Asheville, North Carolina
|Asheville, North Carolina|
Downtown Asheville and surrounding area
|Nickname(s): "Land of the Sky"|
|Motto(s): "Quality of Service, Quality of Life"|
Location in Buncombe County and the state of North Carolina
|Named for||Governor Samuel Ashe|
|• Mayor||Esther Manheimer|
|• Council Members||
|• City||45.3 sq mi (117.2 km2)|
|• Land||44.9 sq mi (116.4 km2)|
|• Water||0.3 sq mi (0.8 km2) 0.66%|
|Elevation||2,134 ft (650 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||89,121|
|• Density||2,000/sq mi (760/km2)|
|US Census Bureau official|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP Code||28801-06, 28810, 28813-16|
|GNIS feature ID||1018864|
Asheville is a city and the county seat of Buncombe County, North Carolina, United States. It is the largest city in Western North Carolina, and the 12th-most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. The city's population was 89,121 according to the 2016 estimates. It is the principal city in the four-county Asheville metropolitan area, with a population of 424,858 in 2010. It is home to the nation’s two oldest “black” family reunions, the Baird Reunion, founded in 1897, and the Flack-Council-Coleman Reunion, founded in 1917.
Before the arrival of the Europeans, the land where Asheville now exists lay within the boundaries of the Cherokee Nation. In 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto came to the area, bringing the first European visitors along with European diseases, which seriously depleted the native population. The area was used as an open hunting ground until the middle of the 19th century.
The history of Asheville, as a town, began in 1784. In that year, Colonel Samuel Davidson and his family settled in the Swannanoa Valley, redeeming a soldier's land grant from the state of North Carolina. Soon after building a log cabin at the bank of Christian Creek, Davidson was lured into the woods by a band of Cherokee hunters and killed. Davidson's wife, child and female slave fled on foot overnight to Davidson's Fort (named after Davidson's father General John Davidson) 16 miles away.
In response to the killing, Davidson's twin brother Major William Davidson and brother-in-law Colonel Daniel Smith formed an expedition to retrieve Samuel Davidson's body and avenge his murder. Months after the expedition, Major Davidson and other members of his extended family returned to the area and settled at the mouth of Bee Tree Creek.
The United States Census of 1790 counted 1,000 residents of the area, excluding the Cherokee Native Americans. Buncombe County was officially formed in 1792. The county seat, named "Morristown" in 1793, was established on a plateau where two old Indian trails crossed. In 1797, Morristown was incorporated and renamed "Asheville" after North Carolina Governor Samuel Ashe.
The Civil WarEdit
Asheville, with a population of approximately 2,500 by 1861, remained relatively untouched by the Civil War, but contributed a number of companies to the Confederate States Army, and a substantially smaller number of soldiers to the Union. For a time, an Enfield rifle manufacturing facility was located in the town. The war came to Asheville as an afterthought, when the "Battle of Asheville" was fought in early April 1865 at the present-day site of the University of North Carolina at Asheville, with Union forces withdrawing to Tennessee after encountering resistance from a small group of Confederate senior and junior reserves and recuperating Confederate soldiers in prepared trench lines across the Buncombe Turnpike; orders had been given to the Union force to take Asheville only if this could be accomplished without significant losses.
An engagement was also fought later that month at Swannanoa Gap as part of the larger Stoneman's Raid, with Union forces retreating in the face of resistance from Brig. Gen. Martin, commander of Confederate troops in western North Carolina, but returning to the area via Howard's Gap and Henderson County. In late April 1865 troops under the overall command of Union Gen. Stoneman captured Asheville. After a negotiated departure, the troops nevertheless subsequently returned and plundered and burned a number of Confederate supporters' homes in Asheville. The years following the war were a time of economic and social hardship in Buncombe County, as throughout most of the defeated South.
On October 2, 1880, the Western North Carolina Railroad completed its line from Salisbury to Asheville, the first rail line to reach the city. Almost immediately it was sold and resold to the Richmond and Danville Railroad Company, becoming part of the Southern Railway in 1894. With the completion of the first railway, Asheville experienced a slow but steady growth as industrial plants increased in number and size, and new residents built homes. Textile mills were established and plants were set up for the manufacture of wood and mica products, foodstuffs, and other commodities.
The 21-mile distance between Hendersonville and Asheville of the former Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad was completed in 1886. By that point, the line was operated as part of the Richmond and Danville Railroad until 1894 and controlled by the Southern Railway afterward. (Asheville's final passenger train, a coach-only remnant of the Southern Railway's Carolina Special, last ran on December 5, 1968.)
Asheville had the first electric street railway lines in the state of North Carolina, the first of which opened in 1889. These would be replaced by buses in 1934.
1900s to presentEdit
In 1900, Asheville was the third largest city in the state, behind Wilmington and Charlotte. Asheville prospered in the decades of the 1910s and 1920s. During these years, Rutherford P. Hayes, son of President Rutherford B. Hayes, bought land, helped to create the African-American Burton Street Community, and worked to establish a sanitary district in West Asheville, which became an incorporated town in 1913, merging with Asheville in 1917. The Great Depression, the period of Asheville's history made world-famous by the novel Look Homeward, Angel, hit Asheville quite hard. On November 20, 1930, eight local banks failed. Only Wachovia remained open with infusions of cash from Winston-Salem. Because of the explosive growth of the previous decades, the per capita debt owed by the city (through municipal bonds) was the highest in the nation. By 1929, both the city and Buncombe County had incurred over $56 million in bonded debt to pay for a wide range of municipal and infrastructure improvements, including City Hall, the water system, Beaucatcher Tunnel, and Asheville High School. Rather than default, the city paid those debts over a period of fifty years. From the start of the depression through the 1980s, economic growth in Asheville was slow. During this time of financial stagnation, most of the buildings in the downtown district remained unaltered. Therefore, Asheville has one of the most impressive, comprehensive collections of Art Deco architecture in the United States.
On July 15–16, 1916, the Asheville area was subject to severe flooding from the remnants of a tropical storm which caused more than $3 million in damage. In September 2004, remnants of Hurricanes Frances and Ivan caused major flooding in Asheville, particularly at Biltmore Village.
Asheville is located in the Blue Ridge Mountains at the confluence of the Swannanoa River and the French Broad River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.3 square miles (117.2 km2), of which 44.9 square miles (116.4 km2) is land and 0.31 square miles (0.8 km2), or 0.66%, is water.
Asheville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), resembling the rest of the Piedmont region of the southeastern U.S., but with noticeably cooler temperatures due to the higher elevation; it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 7a. The area's summers in particular, though warm, are not as hot as summers in cities farther east in the state, as the July daily average temperature is 73.8 °F (23.2 °C) and there is an average of only 9.4 days with 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually;[a] The last time a calendar year passed without a 90 °F reading was 2009. Moreover, warm nights where the low remains at or above 70 °F (21 °C) are much more uncommon than 90 °F temperatures. Winters are cool, with a January daily average of 37.1 °F (2.8 °C) and highs remaining at or below freezing on 5.5 days.
Official record temperatures range from −16 °F (−27 °C) on January 21, 1985 to 100 °F (38 °C) on August 21, 1983; the record cold daily maximum is 4 °F (−16 °C) on February 4, 1895, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 77 °F (25 °C) on July 17, 1887. Readings as low as 0 °F (−18 °C) or as high as 95 °F (35 °C) rarely occur, the last occurrences being January 7, 2014 and July 1, 2012, respectively. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 17 to April 18, allowing a growing season of 181 days.
Precipitation is relatively well spread (though the summer months are slightly wetter), and averages 45.6 inches (1,160 mm) annually, but has historically ranged from 22.79 in (579 mm) in 1925 to 75.22 in (1,911 mm) in 2013.[b] Snowfall is sporadic, averaging 9.9 inches (25.1 cm) per winter, but actual seasonal accumulation varies considerably from one winter to the next; accumulation has ranged from trace amounts in 2011–12 to 48.2 inches (122.4 cm) in 1968–69. Freezing rain often occurs, accompanied by significant disruption.
|Climate data for Asheville Regional Airport, North Carolina (1981–2010 normals,[c] extremes 1869–present)[d]|
|Record high °F (°C)||80
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||66.2
|Average high °F (°C)||47.4
|Average low °F (°C)||26.7
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||8.4
|Record low °F (°C)||−16
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.67
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||4.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.0||9.5||11.0||10.2||11.9||12.7||12.9||12.7||9.5||8.2||9.7||9.7||128.0|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||1.9||1.5||0.9||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||1.0||5.8|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72.6||69.8||68.4||66.2||75.3||78.6||81.6||83.5||84.1||78.4||74.8||74.1||75.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||175.9||181.2||223.5||252.3||264.1||267.0||257.5||227.8||207.5||219.6||178.8||167.2||2,622.4|
|Percent possible sunshine||56||59||60||64||61||61||58||55||56||63||58||55||59|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity 1964–1990, sun 1961–1990)|
- North – includes the neighborhoods of Albemarle Park, Beaverdam, Beaver Lake, Chestnut Hills, Colonial Heights, Five Points, Grove Park, Hillcrest, Kimberly, Klondyke, Montford, and Norwood Park. Chestnut Hill, Grove Park, Montford, and Norwood Park neighborhoods are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Montford and Albemarle Park have been named local historic districts by the Asheville City Council.
- East – includes the neighborhoods of Kenilworth, Beverly Hills, Chunn's Cove, Haw Creek, Oakley, Oteen, Reynolds, Riceville, and Town Mountain.
- West – includes the neighborhoods of Camelot, Wilshire Park, Bear Creek, Deaverview Park, Emma, Hi-Alta Park, Lucerne Park, Malvern Hills, Sulphur Springs, Burton Street, Haywood Road, and Pisgah View.
- South – includes the neighborhoods of Ballantree, Biltmore Village, Biltmore Park, Oak Forest, Royal Pines, Shiloh, and Skyland. Biltmore Village has been named a local historic district by the Asheville City Council.
Notable architecture in Asheville includes its Art Deco city hall, and other unique buildings in the downtown area, such as the Battery Park Hotel, the original of which was 475-feet long with numerous dormers and chimneys; the Neo-Gothic Jackson Building, the first skyscraper on Pack Square; Grove Arcade, one of America's first indoor shopping malls; and the Basilica of St. Lawrence. The S&W Cafeteria Building is also a fine example of Art Deco architecture in Asheville. The Grove Park Inn is an important example of architecture and design of the Arts and Crafts movement.
Asheville's recovery from the Depression was slow and arduous. Because of the financial stagnation, there was little new construction and much of the downtown district remained unaltered.
The Montford Area Historic District and other central areas are considered historic districts and include Victorian houses. Biltmore Village, located at the entrance to the famous estate, showcases unique architectural features. It was here that workers stayed during the construction of George Vanderbilt's estate. The YMI Cultural Center, founded in 1892 by George Vanderbilt in the heart of downtown, is one of the nation's oldest African-American cultural centers.
Asheville is the larger principal city of the Asheville-Brevard CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Asheville metropolitan area (Buncombe, Haywood, Henderson, and Madison counties) and the Brevard micropolitan area (Transylvania County), which had a combined population of 398,505 at the 2000 census.
At the 2000 census, there were 68,889 people, 30,690 households and 16,726 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,683.4 per square mile (650.0/km²). There were 33,567 housing units at an average density of 820.3 per square mile (316.7/km²). The racial composition of the city was: 77.95% White, 17.61% Black or African American, 3.76% Hispanic or Latino American, 0.92% Asian American, 0.35% Native American, 0.06% Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 1.53% some other race, and 1.58% two or more races.
There were 30,690 households of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.5% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.81.
Age distribution was 19.6% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.9 males.
The median household income was $32,772, and the median family income was $44,029. Males had a median income of $30,463, and $23,488 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,024. About 13% of families and 19% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.9% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
Religion is diverse in Asheville. There are a number of Baptist churches, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Churches of Christ, as well as a few non-Christian institutions. Asheville is the headquarters of the Episcopal Diocese of Western North Carolina, which is seated at the Cathedral of All Souls. Asheville is also an important city for North Carolinian Catholics, who make pilgrimages to the Basilica of St. Lawrence. There are also several historical churches located throughout the city, including the First Baptist Church of Asheville.
Asheville is the largest city located within the Asheville MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area). The MSA includes Buncombe County; Haywood County; Henderson County; and Madison County; with a combined population – as of the 2014 Census Bureau population estimate – of 442,316.
Apart from Asheville, the MSA includes Hendersonville and Waynesville, along with a number of smaller incorporated towns: Biltmore Forest, Black Mountain, Canton, Clyde, Flat Rock, Fletcher, Hot Springs, Laurel Park, Maggie Valley, Mars Hill, Marshall, Mills River, Montreat, Weaverville and Woodfin.
Several sizable unincorporated rural and suburban communities are also located nearby: Arden, Barnardsville (incorporated until 1970), Bent Creek, Candler, Enka, Fairview, Jupiter (incorporated until 1970), Leicester, Oteen, Skyland, and Swannanoa.
Like many cities which have received national notoriety, changes brought by heavy tourism and population growth from re-locators present a double-edged sword. Local business benefit from increased economic revenue but increases in costs of living, over-dependence on a tourism economy and lost of natural habitat to development can degrade the quality of life for which a city became noteworthy.
According to the city's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the largest employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Mission Health System||3,000+|
|2||Buncombe County Schools System||3,000+|
|3||Ingles Markets, Inc.||3,000+|
|4||State of North Carolina||1,000+|
|6||Asheville VA Medical Center||1,000+|
|7||City of Asheville||1,000+|
|9||The Biltmore Company||1,000+|
|10||Asheville–Buncombe Technical Community College||1,000+|
|12||Grove Park Inn||500–999|
|13||Asheville City Schools||500–999|
|15||United States Postal Service||500–999|
|16||BorgWarner Turbo Systems||500–999|
|17||Thermo Fisher Scientific||500–999|
|18||Arvato Digital Services||500–999|
|20||Volvo Construction Equipment||500–999|
The City of Asheville operates under a council-manager form of government, via its charter. The city council appoints a city manager, a city attorney, and a city clerk. In the absence or disability of the mayor, the vice-mayor performs the mayoral duties. The vice-mayor is appointed by the members of City Council. City Council determines the needs to be addressed and the degree of service to be provided by the administrative branch of city government.
In 2005 Mayor Charles Worley signed the U.S. Conference of Mayors Climate Protection Agreement and in 2006 the City Council created the Sustainable Advisory Committee on Energy and the Environment. In 2007 the Council became the first city on the East Coast to commit to building all municipal buildings to LEED Gold Standards and to achieve 80 percent energy reduction of 2001 standards by 2040. Also in 2007 the Council signed an agreement with Warren Wilson College stating the intent of the city and college to work together toward climate partnership goals.
In 2009, a group of Asheville citizens challenged the legitimacy of Cecil Bothwell's election to the City Council, citing the North Carolina Constitution, which does not permit atheists to hold public office. Bothwell has described himself as a "post theist" rather than an atheist and is a member of a local Unitarian Universalist congregation. The opponents to his election never filed suit. In response to the charge, legal scholars explained that the U.S. Supreme Court held in Torcaso v. Watkins that religious tests for political office are unconstitutional. Mr. Bothwell served his four-year Council term and was re-elected in 2013. He was defeated in the primary when he ran for a third term in 2017. 
While the city council elections are non-partisan, party politics may enter into play with both Republican and Democratic counterparts backing their registered members’ candidacy. An effort by the council to return to partisan elections was defeated by voters in a referendum held in November 2007.
- Current elected officials
- Mayor: Esther Manheimer
- Vice-Mayor: Gwen Wisler
- Council: Vijay Kapoor
- Council: Brian Haynes
- Council: Julie Mayfield
- Council: Sheneika Smith
- Council: Keith Young
In the North Carolina Senate, Terry Van Duyn (D-Asheville) and Chuck Edwards (R-Hendersonville) both represent parts of Buncombe County. Van Duyn represents most of the city of Asheville. Edwards represents a small portion of the southern part of Asheville.
In the North Carolina House of Representatives, Susan Fisher (D-Asheville), John Ager (D-Asheville), and Brian Turner (D-Asheville) all represent parts of the county. All three of them represent parts of the city, although the majority of it is in Fisher's district.
In the 2012 presidential election, Barack Obama won the entirety of Buncombe County with 55% of the vote. Obama has visited the city on a few occasions. In April 2010, he and his family vacationed in the city; it was the first time he visited since October 5, 2008.
In the United States presidential election of 2016, Hillary Clinton won 54.30% of the vote in Buncombe County and Donald Trump 40.10%, according to the North Carolina State Board of Elections.
North Carolina is represented in the United States Senate by Richard Burr (R-Winston-Salem) and Thom Tillis (R-Greensboro). The city of Asheville is based in both North Carolina's 10th congressional district and North Carolina's 11th congressional district, represented by Patrick McHenry (R-Gaston County) and Mark Meadows (R-Jackson County), respectively.
Students (K-12) are assigned to one of two public school systems in the city of Asheville, Buncombe County Schools or Asheville City Schools, based on address.
Public Asheville City Schools include Asheville High School (known as Lee H Edwards High School 1935–1969), School of Inquiry and Life Sciences at Asheville, Asheville Middle School, Claxton Elementary, Randolph Learning Center, Hall Fletcher Elementary, Isaac Dickson Elementary, Ira B. Jones Elementary and Vance Elementary. Asheville High has been ranked by Newsweek magazine as one of the top 100 high schools in the United States.
The Buncombe County Schools System operates high schools, middle schools and elementary schools both inside and outside the city of Asheville. Clyde A. Erwin High School, T C Roberson High School and A. C. Reynolds High School are three Buncombe County schools located in Asheville.
Asheville was formerly home to one of the few Sudbury schools in the Southeast, Katuah Sudbury School. It is also home to several charter schools, including Francine Delany New School for Children (one of the first charter schools in North Carolina), ArtSpace Charter School, Invest Collegiate Imagine, and Evergreen Community Charter School, an Outward Bound-Expeditionary Learning School, recognized as one of the most environmentally conscious schools in the country.
Two private residential high schools are located in the Asheville area: the all-male Christ School (located in Arden) and the co-educational Asheville School. Other private schools include Carolina Day School, Veritas Christian Academy and Asheville Christian Academy.
Asheville and its surrounding area have several institutions of higher education:
- Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College (Asheville)
- Black Mountain College (Black Mountain: 1933–1957)
- Shaw University College of Adult and Professional Education or C.A.P.E.
- Brevard College (Brevard)
- Lenoir-Rhyne University - Center for Graduate Studies of Asheville (Asheville)
- Mars Hill University (Mars Hill)
- Montreat College (Montreat)
- University of North Carolina at Asheville (Asheville)
- Warren Wilson College (Swannanoa)
- Western Carolina University (Cullowhee)
- Blue Ridge Community College (Flat Rock)
- South College - Asheville (Asheville)
Asheville is served by Asheville Regional Airport in nearby Fletcher, North Carolina, and by Interstate 40, Interstate 240, and Interstate 26. A milestone was achieved in 2003 when Interstate 26 was extended from Mars Hill (north of Asheville) to Johnson City, Tennessee, completing a 20-year half-billion dollar construction project through the Blue Ridge Mountains. Work continues to improve Interstate 26 from Mars Hill to Interstate 40 by improving U.S. Route 19 and U.S. Route 23 and the western part of Interstate 240. This construction will include a multimillion-dollar bridge to cross the French Broad River.
The Norfolk Southern Railway passes through the city, though passenger service is currently not available in the area.
Public services and utilitiesEdit
The residents of Asheville are served by the Buncombe County Public Libraries, consisting of 11 branches located throughout the county with the headquarters and central library, Pack Memorial Library, being located downtown. The system also includes a law library in the Buncombe County Courthouse and a genealogy and local history department located in the central library.
Drinking water in Asheville is provided by the Asheville water department. The water system consists of three water treatment plants, more than 1,600 miles (2,600 km) of water lines, 30 pumping stations and 27 storage reservoirs.
Asheville offers public transit through the ART (Asheville Redefines Transit) bus service that operates across the City of Asheville and to the town of Black Mountain. Routes originate from a central station located at 49 Coxe Avenue.
Sustainability and environmental initiativesEdit
The city of Asheville is home to a Duke Energy Progress coal power plant near Lake Julian. This power plant is designated as having Coal Combustion Residue Surface Impoundments with a High Hazard Potential by the EPA. In 2012 a Duke University study found high levels of arsenic and other toxins in North Carolina lakes and rivers downstream from the Asheville power plants coal ash ponds. Samples collected from coal ash waste flowing from the ponds at the Duke Energy Progress plant to the French Broad River in Buncombe County contained arsenic levels more than four times higher than the EPA drinking water standard, and levels of selenium 17 times higher than the agency's standard for aquatic life. In March 2013 the State of North Carolina sued Duke Energy Progress in order to address similar environmental compliance issues. In July 2013 Duke Energy Corp. and North Carolina environmental regulators proposed a settlement in the lawsuit that stated coal ash threatened Asheville's water supply. The settlement called for Duke to assess the sources and extent of contamination at the Riverbend power plant in Asheville. Duke was to be fined $99,100. However, following the coal ash spill in Eden, NC, the North Carolina DENR cancelled all previous settlements with Duke Energy.
The city of Asheville claims a clear focus on sustainability and the development of a green economy. For Asheville, this goal is defined in their Sustainability Management Plan as: "Making decisions that balance the values of environmental stewardship, social responsibility and economic vitality to meet our present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs." As part of the Zero Waste AVL initiative, which began in 2012, each resident receives "Big Blue," a rolling cart in which they can put all of their materials unsorted. Residents can recycle a great variety of materials and "in this first year of the program 6.30% of waste was diverted from the landfill for recycling."
The Asheville City Council's goal is to reduce the overall carbon footprint 80% by the year 2030. This means 4% or more reduction per year. In 2009 the reduction was made when the "City installed over 3,000 LED street lights, managed its water system under ISO 14001 standards for environmental management, improved the infrastructure and management of many of its buildings, and switched many employees to a 4-day work week (which saves emissions from commuting)." Asheville is recognized by the Green Restaurant Association as the first city in the U.S. to be a Green Dining Destination (significant density of green restaurants).
Live music is a significant element in the tourism-based economy of Asheville and the surrounding area. Seasonal festivals and numerous nightclubs and performance venues offer opportunities for visitors and locals to attend a wide variety of live entertainment events.
Asheville has a strong tradition of street performance and outdoor music, including festivals, such as Bele Chere and the Lexington Avenue Arts & Fun Festival (LAAFF). One event is "Shindig on the Green," which happens Saturday nights during July and August on City/County Plaza. By tradition, the Shindig starts "along about sundown" and features local bluegrass bands and dance teams on stage, and informal jam sessions under the trees surrounding the County Courthouse. The "Mountain Dance & Folk Festival" started in 1928 by Bascom Lamar Lunsford is said to be the first event ever labeled a "Folk Festival". Another popular outdoor music event is "Downtown After 5," a monthly concert series held from 5 pm till 9 pm that hosts popular touring musicians as well as local acts. A regular drum circle, organized by residents in Pritchard Park, is open to all and has been a popular local activity every Friday evening. It is also home of the Moog Music Headquarters.
Asheville also plays host to the Warren Haynes Christmas Jam, an annual charity event which raises money for Habitat For Humanity, and attracts nationally touring acts; in addition to regular performers Haynes himself, and the band he plays with, Gov't Mule, past acts include The Allman Brothers Band, Dave Matthews Band, Ani Difranco, Widespread Panic. Other big acts that have played the Asheville area in recent years are bands such as Railroad Earth, Soule Monde, Dawes, Porcupine Tree, Broken Social Scene, Ween, the Avett Brothers, Gillian Welch, Cat Power, Ghost Mice, Loretta Lynn, the Disco Biscuits, STS9, Pretty Lights, Primus, M. Ward and the Mountain Goats. DJ music, as well as a small, but active, dance community are also components of the downtown musical landscape. The town is also home to the Asheville Symphony Orchestra and the Asheville Lyric Opera and there are a number of bluegrass, country, and traditional mountain musicians in the Asheville area. A residency at local music establishment the Orange Peel by the Smashing Pumpkins in 2007, along with the Beastie Boys in 2009, brought national attention to Asheville. The Seattle based rock band Band of Horses have also recorded their last two albums at Echo Mountain Studios in Asheville, as have the Avett Brothers (who have also traditionally played a New Year's Eve concert in Asheville). Christian vocal group the Kingsmen originated in Asheville.
|Asheville Tourists||Baseball||1897||South Atlantic League||McCormick Field|
|Asheville City SC||Soccer||2016||National Premier Soccer League||Memorial Stadium|
|Name||Sport||Founded||League||Venue||Years in Asheville|
|Asheville Smoke||Ice hockey||1991||United Hockey League||Asheville Civic Center||1998–2002|
|Asheville Aces||Ice hockey||2004||Southern Professional Hockey League||Asheville Civic Center||2004|
|Asheville Altitude||Basketball||2001||National Basketball Development League||Asheville Civic Center||2001–2005|
Area colleges and universities, such as the University of North Carolina at Asheville, compete in sports. UNCA's sports teams are known as the Bulldogs and play in the Big South Conference. The Fighting Owls of Warren Wilson College participate in mountain biking and ultimate sports teams. The college is also home of the Hooter Dome, where the Owls play their home basketball games. The Civic Center is home to the Blue Ridge Rollergirls, an up-and-coming team in the sport of Women's Flat-Track Roller Derby.
Asheville is a major hub of whitewater recreation, particularly whitewater kayaking, in the eastern US. Many kayak manufacturers have their bases of operation in the Asheville area. Some of the most distinguished whitewater kayakers live in or around Asheville. In its July/August 2006 journal, the group American Whitewater named Asheville one of the top five US whitewater cities. Asheville is also home to numerous Disc Golf courses. Soccer is another popular recreational sport in Asheville. There are two youth soccer clubs in Asheville, Asheville Shield Football Club and HFC. The Asheville Hockey League provides opportunities for youth and adult inline hockey at an outdoor rink at Carrier Park. The rink is open to the public and pick-up hockey is also available. The Asheville Civic Center has held recreational ice hockey leagues in the past.
The Asheville Community Theatre was founded in 1946, producing the first amateur production of the Appalachian drama, Dark of the Moon. Soon after, the young actors Charlton Heston and wife Lydia Clarke took over the small theatre. The current ACT building has two performance spaces – the Mainstage Auditorium (and named the Heston Auditorium); and the more intimate black box performance space 35below.
The Asheville Lyric Opera celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2009 with a concert featuring Angela Brown, David Malis, and Tonio Di Paolo, veterans of the Metropolitan Opera. The ALO has typically performed three fully staged professional operas for the community in addition to its vibrant educational program.
The Fringe Festival features alternative performances.
The Flood Fine Arts Center is a non-profit contemporary art institution in the River Arts District.
Places of worshipEdit
Film and televisionEdit
Although the area has had a long history with the entertainment industry, recent developments are cementing Asheville as a potential growth area for both film and TV. The Asheville Film Festival has completed its sixth year. However the City of Asheville, which funds the festival, has announced that it will no longer fund the festival. The festival's future is in doubt. The city is also an annual participant in the 48-Hour Film Project.
The city's Public-access television cable TV station URTV broadcast programs from 2006 to 2011.
Films made at least partially in the area include A Breed Apart, Searching for Angela Shelton, Last of the Mohicans (box office #1 film in the U.S.), Being There, My Fellow Americans, Loggerheads, The Fugitive (#1 film), All the Real Girls, Richie Rich, Thunder Road, Hannibal (#1 film), Songcatcher, Patch Adams (#1 film), Nell, Forrest Gump (#1 film), Mr. Destiny, Dirty Dancing, Bull Durham, The Private Eyes, The Swan, The Clearing, The Conquest of Canaan, House of Poets, The Purple Box, 28 Days, and The Hunger Games (box office #1 film).
Locally produced films include Golden Throats of the 20th century and Anywhere, U.S.A., a winning film at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival for Special Jury Prize for Spirit of Independence. Asheville also hosts the ActionFest Film Festival 2010–2012. The 2010 inaugural edition included Chuck Norris, who was honored as the first ActionFest "man of action."
The primary television station in Asheville is ABC affiliate WLOS-TV Channel 13, with studios in Biltmore Park and a transmitter on Mount Pisgah. Other stations licensed to Asheville include WUNF, a PBS station on Channel 33 and The CW affiliate WYCW on Channel 62. Asheville is also served by the Upstate South Carolina stations of WYFF Channel 4 (NBC), WSPA-TV Channel 7 (CBS), WHNS-TV Channel 21 (FOX), MyNetworkTV station WMYA Channel 40 and 3ABN station Channel 41. SCETV PBS affiliates from the Upstate of South Carolina are generally not carried on cable systems in the North Carolina portion of the DMA, though are accessible via an HD antennae in some areas.
The Asheville Citizen-Times is Asheville's daily newspaper which covers most of Western North Carolina. The Mountain Xpress is the largest weekly in the area, covering arts and politics in the region. The Asheville Daily Planet is a monthly paper.
The Biltmore Beacon is a weekly newspaper specifically written to be of interest to residents and businesses in the various Biltmore communities including Biltmore Forest, Biltmore Park, Biltmore Lake, The Ramble at Biltmore Forest, Main Street at Biltmore Park and Biltmore Village.
WCQS is Asheville's public radio station. It has National Public Radio news and other programs, classical and jazz music.
Friends of Community Radio created WSFM-LP, a volunteer-based, grassroots community radio station. The station is licensed under the "Free Form" format. There are also a variety of broadcasts dedicated to Poetry, Interviews, Selected Topics, Children's Radio, and Comedy. The staff have remote broadcast many local concerts including (but not limited to) Monotonix from Israel, JEFF the Brotherhood from Nashville, Screaming Females from New Jersey, and local acts.
Asheville in fictionEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Famous authors Thomas Wolfe (d. 1938) and O. Henry (d.1910) are buried in Riverside Cemetery in Asheville. Other authors with Asheville ties include Charles Frazier (Cold Mountain (the mountain is in neighboring Haywood County)-a #1 1997 New York Times Best Seller), Chicago poet Carl Sandburg (d.1967 in his home in Flat Rock), and F. Scott Fitzgerald (who wrote while at the Grove Park Inn).
- The character Harrison Shepherd, the narrator and protagonist of Barbara Kingsolver's (author of The Bean Trees) novel The Lacuna lived in Asheville.
- Asheville is featured as a location in the novel One Second After by William R. Forstchen (who lives in the area).
- Asheville is the place Natalie, the heroine in the novel Joshua Spassky by British author Gwendoline Riley, visits to meet the eponymous hero. She is an admirer of F. Scott Fitzgerald and fascinated by Zelda Fitzgerald who died in 1948 in a fire at the Highland hospital in Asheville.
- Deborah Smith's novel The Crossroads Cafe is set in the mountains above Asheville, and prominent scenes take place in the city. Sequels to that novel also take place in and around Asheville.
- Angela Blake, a character in the TV series The West Wing was from Asheville.
- The film The Hunger Games was filmed near Asheville.
- Thomas Wolfe's novel Look Homeward, Angel is largely set in Asheville—named Altamont in the book.
- James Dashner's dystopian novel The Kill Order (2012) (part of The Maze Runner (series)) takes place in and around Asheville.
- Callum Hunt, the protagonist of Holly Black and Cassandra Clare's The Magisterium Series, is from Asheville. Several prominent scenes take place in the city.
- The film Three Billboards Outside Ebbing Missouri was shot in the Asheville area. The North Carolina tourism board has developed a guide for visitors interested in the film.
Points of interestEdit
- BB&T Building, tallest structure in Asheville
- Biltmore Estate, largest privately owned house in the United States, and listed as U.S. National Historic Landmark
- Botanical Gardens at Asheville, non-profit botanical gardens initially designed by Doan Ogden
- Grove Park Inn, hotel listed on U.S. National Register of Historic Places
- Jackson Building, first skyscraper in western North Carolina
- McCormick Field, one of the oldest minor-league stadiums still in regular use
- North Carolina Arboretum, arboretum and botanical garden located within the Bent Creek Experimental Forest
- Smith-McDowell House, the city's first mansion and oldest surviving house, and the oldest brick structure in Buncombe County
- Thomas Wolfe House, boyhood home of American author Thomas Wolfe, and a U.S. National Historic Landmark
- The record number of annual 90 °F readings is 32 in 1952, which would be lower than average in most cities in the southeast U.S.
- The extremely wet summer that year, including the record wettest July, helped the year beat the old record set in 1973 by about 10.3 in (260 mm). In fact, the year-to-date precipitation on November 26, 2013 was enough to rewrite the record books.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official precipitation records for Asheville were kept at Aston Park from March 1869 to July 1876, various locations in the city from August 1876 to August 1964, and at Asheville Regional Airport since September 1964. Snow and temperature records began December 18, 1869 and November 1, 1876, respectively. For more information, see ThreadEx.
- "Why Work for BCS?". BCS website. Buncombe County Schools. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "Quick Facts, Asheville, North Carolina". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "GNIS Feature Search". United States Geological Survey. June 17, 1980. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- "Census Bureau Home Page". Census.gov. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Original extent of Cherokee claims 1732" (map/.GIF). Collection at the University of Georgia. June 26, 1996. Archived from the original on June 26, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- The Historic News (1999). "A History of Asheville and Buncombe County". Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society. Archived from the original (text/.html) on June 19, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- "Cherokee History, Part One" (text/.html). Lee Sultzman. February 28, 1996. Archived from the original on July 7, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- "Asheville – 0–1800 The Early Settlers" (text/.html). Asheville.be. 2006. Archived from the original on July 21, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
- url=http://www.history.swannanoavalleymuseum.org/samuel-davidson-first-european-settler-west-of-the-blue-ridge/, November 2016.
- Alex S. Caton; Rebecca Lamb (1999–2004). "The Early Settlement of Buncombe Country and the Drover's Road". Smith-McDowell House Museum. Archived from the original (text/.html) on July 20, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
various (2001–2002). "Asheville". Western North Carolina Heritage. Land of the Sky. Archived from the original on May 1, 2006. Retrieved July 23, 2006.
In his [Samuel Ashe] honor the name of Morristown was changed to Asheville.
- Hartley, Stoneman's Raid, p. 362 (Blair, 2010)
- Hartley, supra, at p. 350-358.
- "NC Business History - Railroad - Western North Carolina Railroad history & officers". Historync.org. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- The Federal Writers' Project of the Federal Works Agency, Works Projects Administration for the State of North Carolina, "North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State", The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1939, page 139.
- "Thomas Lanier Clingman". google.com.
- "Appalachian History: Manuscript Resources in Special Collections". Special Collections. University Libraries, Virginia Tech. May 2, 2005. Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad Company. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- The Federal Writers' Project of the Federal Works Agency, Works Projects Administration for the State of North Carolina, "North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State[permanent dead link]", ISBN 0403021820; The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1939, pages 69, 139.
- "North Carolina Cities Population Changes in the 1800s". North Carolina Business History. Retrieved July 5, 2017.
- Neufeld, Rob (July 2, 2017). "Visiting Our Past: President's son helped create West Asheville". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- "8 CAROLINA BANKS FAIL AS BOOM ENDS". The New York Times. November 21, 1930. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Preservation-Asheville, North Carolina: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". Nps.gov. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Boyle, John (February 6, 2015). "Did Asheville pay off its Depression-era debt?". Asheville Citizen-Times. p. A2.
- "ABOUT". D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections. University of North Carolina at Asheville. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008.
- "Preservation--Asheville, North Carolina: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". www.nps.gov. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Santora, Marc (September 20, 2004). "Storm's Devastation Is Revealed, and a Mountain Hamlet Mourns". The New York Times.
- Postelle, Brian (November 10, 2004). "Sleeping giant | Mountain Xpress |". Mountainx.com. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Ellingwood, Ken (June 2, 2003). "The Nation; Fugitive's Capture Heightens Speculation; Locals are touchy about the theory that some sympathetic with his anti-government views helped the suspected bomber elude the law".
- Fletcher, Michael A (June 3, 2003). "Rudolph to be tried first in Alabama ; Abortion clinic bomb case said to be strongest". Chicago Tribune.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". planthardiness.ars.usda.gov. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
- "NOAA records for August – Asheville, NC". noaa.gov.
- "Station Name: NC ASHEVILLE RGNL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
- "WMO Climate Normals for ASHEVILLE/REGIONAL, NC 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
- "Asheville Neighborhoods". Ashevilleneighborhoods.info. March 20, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Chase, Nan K. Asheville: A History, (2007): p.39, 61, 93.
- "S&W Cafeteria". Asheville's Built Environment. University of North Carolina at Asheville. Archived from the original on December 28, 2007.
- "The Urban News". The Urban News.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2007.
- METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS Archived May 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Office of Management and Budget, May 11, 2007. Accessed 2008-08-01.
- MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENTS Archived June 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Office of Management and Budget, May 11, 2007. Accessed 2008-08-01.
- COMBINED STATISTICAL AREAS AND COMPONENT CORE BASED STATISTICAL AREAS Archived June 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Office of Management and Budget, May 11, 2007. Accessed 2008-08-01.
- "Pilgrimage - Jubilee Year of Mercy". Basilica of Saint Lawrence.
- "City of Asheville Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). Ashevillec.gov. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "About City Government". Ashevillenc.gov. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Jordan Schrader; Dale Neal (December 8, 2009). "Critics of Cecil Bothwell cite N.C. bar to atheists". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "Article VI: Suffrage and Eligibility to Office - Sec. 8. Disqualifications for office". North Carolina State Constitution. State of North Carolina. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
The following persons shall be disqualified for office: First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God.
- "Critics of Cecil Bothwell cite N.C. bar to atheists". The Asheville Citizen-Times.
- "Asheville councilman atheism debate goes viral: Cecil Bothwell gets wide audience". citizen-times.com.
- "Wisler, Smith, Bothwell win council seats". Asheville Citizens-Times. November 5, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Meet City Council". Ashevillenc.gov. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- "United States - North Carolina - NC State Senate - NC State Senate 48". Our Campaigns. May 10, 2007. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- NC General Assembly webmasters. "North Carolina General Assembly - Buncombe County Representation (2013-2014 Session)". Ncleg.net. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- James, Frank (October 17, 2011). "Obama Hearts North Carolina But It May Have Lost That Loving Feeling : It's All Politics". NPR. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Wing, Nicholas (April 16, 2010). "Obama Vacation: First Family To Visit Asheville, North Carolina". Huffington Post.
- "Evergreen Community Charter School, Asheville North Carolina - Evergreen Community Charter School, Asheville North Carolina". Evergreenccs.org. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- "I-26 Connector, Asheville, NC". Public Information Website. North Carolina Department of Transportation. n.d. Archived from the original on July 6, 2006. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
- "Maps & Schedules". ashevillenc.gov.
- "Libraries - Branch Locations". Buncombe County. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Water Production". City of Asheville, NC. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Asheville Transit". City of Asheville. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- "Coal Combustion Residuals (CCR) - Surface Impoundments with High Hazard Potential Ratings".
- "Duke University: Progress Energy plant polluting French Broad River,October 15, 2012". Archived from the original on November 29, 2013.
- "NC files new lawsuits against Duke Energy today, August 16, 2013". Archived from the original on November 29, 2013.
- "Local News - The Asheville Citizen-Times - citizen-times.com". The Asheville Citizen-Times.
- "Sustainability Management Plan" (PDF). Ashevillenc.gov. August 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Sustainability". Ashevillenc.gov. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "City of Asheville Carbon Footprint Annual Report : 2011-2012" (PDF). Ashevillenc.gov. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 1, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- "Music pumps up economy, enlivens nightlife"; Michael Flynn; Asheville Citizen-Times; August 22, 2003
- Dewan, Shaila (October 24, 2010). "36 Hours in Asheville". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
- "Rocking the boat". Mountain Xpress.
- American Whitewater Journal July/August 2006 (not published on the web yet)
- "Asheville Community Theatre » PRODUCTION HISTORY". Ashevilletheatre.org. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- "Asheville Community Theatre". Ashevilleguidebook.com. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- "Asheville Community Theatre | Asheville, NC's Official Travel Site". Explore Asheville. Retrieved January 22, 2016.
- [dead link]
- "The Asheville Fringe Arts Festival - Asheville Fringe Arts Festival". Asheville Fringe Arts Festival.
- "48-Hour Film Festival Asheville". 48hourfilm.com. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Anywhere USA Sundance Award". History.sundance.org. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- staff (May 18, 2012). "Asheville's River Arts District hosts 19th annual Twin Rivers Media Festival beginning Friday" (PDF). ashevillenc.gov. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
- Moe, Jack. "The Vision of the Twin Rivers Media Festival-Asheville, NC". Appalachian Getaways. Retrieved August 13, 2015.
- Motsinger, Carol (May 9, 2013). "20th annual Twin Rivers Media Festival opens May 17". Asheville Citizen-Times. Retrieved August 13, 2015.[dead link]
- "Market Ranks". arbitron.com.
- "Riverside Cemetery". cityofasheville.github.io. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "About The Lacuna | Barbara Kingsolver". www.kingsolver.com. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "Apocalypse WNC". Mountain Xpress. Retrieved 2018-01-30.
- "Explore Authentic Locations From 'Three Billboards Outside Ebbing,…". VisitNC.com. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
- "Buncombe County". Branson's North Carolina Business Directory (6th ed.). Raleigh: Levi Branson. 1884.
- Asheville City Directory. Southern Directory Co. 1887.
- Lindsey's Guide Book to Western North Carolina. Asheville: T.H. Lindsey. 1890.
- Asheville and Vicinity, a Handbook of Information, Containing an Exhaustive History of Asheville. Atlanta: J.D. Eggleston and J.S. McIlwaine. 1897.
- Foster A. Sondley (February 1898), "Asheville's Centenary", Asheville Citizen
- F.H. Richardson (1905). "Asheville, N.C.". Richardson's Southern Guide. Chicago: Monarch Book Company – via Internet Archive.
- "Asheville", United States (4th ed.), Leipzig: K. Baedeker, 1909, OCLC 02338437
- "Asheville", Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, 1910, OCLC 14782424
- John Preston Arthur (1914). "County History: Buncombe County". Western North Carolina: a History (from 1730 to 1913). Raleigh: Edwards & Broughton. pp. 143–159. (Includes information about Asheville)
- "Everybody Helps: Asheville's Unique Method of Raising Money". Town Development: a Magazine for the Man Who Believes in Himself and in His Town. New York. 13. December 1914. OCLC 52158201.
- Asheville, North Carolina City Directory, Commercial Service Co., 1921
- F.A. Sondley; Theodore Davidson (1922). Asheville and Buncombe County. Asheville: The Citizen Co.
- "Asheville Builds a New City". American City Magazine. New York: Civic Press. 35. September 1926. OCLC 29653835.
- Federal Writers’ Project (1939). "Asheville". North Carolina: a Guide to the Old North State. American Guide Series. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 137+.
- City of Asheville (2003), Asheville 2025 Plan
- Paul T. Hellmann (2006). "North Carolina: Asheville". Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-135-94859-3.
- Chase, Nan K. 2007. Asheville, a history. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
- Lisa Gregory (2010), William S. Powell, ed., "Asheville", Encyclopedia of North Carolina, University of North Carolina Press
- William S. Powell; Michael Hill (2010). "Asheville". North Carolina Gazetteer (2nd ed.). University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-9829-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Asheville, North Carolina.|
- Official Asheville, NC website
- Asheville, North Carolina, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- Asheville travel guide by Asheville Convention and Visitors Bureau
- Asheville travel guide from Wikivoyage
- "North Carolina Room". Asheville: Pack Memorial Library.
Collecting and preserving the history of Asheville, Buncombe County, and western North Carolina
- Items related to Asheville, North Carolina, various dates (via Digital Public Library of America)
- Ramsey Library. "Appalachian Studies". Research Guides. Asheville: University of North Carolina. (Subject guide)
- Humanities and Social Sciences Division. "Resources for Local History and Genealogy by State: North Carolina". Bibliographies and Guides. Washington DC: Library of Congress.