List of rampage killers in the United States

This is a list of mass or spree killers in the United States. A mass murderer is typically defined as someone who kills 3 or more people in one incident, with no "cooling off" period, not including themself.[1][2] A mass murder typically occurs in a single location where one or more persons kill several others.[3][4][5]

Specific notable subtypes of mass murder, including politically motivated crimes, workplace killings, school attacks and familicides, have their own lists.

This list does not include serial killers, members of democidal governments, or major political figures who orchestrated such actions.

List of rampage killers edit

Perpetrator Date Year Location State Killed Injured W Fate Ref.
Paddock, Stephen, 64 Oct. 1 2017 Paradise   Nevada
60
413+
F Committed suicide
Two of the victims died in 2019 and 2020; attributed to this event
[6][7]
Gonzales, Francisco, 27 May 7 1964 Danville   California
43
0
F V Committed suicide [8]
Burke, David, 35 Dec. 7 1987 San Luis Obispo   California
42
0
F V Committed suicide or died in the crash [9]
Kelley, Devin, 26[n 1] Nov. 5 2017 Sutherland Springs   Texas
25
22
F Committed suicide
Terminated a pregnancy
[10]
Hennard, George, 35 Oct. 16 1991 Killeen   Texas
23
27
F V Committed suicide [11]
Huberty, James, 41 July 18 1984 San Diego   California
21
19
F Killed by police
Terminated a pregnancy
[12][13]
Card, Robert, 40 Oct. 25 2023 Lewiston   Maine
18
13
F Committed suicide [14][15][16]
Wong, Jiverly, 41 April 3 2009 Binghamton   New York
13
4
F Committed suicide [17]
Unruh, Howard, 28 Sept. 6 1949 Camden   New Jersey
13
3
F Found mentally unfit to stand trial
Died in an institution in 2009
[18]
Holmes, James, 24 July 20 2012 Aurora   Colorado
12
62
F E Sentenced to life imprisonment [19]
Álvarez, Juan Manuel, 25 Jan. 26 2005 Los Angeles   California
11
177
V Sentenced to life imprisonment
Tran, Huu Can, 72 Jan. 21 2023 Monterey Park   California
11
9
F Committed suicide [20]
Pough, James, 42 June 17/18 1990 Jacksonville   Florida
11
6
F V Committed suicide
Killed a man on May 8, 1971
[21][22][23][24][25]
Long, Ian, 28 Nov. 7 2018 Thousand Oaks   California
11
1
FM Committed suicide
One more died by stray police gunfire
[26][27]
McLendon, Michael, 28[n 2] March 10 2009 Kinston, Samson & Geneva   Alabama
10
6
F A Committed suicide
Also killed four dogs
[28]
Muhammad, John, 41
Malvo, Lee, 17
Oct. 2–22 2002 Aspen Hill, Glenmont, Rockville,
Norbeck, Kensington & Bowie
Takoma
Prince William County,
Spotsylvania County & Fairfax County
  Maryland
  Washington, D.C.
  Virginia
10
3
F Muhammad sentenced to death and executed
Malvo sentenced to life imprisonment
Killed seven other people since February 2002
[29][30]
Starkweather, Charles, 19
Fugate, Caril Ann, 14[n 1]
Jan. 21–29 1958 Lincoln & Bennet
Douglas
  Nebraska
  Wyoming
10
0
FM Starkweather sentenced to death and executed
Fugate sentenced to life imprisonment and paroled in 1976
Also killed two dogs
Starkweather killed a man on November 30, 1957
[31]
Mullin, Herbert, 25 Jan. 25 /
Feb. 10–13
1973 Santa Cruz County   California
10
0
FM Sentenced to life imprisonment
Killed three people in 1972
[32][33]
Al-Issa, Ahmad, 21 (accused) March 22 2021 Boulder   Colorado
10
0
F Ongoing case: found mentally incompetent to stand trial in 2021; received treatment and found competent to stand trial in 2023. [34]
Twigg, Gilbert, 35 Aug. 13 1903 Winfield   Kansas
9
25
F Committed suicide [35][36][37]
Bertucci, Clarence, 23[n 3] July 8 1945 Salina   Utah
9
19
F Found not guilty by reason of insanity [38]
Betts, Connor, 24[n 1] Aug. 4 2019 Dayton   Ohio
9
17
F Killed by police [39][40][41][42]
Silka, Michael, 25 April 28 /
May 17–19
1984 Fairbanks & Manley Hot Springs   Alaska
9
1
F Killed by police
Terminated a pregnancy
[43]
Cooksey Jr., Cleophus, 35 (accused)[n 1] Nov. 27 /
Dec. 2/13–17
2017 Phoenix   Arizona
9
0
F Arrested and charged [44]
Jones, Walter, 20
Jones, William, 18
Sept. 28 1913 Harriston   Mississippi
8+
14+
F Both killed by angry mob
William killed a man in 1909
[45]
Saipov, Sayfullo Habibullaevic, 29

(Саипов, Сайфулло Хабибуллаевич)

Oct. 31 2017 New York City New York
8
11
V Sentenced to life imprisonment [46]
Ferri, Gian, 55 July 1 1993 San Francisco   California
8
6
F Committed suicide [47]
Hawkins, Robert, 19 Dec. 5 2007 Omaha   Nebraska
8
4
F Committed suicide [48][49]
Brown, Carl, 51 Aug. 20 1982 Miami   Florida
8
3
F Killed [50]
Stewart, Robert, 45 March 29 2009 Carthage   North Carolina
8
2
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [51][52]
Dekraai, Scott, 54 Oct. 12 2011 Seal Beach   California
8
1
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [53]
Long, Robert, 21 March 16 2021 Atlanta & Acworth   Georgia
8
1
F Arrested [54]
Nance, Romeo, 23 Jan. 21 2024 Joliet   Illinois
8
1
F Committed suicide [55]
Sheley, Nicholas, 28 June 23–30 2008 Sterling, Rock Falls & Galesburg
Festus
  Illinois
  Missouri
8
0
 M Sentenced to life imprisonment [56]
Crimo III, Robert, 21 (accused) July 4 2022 Highland Park   Illinois
7
48
F Arrested [57]
Phillips, Monroe, 58 March 6 1915 Brunswick   Georgia
7
30+
F Killed [58]
Ator, Seth, 36 Aug. 31 2019 Odessa
Midland
  Texas
7
25
F Killed by police [59][60]
Ford, Priscilla Joyce, 51 Nov. 27 1980 Reno   Nevada
7
22
V Died while awaiting execution [61]
Everette, Eugene, 32[n 1] March 28/29 1970 New York City   New York
7
15
F A Sentenced to life imprisonment [62]
Bonner, William, 25 April 22 1973 Los Angeles   California
7
9
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [63]
Ashbrook, Larry, 47 Sept. 15 1999 Fort Worth   Texas
7
7
F Committed suicide [64]
Ratzmann, Terry, 44 March 12 2005 Brookfield   Wisconsin
7
4
F Committed suicide [65]
Collins, Melvin, 38 Nov. 6 1948 Chester   Pennsylvania
7
3
F Committed suicide [66]
Collins, Darnell, 33 June 17–21 1995 Atlantic City
New York City
  New Jersey
  New York
7
3
F Killed by police [67]
Gung Ung Chang July 18/19 1898 Oakland   California
7
2
FME Killed by the explosion [68]
Reynolds, William, 35 April 6 1902 Tuscumbia   Alabama
7
2
F Killed by police
Also killed several horses
[69]
Pearson, Eric, 56 March 16 1968 Ironwood   Michigan
7
2
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [70]
Hardesty, William, 21[n 1] Oct. 3/4/18/19 1978 Ypsilanti   California
  Michigan
7
2
FM Sentenced to life imprisonment
Also killed a cat
[71]
Dantzler, Rodrick, 34[n 1] July 7 2011 Grand Rapids   Michigan
7
2
F Committed suicide [72]
David, Rachal, 39[n 4][n 5] Aug. 3 1978 Salt Lake City   Utah
7
0
M Committed Suicide [73]
Jumper, Jim[n 1] Feb. 14 1889 Okeechobee   Florida
6+
1
F Killed [74]
Brooks, Darrell Edward, 39 Nov. 21 2021 Waukesha, Wisconsin   United States
6
62
V Sentenced to life imprisonment
Igrić, Damir, 29 Oct. 3 2001 Manchester   Tennessee
6
33
 MV Died in the crash [75]
Rodger, Elliot, 22 May 23 2014 Isla Vista   California
6
14
FMV Committed suicide [76]
Marcelino, Julian, 30 Nov. 24 1932 Seattle   Washington
6
13
 M Sentenced to life imprisonment [77]
Loughner, Jared, 22 Jan. 8 2011 Casas Adobes   Arizona
6
13
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [78][79][80][81]
Cruse, William, 59 April 23 1987 Palm Bay   Florida
6
10
F Sentenced to death, died in prison [82]
Gully[n 1] Aug. 29 1910 Willow Patch   Nevada
6
7
F Killed [83]
Young, Harry, 27–28
Young, Jennings, 35–36
Jan. 2 1932 Brookline   Missouri
6
3
F Each killed the other
Harry killed a man in 1929
[84]
Crump, Wiley, 67 Sept. 21 1967 Philipp   Mississippi
6
3
F A Killed by a posse [85]
James, Shane, 34 (accused) Dec. 4/5 2023 Austin
Bexar County
  Texas
6
3
F Arrested [86]
Drake, Lynwood, 43 Nov. 7/8 1992 Morro Bay, Paso Robles & San Miguel   California
6
2
FM Committed suicide [87]
Vang, Chai Soua, 36 Nov. 21 2004 Birchwood   Wisconsin
6
2
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [88]
Huff, Kyle, 28 March 25 2006 Seattle   Washington
6
2
F Committed suicide
Zamora, Isaac Lee, 28 Sept. 2 2008 Alger   Washington
6
2
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [89][90]
Dalton, Jason, 45 Feb. 20 2016 Kalamazoo County   Michigan
6
2
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [91][92][93][94]
Henry, DeWitt, 26 July 23 1977 Klamath Falls   Oregon
6
1
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
Terminated a pregnancy
[95]
Belachheb, Abdelkrim, 39 June 29 1984 Dallas   Texas
6
1
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
Died in prison in 2017
[96]
Peterson, Tyler, 20[n 3] Oct. 7 2007 Crandon   Wisconsin
6
1
F Committed suicide [97]
Thornton, Charles, 52 Feb. 7 2008 Kirkwood   Missouri
6
1
F Killed by police [98][99]
Crum, Richard, 52 (accused) Feb. 17 2023 Arkabutla   Mississippi
6
1
F Arrested [100]
Unknown Sept. 17 1911 Colorado Springs   Colorado
6
0
 M Unsolved
Possibly connected to the Villisca axe murders
[101]
Goins, John, 49[n 1] March 18 1926 Stockton & Galt   California
6
0
F Committed suicide [102]
Swinney, Frank, 28 April 15–18 1970 Wichita
Indianapolis
  Kansas
  Indiana
6
0
FMA Sentenced to life imprisonment [103]
Benoist, Emile, 20 Aug. 26 1977 Hackettstown   New Jersey
6
0
F Committed suicide [104]
Stewart, Raymond, 29 Jan. 27–Feb. 2 1981 Rockford
Beloit
  Illinois
  Wisconsin
6
0
F Sentenced to death and executed
Moreno, Eliseo, 24[n 1] Oct. 11 1983 College Station & Hempstead   Texas
6
0
F Sentenced to death and executed [105]
Stewart, Howard, 37[n 1] Sept. 16/22 1987 Lebanon
Corsicana
  Missouri
  Texas
6
0
F Committed suicide
Also killed two dogs
[106]
Leonard, Eric, 22 Feb. 12/19 1991 Sacramento   California
6
0
F Sentenced to death [107]
Vargas, Pedro, 42 July 26/27 2013 Hialeah   Florida
6
0
F A Killed by police [108]
Jones, Dwight, 56 May 31–June 3 2018 Scottsdale and Fountain Hills   Arizona
6
0
F Committed suicide [109]
Moore, Lawrence, 25 May 7 1981 Salem   Oregon
5
18
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
One of the victims died in 2013; attributed to this event
[110]
Harris, Will, 29 Nov. 1 1906 Asheville   North Carolina
5
12
F Killed by angry mob
Also killed a dog
[111]
Neal, Kevin, 44[n 1] Nov. 13/14 2017 Rancho Tehama   California
5
11
F Committed suicide
King, Alvin, 45 June 22 1980 Daingerfield   Texas
5
10
F Committed suicide while awaiting trial
George, Leroy Valentino, 21 July 10 1999 Baton Rouge Louisiana
5
6
V Convicted [112]
Klink, Herman, 40 March 6 1933 Cleveland   Ohio
5
6
F Killed by police [113]
Santiago-Ruiz, Esteban, 26 Jan. 6 2017 Broward County   Florida
5
6
F Sentenced to life imprisonment
Cooper, Simon Jan. 1/7 1897 Magnolia & Lynchburg   South Carolina
5
5
FM Killed by police
Suspect in the Woolfolk-murders
[114]
Chambers, Adacia Avery, 25 Oct. 24 2015 Stillwater Oklahoma
4
46
V Sentenced to life imprisonment
Mellberg, Dean, 20 June 20 1994 Fairchild Air Force Base   Washington
4
22
F Killed by police
Terminated a pregnancy
[115]
Owens, Rashad Charjuan, 21 March 12 2014 Austin Texas
4
21
V Sentenced to life imprisonment
Kulak, Frank J., 41 April 7–14 1969 Chicago   Illinois
4
21
F E Found mentally unfit to stand trial [116]
Decker, Newt, 35 Nov. 15 1908 Okmulgee   Oklahoma
4
9
FM Killed by police
Also killed a horse
[117]
Pullen, Joe, 40 Dec. 14 1923 Drew   Mississippi
4
8
F Killed by angry mob [118]
McLeod, Harvey Glenn, 22 May 29 1972 Raleigh   North Carolina
4
7
F Committed suicide [119]
Sencion, Eduardo, 32 Sept. 6 2011 Carson City   Nevada
4
7
F Committed suicide
Kabolowsky, Robert, 20 July 10 1980 Wantagh, New York New York
3
20
V Found not guilty by reason of insanity [120]
Cornell, William July 18 1863 Austin   Nevada
3
18–20
 M Committed suicide or killed [121]
Pearson, Moses, 30–31 April 25 1976 Jacksonville
Cordele, Pinehurst, Perry & Jackson
  Florida
  Georgia
3
13
F Committed suicide
Suspected of 6 other murders
[122]
Ressa, Stephen Michael, 27 Sept. 21 2005 Las Vegas   Nevada
3
11
V Sentenced to life imprisonment [123]
Sledge, Aaron Aug. 15/17 1903 Randolph County   Alabama
3
10–11
F [124]
Clark, Michael, 16 April 25 1965 Santa Maria   California
3
10
F Committed suicide [125]
Aranda, Bennie, 26 Dec. 28 1937 Oakland   California
3
9
FM Sentenced to death, later changed to life imprisonment [126]
Mozingo, Douglas, 29 Oct. 1 1982 Sacramento   California
3
9
F Committed suicide while awaiting trial [127][128]
Sodini, George, 48 Aug. 4 2009 Bridgeville   Pennsylvania
3
9
F Committed suicide [129]
Brosnahan, John, 67 [n 4] Dec. 9 2011 Cambridge   Massachusetts
3
0
F Committed Suicide [130]

Home intruders edit

Perpetrator Date Year Location State Killed Injured W Additional Notes Ref.
1. Leung Ying, 29 August 22 1928 Fairfield   California
11
0
FM Sentenced to death
Committed suicide while awaiting execution
Possibly killed 3 people years earlier
[131]
2. Thomas, Christopher, 34[n 5] April 15 1984 New York City   New York
10
0
F Sentenced to 83 to 250 years in prison
Terminated a pregnancy
Released from prison in 2018
[132]
3. Unknown[n 4][n 5] May 14 1906 Milton   Florida
9
0
 MA Unsolved
Possibly connected to the Villisca axe murders
[133]
4. Cummins, Michael Lee, 25 April 17/27 2019 Sumner County   Tennessee
9
0
 M Sentenced to life imprisonment
The sole survivor died in 2022; attributed to this event
[134]
5. Unknown[n 4][n 5] September 13 1878 Hockley   Texas
8
1
FMA Unsolved [135]
6. Hight, Spencer James, 32[n 4][n 5] September 10 2017 Plano   Texas
8
1
F Killed by police [136]
7. Unknown[n 5] June 10 1912 Villisca   Iowa
8
0
 M Unsolved
Possibly connected to 18 other murders
[137]
8. Layer, Henry[n 5] April 22 1920 Turtle Lake   North Dakota
8
0
FM Sentenced to life imprisonment [138]
9. Speck, Richard Franklin, 24[n 5] July 14 1966 Chicago   Illinois
8
0
 M Sentenced to death
Later changed to 400 to 1200 years in prison
10. Wagner, George William
Wagner, George (accused)
Wagner, Edward Jacob[n 4]
April 22 2016 Pike County   Ohio
8
0
F Arrested and charged
George William Wagner sentenced to life imprisonment
Edward Jacob Wagner sentenced to life imprisonment
11. Unknown November 20 1965 Sunbury   Pennsylvania
7
7
F A Unsolved [139]
12. Nelson, Martin, 24 May 5 1885 Bonito City   New Mexico
7
1
F Killed [140]
13. James Little Plume, 24[n 1] October 11 1903 Two Medicine   Montana
7
1
FM Sentenced to 40 years in prison [141]
14. Carlton, Julian, 30 August 15 1914 Spring Green   Wisconsin
7
1
 MA Died while awaiting trial [142]
15. Rovansek, Cyril J., 31[n 1] November 4 1973 Cleveland   Ohio
7
1
F Committed suicide [143]
16. Abeyta, Ricky, 28 January 26 1991 Chimayo   New Mexico
7
1
F Sentenced to 146 years in prison [144]
17. Hance, Michael E., 51 August 7 2011 Copley Township   Ohio
7
1
F Killed by police [145]
18. Unknown April 20 1928 El Dorado   Kansas
7
0
F A Unsolved [146]
19. Unknown[n 4][n 5] October 25 1967 Arcadia   Florida
7
0
 P Unsolved [147]
20. Freeman, John Gilbert, 41[n 4][n 5] September 3 1971 Phoenix   Arizona
7
0
F Sentenced to life imprisonment [148]
21. Workman, William, 43[n 1] June 26 1973 Palos Hills   Illinois
7
0
F Sentenced to 100 to 300 years in prison
Terminated a pregnancy
[149]
22. Moss, Adam Matthew, 23 August 30 2001 Sioux City   Iowa
7
0
 M Sentenced to life imprisonment
Committed suicide in 2013
[150]
23. Brooks, Darrell L., 22[n 4][n 5] October 16 2002 Baltimore   Maryland
7
0
 A Sentenced to life imprisonment [151]
24. Legg, John Michael, 20 (accused)
Rogers, Frederic Allen, 23 (accused)
June 4 2020 Valhermoso Springs   Alabama
7
0
F A Both arrested and charged
Also killed a dog
[152]
25. Unknown September 8 2020 Aguanga   California
7
0
F Unsolved [153]
26. Mohawk, Samuel July 1 1843 Slippery Rock   Pennsylvania
6
2
 M Sentenced to death and executed [154]
27. Baumberger, Albert F., 22[n 4][n 5] July 7 1893 Cando   North Dakota
6
1
FM Sentenced to death and executed [155]
28. Davis, Arthur James, 26[n 5] August 26 1966 New Haven   Connecticut
6
1
F Sentenced to death
Later changed to life
Also killed two dogs
[156]
29. Marks, Cyrano, 39[n 4][n 5] July 12 1999 Atlanta   Georgia
6
1
F Committed suicide [157]
30. James, Llewelyn, 16[n 1] February 4/5 2002 Winslow Township &
Lindenwold
  New Jersey
6
1
FM Sentenced to 315 years in prison [158]
31. Jones, Thomas[n 4][n 5] March 21/22 1900 Garner   North Carolina
6
0
 MA Sentenced to death and executed [159]
32. Batson, Albert Edward, 20[n 4] February 13 1902 Welsh   Louisiana
6
0
FM Sentenced to death and executed [160]
33. Davis, Walter Chesley, 48[n 5] May 7 1907 San Francisco   California
6
0
F Found not guilty by reason of insanity [161]
34. Miller, Alex[n 4][n 5] December 21 1919 Gilcrest   Colorado
6
0
F Arrested [162]
35. Bannon, Charles, 22[n 4][n 5] February 1930 Schafer   North Dakota
6
0
 M Killed by angry mob [163]
36. Cook, William Edward, 22 January 2–5 1951 Joplin
Ogilby
  Missouri
  California
6
0
F Sentenced to death and executed
Also killed a dog
37. Unknown[n 4][n 5] June 25 1968 Good Hart   Michigan
6
0
FM Unsolved
38. Simants, Erwin Charles, 29[n 4][n 5] October 19 1975 Sutherland   Nebraska
6
0
F Sentenced to death
Later, found not guilty by reason of insanity
[164]
39. White, Sarah Isabel, 18[n 4][n 5] December 31 1975 Greenwood   Indiana
6
0
 A Sentenced to life imprisonment [165]
40. Geschwendt, George, 24[n 5] March 12 1976 Trevose   Pennsylvania
6
0
F Sentenced to death
Also killed a dog
[166]
41. Carter, Robert Earl, 26 August 18 1992 Somerville   Texas
6
0
FMA Sentenced to death and executed [167]
42. Concepcion, Ramon, 28[n 5] May 2/3 1993 New York City   New York
6
0
 MA Sentenced to 37½ years in prison [168]
43. Harris, Westley Devon, 22[n 4][n 5] August 26 2002 Rutledge   Alabama
6
0
F Sentenced to death [169]
44. Lewis, Lamont
Merritt, Robert
August 26 2003 Philadelphia   Pennsylvania
6
0
 E Both sentenced to life imprisonment
Also killed a dog
45. Strong, Preston Alton, 39 June 24 2005 Yuma   Arizona
6
0
FM Sentenced to death
Also killed a man in 2007
[170]
46. Devoe, Paul Gilbert, 43 August 24/27 2007 Marble Falls & Jonestown
State Line
  Texas
  Pennsylvania
6
0
F Sentenced to death [171]
47. Anderson, Michele Kristen, 29[n 1]
McEnroe, Joseph Thomas, 29[n 5]
December 24 2007 Carnation   Washington
6
0
F Both sentenced to life imprisonment
48. Hudson, William Mitchell, 33 November 14 2015 Palestine   Texas
6
0
FM Sentenced to death [172]
49. Adams, Phillip, 32 April 7 2021 Rock Hill   South Carolina
6
0
F Committed suicide [173]
50. Macias, Teodoro, 28[n 5] May 9 2021 Colorado Springs   Colorado
6
0
F Committed suicide [174]
51. Fenniel, Shad, 31 July 3 1914 Branchville   Texas
5
5
FM Killed by police [175]
52. Soto, Christian Ivan, 22 March 27 2024 Rockford   Illinois
4
7
 M Arrested

See also edit

Abbreviations and footnotes edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r At least one of the victims was a relative of the assailant.
  2. ^ At least five of the victims were relatives of the assailant.
  3. ^ a b Assailant was a member of the military, police, or a comparable force at the time of the rampage.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s All the victims were members of the same family.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z All the victims were killed in the same household.

W – A basic description of the weapons used in the murders

F – Firearms and other ranged weapons, especially rifles and handguns, but also bows and crossbows, grenade launchers, flamethrowers, or slingshots
M – Melee weapons, like knives, swords, spears, machetes, axes, clubs, rods, stones, or bare hands
O – Any other weapons, such as bombs, hand grenades, Molotov cocktails, poison and poisonous gas, as well as vehicle and arson attacks
A – indicates that an arson attack was the only other weapon used
V – indicates that a vehicle was the only other weapon used
E – indicates that explosives of any sort were the only other weapon used
P – indicates that an anaesthetising or deadly substance of any kind was the only other weapon used (includes poisonous gas)

References edit

  1. ^ Duwe, Grant (2007). Mass Murder in the United States. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7864-3150-2.
  2. ^ Aggrawal, A. (2005). "Mass Murder". In Payne-James JJ; Byard RW; Corey TS; Henderson C (eds.). Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine (PDF). Vol. 3. Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-547970-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  3. ^ "Serial Murder – Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investigators" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2005. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  4. ^ Krouse, William J.; Richardson, Daniel J. (July 30, 2015). Mass Murder with Firearms: Incidents and Victims, 1999–2013 (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 26.
  5. ^ Booty, Marisa; O’Dwyer, Jayne; Webster, Daniel; McCourt, Alex; Crifasi, Cassandra (2019). "Describing a "mass shooting": the role of databases in understanding burden". Injury Epidemiology. 6 (47): 47. doi:10.1186/s40621-019-0226-7. PMC 6889601. PMID 31828004.
  6. ^ Lacanlale, Rio (August 24, 2020). "California woman declared 59th victim of 2017 massacre in Las Vegas". The Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  7. ^ Lacanlale, Rio (September 17, 2020). "Las Vegas woman becomes 60th victim of October 2017 mass shooting". The Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  8. ^ "The Crash of Pacific Air Lines Flight #773". Check-Six.com. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  9. ^ "PSA Flight 1771 Memorial Cache". Geocaching. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  10. ^ Ahmed, Saeed (November 6, 2017). "2 of the 5 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history happened in the last 35 days". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  11. ^ Stone, Michael H.; Brucato, Gary (2019). The New Evil: Understanding the Emergence of Modern Violent Crime. Amherst, New York: Prometheus. pp. 44–45.
  12. ^ Mass Murderers. True Crime. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books. 1993. ISBN 978-0783500041. Retrieved December 3, 2015. huberty.
  13. ^ Holguin, Richard (November 16, 1986). "Police Snipers Get Only One Chance to Be on the Mark". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  14. ^ Lenthang, Marlene; Romero, Dennis (October 28, 2023). "Maine shootings: Timeline of the fatal Lewiston attacks". NBC News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2023.
  15. ^ Borter, Gabriella (October 28, 2023). "Maine shooting suspect found dead in cargo trailer, motive still a mystery". Reuters. Archived from the original on October 29, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2023.
  16. ^ "At least 18 killed in mass shooting in US state of Maine". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved October 29, 2023.
  17. ^ Fernandez, Manny; Hernandez, Javier (April 5, 2009). "Binghamton Victims Shared a Dream of Living Better Lives". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
  18. ^ "Suspect in historic mass murder dies at 88". CNN. Archived from the original on October 23, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
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    Four Negroes Dead; Five are Wounded; Slayer Escaped, Cameron Herald (July 9, 1914)
    – Two negroes killed and seven may die, The Galveston Daily News (July 4, 1914)
    – Five negroes were killed, Corsicana Semi-Weekly Light (July 7, 1914)
    – Negro desperado is shot and killed, The Galveston Daily News (February 22, 1915)