Okmulgee, Oklahoma

Okmulgee is a city in, and the county seat of, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, United States.[5] The name is from the Muskogee word okimulgee, which means "boiling waters".[6] The site was chosen because of the nearby rivers and springs. Okmulgee is 38 miles south of Tulsa and 13 miles north of Henryetta via US-75.[7]

Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Elks Lodge and Water Tower in Okmulgee, originally the Wilson Mansion
Elks Lodge and Water Tower in Okmulgee, originally the Wilson Mansion
Okmulgee is located in Oklahoma
Okmulgee
Okmulgee
Location of Okmulgee in Oklahoma
Okmulgee is located in the United States
Okmulgee
Okmulgee
Location of Okmulgee in the US
Coordinates: 35°37′28″N 95°57′48″W / 35.62444°N 95.96333°W / 35.62444; -95.96333Coordinates: 35°37′28″N 95°57′48″W / 35.62444°N 95.96333°W / 35.62444; -95.96333
CountryUnited States
StateOklahoma
CountyOkmulgee
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
Area
 • Total19.88 sq mi (51.48 km2)
 • Land17.10 sq mi (44.30 km2)
 • Water2.77 sq mi (7.18 km2)
Elevation
686 ft (209 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total12,321
 • Estimate 
(2019)[2]
11,711
 • Density684.73/sq mi (264.37/km2)
Time zoneUTC-6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP code
74447
Area code(s)539/918
FIPS code40-55150[3]
GNIS feature ID1096218[4]
Websiteokmulgeeonline.com

HistoryEdit

Okmulgee has been the capital of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation since 1868, when it was founded following the Civil War. The Creek Nation began restoring order after that conflict. They had allied with the Confederacy during the war and needed to make a new peace treaty with the United States afterward as a result. They passed a new constitution and elected Samuel Checote as their first principal chief after the war.

In 1869, a post office (originally spelled Okmulkee) was established in the town, with Captain Frederick B. Severs appointed as the first postmaster. The name of the post office was officially changed to the present spelling on November 15, 1883. For seven years, beginning December 20, 1870, Okmulgee was the seat of government of all of what would become the State of Oklahoma, except for the Panhandle.[8]

The St. Louis, Oklahoma and Southern Railway (later absorbed by the Frisco railroad) reached Okmulgee in 1900; this triggered a building boom because it connected the town to other markets. By the time of Oklahoma statehood in 1907, the town had 2,322 residents and was named as the seat of Okmulgee County.

Coal mined in the Henryetta area[9] and agriculture were the basis of the early economy. Discovery of oil at nearby Morris in 1907[9] stimulated expansion of Okmulgee, and attracted several new industries to town. These included three glass factories, a bottle factory, and foundry and machine shops. Five local refineries were operational by the early 1920s.[a][6]

These industries were a catalyst for growth: The population was 4,176 in the 1910 census,[6] but the city boomed to approximately 35,000 people during the 1920s.[6] A newspaper article from this era claimed Okmulgee had more millionaires per capita than anyplace else in Oklahoma.[19] The Okmulgee Chamber of Commerce has said the town had more millionaires per capita than any other place in the entire country.[20]

But decreasing oil production and lower prices, the coming of the Great Depression, and other factors caused the population to shrink to 17,097 by the 1930 census.[6] The population then remained relatively stable for a time, increasing slightly to 18,317 by the 1950 census. In the postwar period, there was an urbanization shift of population toward larger cities and their suburbs because of job opportunities, and the city's population has declined again.[6] The population at the 2010 census was 12,321, a loss of 5.4 percent from the 2000 census figure of 13,022.[21]

GeographyEdit

Okmulgee is located at 35°37′28″N 95°57′48″W / 35.62444°N 95.96333°W / 35.62444; -95.96333 (35.624558, -95.963254).[22] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.8 square miles (33.2 km2), all of its land. It is located in the heart of Oklahoma's "Green Country", in the North East Quadrant of Oklahoma. Okmulgee is 38 miles south of Tulsa and 13 miles north of Henryetta via US-75.[7]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
19104,176
192017,430317.4%
193017,097−1.9%
194016,051−6.1%
195018,31714.1%
196015,951−12.9%
197015,180−4.8%
198016,2637.1%
199013,441−17.4%
200013,022−3.1%
201012,321−5.4%
2019 (est.)11,711[2]−5.0%
Sources:[3][23][24][25]

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 13,022 people, 5,135 households, and 3,291 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,015.7 people per square mile (392.2/km2). There were 5,948 housing units at an average density of 463.9 per square mile (179.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 58.85% White, 21.29% African American, 13.61% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, and 5.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.83% of the population.

There were 5,135 households, out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.9% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 25.4% under the age of 18, 12.7% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city, for the period 2013–2017 and in 2017 dollars, was $29,593. The per capita income for the city in the last 12 months, also for the period 2013–2017 and in 2017 dollars, was $17,141. About 26.8% are considered persons in poverty.[26]

EconomyEdit

Along with coal mining, agriculture supported the early economy. Cotton, corn, feed grains, and forage were the main crops. Truck farming, dairying, and poultry raising were also important.[6]

Discovery of the Morris and Lucky oil pools in 1907 brought prosperity to Okmulgee. It also attracted new manufacturing facilities to the city.[6]

In the 21st century, the most important business sectors in Okmulgee are: construction, retail trade, health care & social assistance, and accommodation & food services.[6] Okmulgee's major employers include the Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Anchor Glass (plant is in Henryetta), PACCAR Winch-Okmulgee, C.P. Kelco US Inc., Callidus Technologies, Inc., East Central Electric Cooperative, Great Plains Coca-Cola, Covington Aircraft, G&H Decoy (in Henryetta), and PolyVision.[27]

GovernmentEdit

 
Muscogee (Creek) Nation Council House. Former capitol of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. March 9, 2017.

City governmentEdit

The City of Okmulgee government has a City Council composed of five members: a council member "at-large" who serves as the Mayor, and one council member from each of the City's four wards.[28] A City Manager is in charge of directing the day-to-day operations of the City in order to carry out the policies established by the City Council.[29] City Hall is at 111 E 4th Street downtown.[30]

County governmentEdit

Okmulgee County government has three commissioners, one for each of the three Districts.[31] County services, including the District Court, Assessor, County Clerk, Jail, and Sheriff's office, are all located between 6th and 8th St, and Alabama and Seminole Avenues.[32]

Native American governmentEdit

While the historical capitol of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation ("MCN") is the Creek Council House in downtown Okmulgee, the MCN's modern headquarters is at Okmulgee Creek Nation Tribal Complex at U.S. Route 75 and Loop 56.[33] Other MCN facilities in town include the College of the Muscogee Nation, a tribal college primarily for students seeking careers in the tribal sector, located at 2170 Raven Circle;[34] One Fire Casino at 1901 Wood Dr;[35] and, the Claude A. Cox Omniplex, cattycornered across from the Tribal Complex off U.S. 75 and Loop 56, which includes the Muscogee Dome multipurpose recreation center and other festival grounds and facilities.[36][37]

EducationEdit

 
College of the Muscogee Nation

CareerTechEdit

Post secondaryEdit

Parks and recreationEdit

Recreational opportunities include Okmulgee Park and Dripping Springs Park, which offer RV and camping facilities.[40][41] The parks also offer swimming, fishing, and boating opportunities through the adjacent Dripping Springs Lake, which has 18 miles (29 km) of shoreline and 1,150 acres (4,700,000 m2) of water, and the separate Okmulgee Lake. The end of Okmulgee Lake features the Lake Okmulgee Dam Spillway Cascade, listed in the National Register of Historic Places in Okmulgee County, Oklahoma, which on occasions of heavy rains and high lake levels creates an intense man-made waterfall. Near Okmulgee is the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge.[42] Established in 1993, this approximately 9,000 acres (36 km2) of habitat for waterfowl along the Deep Fork River features opportunities for wildlife viewing such as along the Cussetah Bottoms Boardwalk, as well as fishing and certain archery, muzzle-loading, and small-game hunting opportunities.[43]

Lake Eufaula, Oklahoma’s largest lake,[44] is to the southeast.[45]

Okmulgee Municipal Park, at W 20th St. & S Seminole Ave., features a bike trail, walking track, playground, and soccer field.[46] Other municipal park facilities include Hawthorne Park (having a skate park, baseball park, and tennis court, among other facilities) at N Okmulgee Ave & W Fairfax St, Kiddy Lake Park at Cliff Dr & Parkview Dr, Noble Park at 13th & Delaware, Red Francis Park at S Woodlawn Ave & E 7th St, and Southeast Rotary Park at W 15th St & S Okmulgee Ave.[47]

Historic buildingsEdit

In November 1992, the Okmulgee Downtown Historic District (NRIS number 92001693) was added to the National Register of Historic Places ("NRHP") in Okmulgee County. The area is roughly bounded by Fourth Street, Eighth Street, Okmulgee Avenue and Frisco Avenue.[48] In support of Okmulgee's downtown, an organization has been formed called Okmulgee Main Street, one of the various national Main Street programs that aim to reenergize their respective downtowns and commercial districts through preservation-based economic development and community revitalization. This group is helping to propel the “Okmulgee Rising” movement that started in the city in 2014.[49] The process is aided in part by tax incentives for preserving historic properties.[50] Among the downtown structures is the Orpheum Theater at 210 W 7th St, which opened as the Cook Opera House on August 23, 1920 with 1,200-seat capacity.[51] This is the finest and last surviving of three grand theatres formerly located in Okmulgee.[52] The Orpheum's architecture, which is an elegant derivation of Spanish Baroque Revival, includes a colorful lobby which is the finest example in Oklahoma of the interior use of polychrome terra cotta.[52]

The historic Okmulgee County Courthouse, at 314 W. 7th,[53] was built in 1916 and is also NRHP listed.[54]

The Creeks initially built a two-story log council house to serve as their capital. This building burned in 1878 and was replaced with the stone Creek Council House building that stands today. Ownership of the building changed over the years, but in November 2010 the City sold the building back to the tribe for $3.2 million.[55] The building currently houses the Creek Council House Museum, with artifacts and exhibits about the history of the Muscogee tribe and the arts and crafts of other Native American tribes. The building is NRHP listed.[6]

The Okmulgee Public Library, 218 S. Okmulgee Avenue, completed in 1921, is a good example of Georgian Revival architecture, and is NRHP listed.[56]

In 2012 the Muscogee (Creek) Nation purchased the Okmulgee Golf Club, also known as the Okmulgee Country Club, at 1400 S. Mission Street, an NRHP listed location complete with the original 1920 golf course[57] and the 1925 clubhouse built using locally sourced limestone.[9] The MCN intends to turn that facility into a cultural center where events can be held.[58]

Historic churches include First Baptist Central Church, an historically black church built in 1915 and NRHP listed; Eastside Baptist Church, built in 1921 and NRHP listed; and, St. Anthony's, a Spanish Colonial Revival-style Catholic church built in 1927 and NRHP listed.

Historic mansions remaining from the boom days include the Okmulgee Elks Lodge at 701 S. Mission, being a 7-acre site that was originally the Wilson Mansion from 1922;[59] the Southern Mansion just off US-75 on Banyan Road, being the 1928 home for Creek orphan Katie Fixico;[60] the Kennedy Mansion from 1904 at 502 S. Okmulgee Avenue, which is NRHP listed;[61] and, the "Historic Okmulgee Mansion" at 1700 E. 6th Street,[62] originally the stately 1921 Italian Renaissance home built for oil producer Eugene R. Black,[63] now the offices of a law firm.[62]

The Nuyaka Mission site is located on McKeown Rd. (aka E0945 Rd) just off N 120 Rd (aka N3850 Rd) approximately 15.7 miles west of the intersection of U.S. Route 75 and State Highway 56 (aka 6th Street) in Okmulgee, and is NRHP listed.

EventsEdit

Okmulgee is known for its annual Okmulgee Invitational Rodeo and Festival, which is the nation's oldest African-American rodeo and one of the state's longest running rodeos.[64]

The Okmulgee Farmer's Market has been running every year since 2013, and is open once a week (sometimes twice weekly) from May to October.[65]

Okmulgee has an annual Pecan Festival.[66] At the festival in 1989, a record was set for what was then the largest pecan pie in the world, being 40’ in diameter and using over sixteen-and-a-half tons of ingredients.[67] A mural in town commemorates the event.[68]

Other family-oriented festivals and special events occur on a monthly schedule throughout the year, including the OrangeFest, Harvest Spoon Chili Fest, Muscogee Creek Nation Festival, Eats and Beats, and the bi-annual Airfest.[69]

TransportationEdit

Okmulgee is served by U.S. Route 75, a major national north/south artery for much of its length, currently running from the Canada-US border at Noyes, Minn. to Dallas, Texas,[70] as well as by U.S. Route 62, which runs from the Mexico-US border at El Paso, Texas to Niagara Falls, New York near the Canada-US border.

Okmulgee is in the 10-county region served by the KI BOIS Area Transit System ("KATS"), a low-cost public bus/van service established in 1983 to help poorer communities, primarily in southeast Oklahoma, by providing access to Senior Citizen centers, groceries, medical services, and jobs.[71] The Muscogee (Creek) Nation partners with KATS on certain on-demand transportation services; and, Muscogee (Creek) Nation Transit provides regularly-scheduled trolley-style bus services to various locations around the city.[72] These services are not limited to tribal citizens.[72]

The city has the Okmulgee Regional Airport (originally called the Okmulgee Municipal Airport), designated OKM by IATA Code and KOKM by ICAO Code.[73] Construction of this airport was authorized in 1942 as a national defense project, and was completed on September 7, 1943. The main runway (18-36) is concrete-surfaced, 100' wide and 5,150' long.[74] Effective July 1, 2015, the airport is managed by the Tulsa Airports Improvement Trust.[75][76]

Commercial air transportation is available at Tulsa International Airport, about 47 miles to the north.[77]

Notable peopleEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The five refineries in Okmulgee, their build dates, and their initial processing capacities were: American Refining Co., 1907, 4,000 barrels per day (“bpd”); Indiahoma Refining Co., 1910, 3,750 bpd; Lake Park Refining Co., 1915, 2,000 bpd; Okmulgee Producing & Refining Co., 1916, 2,500 bpd; and, Allied Refining Co., 1917, 1,000 bpd.[10] The American Refining facility was acquired by Empire Refining in 1916,[11] and the Lake Park Refining facility was merged into Meridian Petroleum Company in 1920.[12] The Okmulgee Producing facility lasted the longest. It was acquired in 1920 by Phillips Higrade Refining Company,[13] a subsidiary of Waite Phillips Company,[14] and was a Phillips Petroleum Company operation from 1930 to 1966.[15] It was sold in 1966 to Okmulgee Refining Co., later called OKC Refining, Inc., a subsidiary of Oklahoma Cement Co., later called OKC Corp.[16] In 1981 the refinery was sold to Basin Refining Inc., and was finally closed permanently in 1982[17] in conjunction with Basin’s bankruptcy.[15] Cleanup of the area was led by Phillips Petroleum under state supervision starting in 1996, and the tract was reopened under Okmulgee Area Development Corporation ownership in 2012 as the Okmulgee Business Complex.[18]

ReferencesEdit

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  13. ^ While the cited Oildom article names the refinery purchaser as Waite Phillips’ recently-organized “Phillips-Highway Refining Company,” the “Highway” part appears to be a typo or misunderstanding. All other sources point to the refinery owner as the “Phillips Higrade Refining Company,” a subsidiary of Waite Phillips Co., organized in July 1920 (see subsequent footnote). "Oildom, Volume 11, No. 8, August 1920, p34". 1920. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
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External linksEdit