 2014). "FILA and FIAS sign a memorandum of cooperation".
  36. ^ "27th Summer Universiade in Kazan, July 6–17 2013". 14 July 1990. Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  37. ^ "The International Sambo Federation (FIAS)". 17 April 2013. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  38. ^ "Официальный сайт Международной Федерации САМБО".
  39. ^ "FKE.RU – Федерации Комплексных Единоборств".
  40. ^ "ASA Rankings". Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  41. ^ Initially has been planned to be contested in the programme of the 1977 Wrestling World Cup along with freestyle wrestling event. See: "Olympic Calendar". Olympic Review (115): 343. May 1977.
  42. ^ AAU Sambo Nationals: Southland WC Romps, AAU News, 1978, Volume 49, pp. 6–7.
  43. ^ Sombo Championships, Info AAU, 1988, Volume 59, p. 20.
  44. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1988, Volume 59, p. 19.
  45. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1989, Volume 60, p. 20.
  46. ^ Wrestling, Info AAU, 1990, Volume 61, p. 21
  47. ^ A Russian import By Todd Schulz, Battle Creek Enquirer, July 14, 1994 · Page 4C.
  48. ^ SCOREBOARD, The Billings Gazette, June 19, 1999 · Page 2C.
  49. ^ AAU equals attention By Brian Vernellis, The Times, Shreveport, Louisiana, June 21, 2002, Page 4C.
  50. ^ Sombo to be included at U.S. National Championships in Las Vegas Nev April 6–7 BY GARY ABBOTT | DEC. 12, 2006 | United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Official Website
  51. ^ Who runs International Sombo? by Martin Clarke Archived 5 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ "The International Sambo Federation (FIAS)". Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.

Sources edit

External links edit

(Wayback Machine copy)