List of ancient Egyptian royal consorts

This is a list of known royal consorts of ancient Egypt from c.3100 BC to 30 BC. Reign dates follow those included on the list of Pharaohs page. Some information is debatable and interpretations of available evidence can vary between Egyptologists.

BackgroundEdit

 
Hatshepsut, wife of Thutmose II and later Pharaoh in her own right

The Pharaoh's wives played an important role both in public and private life, and would be a source of political and religious power.[1] Pharaohs usually had many different wives, so that a successor could be guaranteed to succeed him. If a queen succeeded in producing an heir that inherited the throne, she would reach a position of great honour as King's Mother and may be able to rule Egypt on behalf of her son as regent if he was underage.[1] While there are many known cases of kings marrying their sisters, there were also wives of non-royal birth, such as Tiye and Nefertiti.[2] Kings such as Amenhotep III and Ramesses II are known to have married some of their daughters, though it is possible these marriages were symbolic and ceremonial rather than incestuous.[3] Apart from the chief consort, the Pharaoh would have many wives in the harem, who could be foreign-born princesses or lower-ranking Egyptian women who had little impact on politics.[4]

While women did occasionally rule as Pharaohs, they generally did not rule while married except during the Ptolemaic period. Thus, male consorts never existed during the time of the native Egyptian royal dynasties, and only Berenice IV and Cleopatra VII are listed as having male consorts who did not rule as Pharaohs.

List of Female Rulers and Co-RulersEdit

Most Queens included on this page did not rule as Pharaohs. However, some did rule in their own right following the deaths of their husbands. Four Queens from the Native Egyptian dynasties are known for certain to have ruled as Female Pharaohs:

  1. Sobekneferu (c. 1807-1802) (Possibly wife of Amenemhat IV)
  2. Hatshepsut (c. 1479-1458) (Wife of Thutmose II)
  3. Neferneferuaten (c. 1334-1332) (Wife of either Akhenaten or Smenkhare depending on her identity)
  4. Twosret (c. 1191-1190) (Wife of Seti II)

There has also been some debate on whether certain Queen regents such as Neithotep, Merneith, Khentkaus I and Khentkaus II did rule as Female Pharaohs or not. However, there is yet to be any concrete evidence that they did. The legendary Queen Nitocris was supposedly a Pharaoh at the end of the Sixth Dynasty, but no archeological evidence supports her existence.

The Ptolemaic Dynasty implemented a policy of co-rule between spouses starting with Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II. Therefore, most Queens from this dynasty are not listed as consorts as they were co-rulers of Egypt while married to their husbands. The following is a list of Female rulers and co-rulers of the Ptolemaic Dynasty:

  1. Arsinoe II (c. 277-270) ruled alongside her brother-husband Ptolemy II.
  2. Berenice II (c. 244-222) ruled alongside her husband Ptolemy III.
  3. Arsinoe III (220-204) ruled alongside her brother-husband Ptolemy IV.
  4. Cleopatra I (193-176) ruled alongside her husband Ptolemy V and as a regent on behalf of her son Ptolemy VI.
  5. Cleopatra II (175-164, 163–127, 124-116) ruled alongside her brother-husband Ptolemy VI, her younger brother (later husband) Ptolemy VIII, her son Ptolemy VII, her daughter Cleopatra III and briefly her grandson Ptolemy IX. She was the sole ruler of Egypt from 131 to 127 BC, the first woman to do so since Twosret over a millennia before.
  6. Cleopatra III (142-131, 127-101) ruled alongside her uncle-husband Ptolemy VIII, her mother Cleopatra II, her eldest son Ptolemy IX and her second eldest son Ptolemy X.
  7. Cleopatra IV (116-115) briefly ruled alongside her brother-husband Ptolemy IX and mother Cleopatra III before being pushed out by her mother.
  8. Berenice III (101-88, 81-80) ruled alongside her uncle-husband Ptolemy X, her father Ptolemy IX and her brother-husband Ptolemy XI. She briefly ruled by herself from 81 BC to 80 BC before she was murdered on the orders of Ptolemy XI.
  9. Cleopatra V (79-68) ruled alongside her husband Ptolemy XII.
  10. Cleopatra VI (58-57) ruled alongside her sister Berenice IV. However, some historians theorise she may actually be the same person as Cleopatra V.
  11. Berenice IV (58-51) briefly ruled alongside her sister (or possibly mother) Cleopatra VI, but otherwise spent most of her reign as the sole ruler of Egypt.
  12. Cleopatra VII (51-30) ruled alongside her father Ptolemy XII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIII, her second brother-husband Ptolemy XIV and her son Ptolemy XV.
  13. Arsinoe IV (48-47) ruled alongside her brother Ptolemy XIII in opposition to their sister Cleopatra VII.

List of RegentsEdit

Occasionally when the new Pharaoh was too young to rule, his mother or step-mother would rule temporarily as a regent on his behalf. Because they did not hold the title of 'King' during their time in power, they are generally not included on Lists of Pharaohs. The following Queens are likely to have ruled as regents:

  1. Neithotep possibly ruled on behalf of her son Hor-Aha (c. 3050)
  2. Merneith ruled on behalf of her son Den (c. 2970)
  3. Nimaathap possibly ruled on behalf of her son Djoser (c. 2670)
  4. Khentkaus I likely ruled as a regent, but her son or sons are unknown.
  5. Khentkaus II possibly ruled as a regent for one of her sons (Neferefre or Nyuserre Ini).
  6. Iput I possibly ruled as a regent for her son Pepi I (c. 2332)
  7. Ankhesenpepi II ruled as a regent for her son Pepi II (c. 2278)
  8. Ahhotep I ruled as a regent for her son Ahmose I (c. 1550)
  9. Ahmose-Nefertari ruled as a regent for her son Amenhotep I (c. 1541)
  10. Hatshepsut initially ruled as a regent for her step-son Thutmose III (c. 1479) before becoming Pharaoh and co-ruler.
  11. Twosret ruled as a regent for her step-son Siptah (c. 1197)

Early Dynastic PeriodEdit

First Dynasty (c. 3150 – 2890 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Neithhotep Narmer[5] Local Naqada Royalty(?)[5] Hor-Aha[5] - Tomb of Neithhotep, Naqada[5] Possibly ruled as regent for her son Hor-Aha.[6]
  Benerib Hor-Aha[5] - - - - Umm el-Qa'ab Tomb B14[7] -
Khenthap - - Djer[5] - - Only known from the Palermo Stone, no known contemporary sources mention her.
Herneith Djer[5][8][9] - - - - Saqqara Tomb S3507(?)[5] -
  Nakhtneith - - - - Umm el-Qa'ab Tomb O Complex[8] -
  Penebui - - - - - May have died due to decapitation[9] but this is disputed.
  Merneith Djet[5] Djer(?)[5] - Den[5] - Umm el-Qa'ab Tomb Y[5] Ruled as Regent for her son Den.[10]
Seshemetka Den(?)[11] - - - - - May have been a wife of Djer.[12]
Semat - - - - - -
Serethor - - - - - -
Betrest Anedjib(?)[8] - - Semerkhet[11] - - May have been a wife of Den.[13]

Second Dynasty (c. 2890 BC – 2686 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Nimaathap Khasekhemwy[5] - - Djoser[5]
Sekhemkhet (?)
Sanakht (?)
- Beit Khallaf (Tomb K1) (?)[5] May have ruled as regent for her son Djoser.[14]

Old KingdomEdit

Third Dynasty (c. 2686 BC – 2613 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Hetephernebti Djoser[15] Khasekhemwy (?)[16] - - Inetkaes[16] Saqqara (?)[15] -
  Djeseretnebti Sekhemkhet (?)[17] - - - - - Her status as queen is a matter of debate due to lack of royal titles found beside the name.[17]
Djefatnebti Huni (?)[18][19] - - - - - -
Meresankh I - - Sneferu[20] Hetepheres I (?)[15] - -

Fourth Dynasty (c. 2613 BC – 2498 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Hetepheres I Sneferu[15] Huni[20] Meresankh I (?)[15] Khufu[15] - Tomb G 7000X, Giza -
Meritites I Khufu[21] Sneferu[21] - Kawab[22]
Djedefre (?)[21]
Hetepheres II[22] Pyramid G1-b[21] -
Henutsen Sneferu (?)[21] - Khafra (?),[21]
Khufukhaf I,
Minkhaf I
- Pyramid G1-c[21] -
  Khentetka Djedefre[21] - - - - - -
  Meresankh II 1) Prince Horbaef

2) Djedefre or Khafra
Khufu (?) Meritites I (?) With Horbaef:
Djaty
Nebty-tepites
With Horbaef:
Nefertkau III
- -
  Hetepheres II 1) Prince Kawab[22]

2) Djedefre[22]

3) Khafra (?)[21]
Khufu[22] Meritites I[22] With Kawab:
Duaenhor[22]
Kaemsekhem[22]
Mindjedef[22]
With Kawab:
Meresankh III[21]
With Djedefre:
Neferhetepes
Giza Tomb G7530-7540[21] -
  Meresankh III Khafra[21][23] Kawab[21] Hetepheres II[21] Nebemakhet[22]
Duaenre[22]
Niuserre[22]
Khenterka[22]
Shepsetkau[22] -
Khamerernebty I Khufu (?) - Menkaure[24] Khamerernebty II[25] - -
Persenet - Nikaure[26] - Giza Tomb LG88[27] -
Hekenuhedjet - - Sekhemkare[26] - - -
  Khamerernebty II Menkaure[23] Khafre[23][27] Khamerernebty I[23] Khuenre[23] - Giza Tomb G3a or Tomb G3b (?)[28] -
Rekhetre Menkaure (?) - - - Giza Tomb G8530[29] -
Bunefer Shepseskaf (?)[30] - - - - Giza Tomb G8408 Unclear whether she was a wife or daughter of Shepseskaf[31]

Fifth Dynasty (c. 2498 - 2345 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Khentkaus I Userkaf (?)[32][33] Menkaure (?)[34] - Previously believed to have been mother of Sahure and Neferirkare Kakai,[32][33] but newer evidence contradicts this theory. - Pyramid of Khentkaus I There has been much debate around this queen's identity. She may have ruled as regent for one or more of her sons.[35] Alternatively, her titles suggest that she may have ruled as Pharaoh in her own right, but this is disputed. She may have been in fact a wife of Shepseskaf or the ephemeral Thamphthis rather than Userkaf. She may even be the same person as Thampthis but this is not a widely accepted theory.[36]
Neferhetepes Userkaf[37] - - Sahure[37] Meretnebty(?)[38] Pyramid complex of Queen Neferhetepes -
Meretnebty Sahure[39] Userkaf Neferhetepes (?)[38] Neferirkare Kakai[40]
Horemsaf (?)[33]
Netjerirenre (?)[33]
Khakare (?)[33]
Nebankhre (?),[33] Shepseskare (?)
- - Known in older studies as Neferethanebty[39]
  Khentkaus II Neferirkare Kakai[32] - - Neferefre[39]
Nyuserre Ini[39]
- Pyramid of Khentkaus II May have ruled as regent or as Pharaoh in her own right.
Khentkaus III Neferefre Neferirkare Kakai Khentkaus II[41] Menkauhor Kaiu[42] or Shepseskare(?)[43] - Giza Tomb AC 30[44] -
Reptynub Nyuserre Ini[45] - - Reputnebty (?)[46]
Khentykauhor (?)[47]
Khamerernebty[45] - -
Khuit I Menkauhor Kaiu (?)[48][49] - - - - Saqqara Mastaba D 14 -
  Meresankh IV - - Raemka (?)[50]
Kaemtjenent (?)[50]
Isesi-ankh (?)[51]
- Saqqara Tomb 82[50] May have been a wife of Djedkare Isesi[52]
Setibhor
[53]
Djedkare Isesi[53] - - - - Pyramid of Setibhor -
Nebet Unas[49] - - Unas-ankh (?)[54] Khentkaues (?)[54]
Neferut (?)[54]
Nefertkaues (?)[54]
Double Mastaba north-east of Pyramid of Unas[50] -
Khenut - - - Iput I (?) -
Nimaathap II
[55]
Unknown[55] - - - - Mastaba in Giza[55] -

Sixth Dynasty (c. 2345 – 2181 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse
Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Iput I Teti[56][57] Unas[56] Nebet or Khenut (?)[56] Pepi I[56] - Pyramid of Iput I Possibly ruled as regent for her son Pepi I.[56]
Khuit II - - Tetiankhkem[58] - Pyramid of Khuit -
Khentkaus IV
[57]
- - Userkare (?)[57] - - -
Ankhesenpepi I Pepi I[56] Khui of Abydos [56] Nebet[56] Merenre Nemtyemsaf I[56] Neith[56] Saqqara[56] -
  Ankhesenpepi II 1) Pepi I[56]

2) Merenre Nemtyemsaf I[12]
With Merenre I:
Pepi II[12]
- Pyramid Complex of Pepi I[59][60] Ruled as regent for her son Pepi II.[56]
Nubwenet Pepi I[59][61] - - - - -
Meritites IV - - - - -
Inenek-Inti - - - - -
Mehaa
[60]
- - Hornetjerkhet[60] - -
Nedjeftet - - - - - -
'Weret-Yamtes' - - - - - The real name of this queen is unknown, 'Weret-Yamtes' is an alias meaning 'Great of Sceptre'.[62] She is mentioned on inscriptions found in the tomb of an official named Weni, which state that she conspired against the king but was punished when her plans were discovered.[63]
  Benehu
[64]
Pepi I or Pepi II[64] - - - - Pyramid in South Saqqara[64] Burial discovered in 2010.[64]
Neith Pepi II[56][65][66] Pepi I[56] Ankhesenpepi I[56] Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[56] - Pyramid Complex of Pepi II[56][65] -
Iput II - - - -
Udjebten - - - - -
Ankhesenpepi III Merenre Nemtyemsaf I[66] - - - Pyramid Complex of Pepi I[66] -
Ankhesenpepi IV - - Neferkare II[60] - Mortuary chapel of Iput II[60] -
Nitocris Merenre Nemtyemsaf II (according to Legend)[67] Pepi II (according to Legend)[67] Neith (according to Legend)[67] - - - According to writings by Herodotus and Manetho, she was a queen who came to rule Egypt following the murder of her brother/husband and plotted a revenge against his murderers by building a special chamber that would flood with water from the Nile while they dined there, afterwards she committed suicide by running into a burning room.[56] Egyptologists now however believe that she was likely fictional and that her name is a misreading of the male pharaoh Neitiqerty Siptah.[56] No archeological evidence exists to support her historicity.

First Intermediate PeriodEdit

Seventh, Eighth, Ninth and Tenth Dynasties (c. 2181 - 2040 BC)Edit

No known queens from these dynasties.

Eleventh Dynasty (c. 2130 - 2060 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Neferu I Mentuhotep I[68] - - Intef I[69]
Intef II[68]
- - -
Neferukayet Intef II[70] Intef I[70] - Intef III[71] - - -
  Iah Intef III[72] Intef II[72] - Mentuhotep II[72] Neferu II[72] - -
Henite
[73]
- - - - - -

Middle KingdomEdit

Eleventh Dynasty Continued (c. 2060 - 1991 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Tem Mentuhotep II[74][72] - - Mentuhotep III[74] - Tomb DBXI.15, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[74] -
  Neferu II Intef III[74] Iah[74] - - Tomb TT319[74] -
  Ashayet - - - - Tomb DBXI.17, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[72] -
  Henhenet - - - - Tomb DBXI.11, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[72] Died in childbirth.[72]
  Sadeh - - - - Tomb DBXI.7, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[74] -
  Kawit - - - - Tomb DBXI.9, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[72] -
  Kemsit - - - - Tomb TT308, within the Mortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II.[74] -
  Imi
[75]
Mentuhotep III (?)[75] - - Mentuhotep IV[75] - - -

Twelfth Dynasty (c. 1991 – 1802 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Neferitatjenen Amenemhat I[76] - - Senusret I[76] Neferu III[76]
Neferusherit[76] (?)
Kayet[76] (?)
Pyramid Complex of Amenemhet I (?)[76] -
Neferu III Senusret I[76] Amenemhat I Neferitatjenen[76] Amenemhat II[76] - Pyramid Complex of Senusret I or possibly in Dahshur[77] -
Keminub Amenemhat II (?)[78] - - - - Funerary enclosure of Amenemhat II[78] Previously believed to have been a wife of Amenemhet II, but evidence suggests that she may actually be a queen of the 13th Dynasty whose husband is unknown.[79]
Kaneferu
[78]
- - - - - -
  Khenemetneferhedjet I Senusret II[78][77] Amenemhat II[78][77] - Senusret III[78] - Mortuary Complex of Senusret II[78] -
  Nofret II - - - -
Itaweret - - - Funerary enclosure of Amenemhat II[78] -
Khenmet - - - -
Sithathoriunet Senusret III[80][78][77] Senusret II[80] - Amenemhat III (?)[76] - Pyramid Complex of Senusret II[80] -
Khenemetneferhedjet II - - - - Pyramid IX in the Dahshur Funerary Complex[78] -
Neferthenut - - - - Tomb II in the Pyramid Complex of Senusret III[77] -
  Meretseger - - - - - Due to lack of contemporary sources relating to her, it is thought she may not have existed but was rather a creation of the New Kingdom.[81]
  Aat Amenemhat III[78][82] - - - - Dahshur Funerary Complex[78] -
Khenemetneferhedjet III - - - - -
Hetepi
[78]
Amenemhat III (?)[78] - - Amenemhat IV[78] - - Unknown if she was actually a wife of Amenemhat III, as she is not known to have held the title of "King's Wife".[83]
  Sobekneferu Amenemhat IV[84] (according to Manetho) Amenemhat III[84] - - - Northern Mazghuna pyramid (?) First known woman to rule as Pharaoh in her own right (c. 1807-1802) for which there is archeological evidence. It is however unknown for certain if Amenemhat IV was her husband or if she was ever married to a reigning Pharaoh at all prior to her own rule.

Second Intermediate PeriodEdit

Thirteenth Dynasty (c. 1802 – 1649 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Nofret (III) Ameny Qemau (?) - - - Hatshepsut - This queen is only known from one stele which states that she was a "king's wife" and was the mother of "king's daughter" Hatshepsut. However, it is unknown which king she was married to.[85] In 2017, a pyramid was discovered containing a canopic box naming "king's daughter" Hatshepsut and a stone slab with the name of king Ameny Qemau.[86] It is however unknown if these two king's daughters are one and the same.
Nubhetepti Hor (?)[87] - - - - - She held the title of "King's Mother", but it is unknown which king she was the mother of.[87]
Seneb[henas] I
[87]
Khendjer (?) - - - - - -
  Senebhenas II Sobekhotep III[88][87] - - - - - -
Neni - - - Iuhetibu Fendy
Dedetanqet (or Dedetanuq).[87]
- -
Senebsen Neferhotep I[88] - - - - - -
Tjan Sobekhotep IV[88] - - Amenhotep[89] Nebetiunet[90] - -
Khaenoub/Khaesnebou or Nubhotepti[91] Sobekhotep VI (?) - - - - - This queen's exact name is unknown.
  Ineni Merneferre Ay (?)[89] - - - - - One of the first queens to have her name written in a cartouche.
  Nubkhaes (I) Unknown - - - - - Either a wife of Sobekhotep V, Sobekhotep VI or Wahibre Ibiau.[87]
Aya Unknown - - - - - Either a wife of Sehetepkare Intef,[90] Imyremeshaw[90] or Sobekhotep II.[92]
Ahhotepi
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned between Hor and Khendjer.[93]
Wadjet
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned between Hor and Khendjer.[93]
Ankhmari
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]
Nehyt
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]
Nubhetepi II
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]
Resunefer
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]
Sithathor
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]
Sitsobk
[93]
Unknown - - - - - Possibly married to a king who reigned after Merneferre Ay.[93]

Fourteenth Dynasty (c. 1805 – 1650 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Tati Sheshi[94] Kushite Rulers of Kerma[95] Nehesy[96] - - Newer evidence suggests that Nehesy may not have actually been Tati's son.[97]

Fifteenth Dynasty (c. 1649 – 1535 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Tani
[98]
Apepi (?)[98] - - - - - -

Sixteenth Dynasty (c. 1650 – 1580 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Mentuhotep Djehuti[99] Vizier Senebhenaf[99] Sobekhotep[99] - - Dra' Abu el-Naga' -
Sitmut
[100]
Mentuhotep VI (?)[100] - - - Herunefer[100] - -

Seventeenth Dynasty (c. 1650 – 1550 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Nubemhat Sobekemsaf I - - - Sobekemheb[101] - -
Nubkhaes (II) Sobekemsaf II - - - - - Her burial was robbed in the late 20th Dynasty, along with that of her husband.[100]
  Sobekemsaf Nubkheperre Intef[100] - - - Sobekemsaf[100] - Sister of an unidentified pharaoh, possibly either Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef, Sobekemsaf II or Senakhtenre Ahmose.[102] Her mother is unknown, but was given a title of "King's daughter", suggesting that Sobekemsaf could have been a granddaughter of Rahotep.[103]
Haankhes Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef[100] - - Ameni[100] - - -
  Tetisheri Senakhtenre Ahmose Tjenna[104] Neferu[104] Seqenenre Tao[104]
Kamose (?)[105]
Ahhotep I[104]Ahmose Inhapy[104]
Sitdjehuti[104]
Possibly KV41 -
  Ahhotep I Seqenenre Tao[106][105] Senakhtenre Ahmose[106][104] Tetisheri[106][104] Ahmose I[105]
Ahmose Sapair[105]
Binpu[105]
Ahmose-Nefertari[105]
Ahmose-Henutemipet[105]
Ahmose-Tumerisy,[105] Ahmose-Nebetta[105]
Ahmose-Meritamon (?)[107]
- Ruled as a regent for her son Ahmose I.
  Ahmose Inhapy - Ahmose-Henuttamehu[105] - -
  Sitdjehuti - Ahmose[105] - -
  Ahhotep II Kamose[108] - - - Ahmose-Sitkamose[108] - -

New KingdomEdit

Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1550 – 1292 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Ahmose-Nefertari Ahmose I[109][108] Seqenenre Tao[109] Ahhotep I[109] Ahmose-ankh[105]
Amenhotep I[109]
Siamun[105]
Ramose (?)[108]
Ahmose-Meritamun[109]
Ahmose-Sitamun[105]
Mutnofret (?)[105]
Dra' Abu el-Naga'[109] Ruled as regent for her son Amenhotep I.[110]
  Ahmose-Sitkamose Kamose[111] Ahhotep II[108] - - - -
  Ahmose-Henuttamehu Seqenenre Tao[112] Ahmose-Inhapy[105] - - - -
  Ahmose-Meritamun Amenhotep I[109] Ahmose I[109] Ahmose-Nefertari[109] - - Tomb TT358[109] -
Sitkamose
[113]
- - - - - -
  Ahmose Thutmose I[114][115] - - - Hatshepsut[109]
Nefrubity[109]
Thebes[109] -
Mutnofret Ahmose I[115] - Thutmose II[115] - - -
  Hatshepsut Thutmose II[116][117] Thutmose I[116] Ahmose[116] - Neferure[116] KV20[116] Initially ruled as regent for her stepson Thutmose III before becoming a reigning Pharaoh herself (c. 1479-1458).
  Iset - - Thutmose III[117] - - -
  Satiah Thutmose III[118][115][117] - Ipu[118] Amenemhat (?)[118] - - Her father may have been Ahmose Pen-Nekhebet.[119]
  Merytre-Hatshepsut - Hui[115] Menkheperre,[117] Amenhotep II[115] Nebetiunet[118]
Meritamen[115]
Iset[117]
Meritamen[A]
Possibly KV35 -
  Nebtu - - - - - -
Menhet - - - - Wady Gabbanat el-Qurud[117] Foreign wife of Syrian descent.[117]
Menwi - - - - Foreign wife of Syrian descent.[117]
Merti - - - - Foreign wife of Syrian descent.[115]
Nebsemi[120] - - - - - -
Tiaa Amenhotep II[118] - - Thutmose IV[118] - KV32[118] -
  Nefertari Thutmose IV[118][117][115] - - - - - -
  Iaret Amenhotep II[117] - - - - -
  Mutemwiya - - Amenhotep III[115] - -
  Tiye Amenhotep III[121][122][123][124] Yuya[121] Tjuyu[121] Thutmose[121]
Akhenaten[121]
Sitamun[123]
Iset[124]
Henuttaneb[122]
Nebetah[125]
Beketaten[122]
- -
Gilukhipa Shuttarna II of Mitanni[122] - - - - -
  Sitamun Amenhotep III[123][124] Tiye[123][124] - - - -
  Iset - - - -
Tadukhipa Amenhotep III and Akhenaten[123] Tushratta of Mitanni[123] Juni[123] - - - Some Egyptologists have theorised that she may the same person as Kiya.[123]
  Nefertiti Akhenaten[126][127] Ay (?)[126] - - Meritaten[126]
Meketaten[126]
Ankhesenamun[126]
Neferneferuaten Tasherit[126]
Neferneferure[126]
Setepenre[126]
- Likely candidate for the female pharaoh Neferneferuaten (c. 1334-1332).
  Kiya - - - Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (?)[128] and/or Meritaten Tasherit (?)[128] Amarna (?)[128] Possibly the same person as Tadukhipa.[127] The usurption of her monuments suggest that she may have been disgraced later in her husband's reign.[127]
  The Younger Lady - - Tutankhamun - KV35 Unidentified sister-wife of Akhenaten. Possibly may be either Nebetah or Beketaten.[129]
  Meritaten Smenkhkare[127] Akhenaten[127][122] Nefertiti[127][122] - Meritaten Tasherit (?)[127]
Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (?)[122]
- Theorised by some Egyptologists to have ruled as the female pharaoh Neferneferuaten later in her father's reign.[127]
  Ankhesenamun 1) Akhenaten[130]

2)Tutankhamum[122]

3) Ay [122]
- With Tutankhamun:
Two stillborn daughters[123]
KV21 (?) -
  Tey Ay[131] - - Nakhtmin (?)[131] - WV23 (?)[132] -
  Mutnedjmet (I) Horemheb[132] Ay (?)[132] - - - KV57[132] Theorised by some Egyptologists to be Nefertiti's sister.
Nebetnehat Unknown - - - - - Married to a king from the mid-18th dynasty but it is unknown which king.[133]

Ninteenth Dynasty (c. 1292 – 1186 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Sitre Ramesses I[134] - - Seti I[134] - QV38[134] May have previously been known as Tia[134]
  Tuya Seti I[135] Raia[135] (Lieutenant of the chariotry) Ruia[135] Ramesses II[135] Tia[135]
Henutmire(?)[135]
QV80[135] -
  Tanedjemet Seti I or Ramesses II[136] Ramesses I (?) - - - QV33 -
  Nefertari Ramesses II[137][138][139][140][141][142] - - Amun-her-khepeshef[139]
Pareherwenemef[137]
Meryre[137]
Meryatum[137]
Meritamen[141]
Henuttawy
Baketmut[137]
Nebettawy[137]
Nefertari (?)[137]
QV66[137] -
  Isetnofret - - Ramesses[138]
Khaemweset[138]
Merneptah[138]
Bintanath[138]
Isetnofret (?)[138]
Valley of the Queens (?)[138] -
  Henutmire Seti I[139] Tuya[143] - - QV75[139] -
  Maathorneferure Hattusili III[140] Puduhepa[140] - One daughter[140] Gurob (?)[140] -
  Meritamen Ramesses II[141] Nefertari[141] - - QV68[141] -
  Bintanath Isetnofret[139] - Unknown daughter[134] QV71[139] -
  Nebettawy Nefertari[142] - - QV60[142] -
  Merytre
[144]
- - - - -
  Isetnofret II Merneptah[145] Either Ramesses II or Khaemweset[145] - Seti II[145]
Merenptah[146]
Khaemwaset[146]
Isetnofret[145] - -
  Takhat Seti II[147] Ramesses II (?)[147] - Amenmesse[147] Twosret (?) KV10[147] Depending on whether Amenmesse was a son or brother of Seti II, she may actually be a wife of Merneptah.
  Twosret - Takhat (?) Seti-Merenptah[148] Possibly one daughter[147] KV14[147] Ruled as regent for her stepson Siptah before becoming Pharaoh in her own right (c. 1191-1190).
Tiaa - - - - - -
Sutailja Seti II or Amenmesse (depending on who is the father of Siptah) - - Siptah - - Of Canaanite origin.
Tiya
[citation needed]
Amenmesse - - - - - -

Twentieth Dynasty (c. 1190 – 1077 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Tiy-Merenese Setnakhte[149] - - Ramesses III[149] - - -
  Iset Ta-Hemdjert Ramesses III[149][150][151] - Hemdjert[149] Ramesses VI[149] - QV51[149] -
  Tyti Setnakhte (?) - Ramesses IV[150]
Khaemwaset[136]
Amun-her-khepeshef[136]
Ramesses-Meryamen (?)[136]
- QV52[151] Previously believed to have been a wife of Ramesses X.[151]
Tiye (II) - - Pentawer[151] - - Instigated a harem conspiracy against her husband. Her ultimate fate is unknown.[151]
  Duatentopet Ramesses IV[152] Ramesses III[153] - Ramesses V[153] - QV74[152] -
Henutwati Ramesses V[153] - - - - - -
Tawerettenru - - - - - -
Nubkhesbed Ramesses VI[153] - - Ramesses VII[153]
Amenherkhepshef[153]
Panebenkemyt[153]
Iset[153] - -
  Baketwernel Ramesses IX[152] - - - - KV10[152] -
Tentamun (I) Ramesses XI[153] Nebseny[153] - - Duathathor-Henuttawy[154]
Tentamun[154] (?)
- -

Third Intermediate PeriodEdit

Twenty-first Dynasty (c. 1069 - 943 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Tentamun (II) Smendes[155] Ramesses XI[154] Tentamun (?)[154] - - - -
Mutnedjmet (II) Psusennes I[155][156] Pinedjem I[155] Duathathor-Henuttawy[155] Amenemope (?) - NRT III, Tanis[155] -
Wiay
[156]
- - - Isetemkheb[156] - -
Karimala Siamun or Psusennes II[157] Osorkon the Elder[157] - - - - -

Wives of the High Priests of AmunEdit

While they were not officially pharaohs, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were the de facto rulers of Upper Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty, writing their names in cartouches and being buried in royal tombs. Their wives would have held a similar status to most other queens.

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Hrere Piankh (?) - - - Nodjmet - May have actually been a wife of Amenhotep.
  Nodjmet Herihor[158] Amenhotep (High Priest of Amun) (?)[158] Hrere[158] Pinedjem I,[158]
Heqanefer,
Heqamaat,
Ankhefenmut
Faienmut TT320[159][160] May have been also been married to Piankh.[158]
  Duathathor-Henuttawy Pinedjem I[158][161] Ramesses XI[158] Tentamun[154] Psusennes I,[158]
Masharta,[158]
Menkheperre[158]
Mutnedjmet,[158]
Maatkare,[158]
Henuttawy[162]
-
Isetemkheb
[161]
- - - - - -
Tentnabehenu
[161]
- - - Nauny[161] - -
Tayuheret
[161]
Masaharta[161] - - - - TT320[163] -
Djedmutesankh
[161]
Djedkhonsuefankh[161] - - - - MMA 60[164] -
Isetemkheb
[161]
Menkheperre[161] Psusennes I[161] Wiay[161] Pinedjem II,[161]
Smendes II,[161]
Pasebkhanut[161]
,Hori[161]
Isetemkheb,[161]
Henuttawy,[161]
Meryetamun,[161]
Gautseshen[161]
- -
Henuttawy Smendes II[161] Menkheperre[161] Isetemkheb[161] - Isetemkheb[161] MMA 60[164] -
Tahentdjehuty
[161]
- - - Neskhons[161] - -
  Isetemkheb Pinedjem II[161] Menkheperre[161] Isetemkheb[161] Psusennes II[161] Harweben,[161]
Henuttawy[161]
TT320[160][165] -
  Neskhons Smendes II[161] Tahentdjehuty[161] Tjanefer,[161]
Masaharta[161]
Itawy,[161]
Nesitanebetashru[161]
-

Twenty-second Dynasty (c. 943 - 728 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Karomama (I) Shoshenq I[156] - - Osorkon I[156] - - -
Patareshnes - - Nimlot[156] - - -
Maatkare Osorkon I[156][166] Psusennes II[156] - Shoshenq[167] - - -
  Tashedkhonsu - - Takelot I[156] - - -
Shepensopdet
[166]
- - Osorkon[166] - - -
Nesitaudjatakhet Shoshenq II[166] - - Osorkon[166] - - -
Nesitanebetashru - - Harsiese[166] - - -
  Kapes Takelot I[156] - - Osorkon II[156] - - -
  Karomama (II) Osorkon II[168] Takelot I[168] - Shoshenq[168]
Hornakht[168]
Tashakheper[168]
Karomama[168]
[Ta?]iirmer[168]
- Known as Karomama I.
Isetemkheb
[168]
- - - Tjesbastperu[168] - -
  Djedmutesankh
[168]
- - Nimlot[168] - - -
Djedbastiusankh
[169]
Shoshenq III[169] - - Takelot[169] - - -
Tadibast II
[169]
- - Bakennefi[169] - - -
Tentamenopet
[169]
- - - Ankhenesshoshenq[169] - -
Tjesbastperu
[170]
Osorkon II[170] - - - - -
  Tadibast III Shoshenq V (?)[171] - - Osorkon IV[167] - - -

Twenty-third Dynasty (c. 837 - 735 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Karomama (III) Takelot II[172][173] Nimlot[172] (High Priest of Amun) Tentsepeh[168] Osorkon III[174] - Thebes? Granddaughter of Osorkon II. Known as Karomama II.
Tashep - - Nimlot[173] - - -
Tabeketenasket - - - Isetweret[173] - -
Tentsai Osorkon III[173] - - Takelot III[173] - - -
Karoadjet - - - - - -
Irtiubast Takelot III[172] Osorkon III (?)[172] - Osorkon[172] - - -
Kakat - - - Irbastwedjanefu[175] - -
Betjet
[citation needed]
- - - - - -

Twenty-fourth Dynasty (c. 732 - 720 BC)Edit

No known Queens from this dynasty.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty (Nubian Dynasty) (c. 744 - 656 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Pebatjma Kashta[176] - - Piye,[177]
Shabaka[177]
Khensa,[177]
Peksater,[177]
Amenirdis I,[177]
Neferukakashta (?)[177]
- -
Tabiry Piye[178] Alara of Nubia[178] Kasaqa - - Pyramid Ku53 in El-Kurru, Nubia[179] -
  Abar - - Taharqa[178] - Nuri, Tomb 35 (?)[180] Niece of Alara of Nubia.[178]
Khensa Kashta[177][176] Pebatjma[177] - - El-Kurru Pyramid Ku4[176] -
Peksater - - Cemetery D in Abydos[179] -
Nefrukekashta
[176]
Pebatjma (?)[181] - - El-Kurru Pyramid K.52[176] -
Arty Shebitku[181] Piye[177] - - - El-Kurru Pyramid Ku6[182] -
Qalhata Shabaka[181] - Tantamani[181] - El-Kurru Pyramid Ku5[179] -
Mesbat
[183]
- - Haremakhet (?)[183] - - -
Tabekenamun Taharqa[178] Piye[178] - - - - May be wife of Shabaka.[183]
  Takahatenamun - - - Tomb 21 at Nuri (?) -
Naparaye - - - El-Kurru Pyramid Ku3[176] -
Atakhebasken - - - - Nuri Tomb Nu36[182] -
Piankharty
[181]
Tantamani[181] - - - - - -
[..]salka
[181]
- - - - - -
Malaqaye
[citation needed]
- - - - - -

Late PeriodEdit

Twenty-sixth Dynasty (Saite Dynasty) (664 - 525 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Istemabet
[184]
Necho I - - Psamtik I - - -
Mehytenweskhet Psamtik I[185] Harsiese[185]
(High Priest of Re)
- Necho II[185] Nitocris I[185]
Meryetneith[185]
Medinet Habu[185] -
  Khedebneithirbinet I Necho II[185] - - Psamtik II[185] - Sebennytos (?)[185] -
Takhuit Psamtik II[186] - - Apries[186] Ankhnesneferibre[186] Athribis[186] -
Tentkheta Amasis II[187] Padineith
(Priest of Ptah)
- Khnum-ib-Re[12]
Psamtik III[187]
- - -
Nakhtubasterau - - Pasenenkhonsu[187]
Ahmose[187]
- Giza Tomb LG83[187] -
Ladice Battus III of Cyrene Pheretima - - - Married the Pharaoh some time after 548 BC and returned to Cyrene in 525 BC.
Khetbeneiterboni II
[188]
Apries[188] - - - - -
Tadiasir
[187]
- - - Tashereniset[187] - -

Twenty-seventh Dynasty (First Persian Dynasty) (525 - 404 BC)Edit

The Persian kings of Egypt generally ruled the country from afar and thus their wives played little to no part in Egyptian life and culture.[189] As stated by Egyptologist Joyce Tyldesley, "to all intents and purposes, Egypt was without a queen throughout the 27th and 31st Dynasties".[189]

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Atossa 1) Cambyses[190]

2) Darius I[190]
Cyrus the Great[190] Cassandane[190] With Darius I:
Xerxes I,[190] Achaemenes,[190] Masistes,[190] Hystaspes[190]
- Naqsh-e Rostam -
Roxane Cambyses[191] - - - - A sister of Cambyses according to Herodotus.[191] However, Ctesias does not mention her being a sister of Cambyses.[191]
Phaidyme 1) Bardiya[192]

2) Darius I[190]
Otanes[190] - - - - -
Artystone Darius I[190] Cyrus the Great[190] Cassandane[190] Arsames,[190] Gobryas[190] Artazostre - -
Parmys Bardiya[190] - Ariomardus[190] - - -
Phratogune - - Abrokomas,[190] Hyperantes[190] - - -
Amestris Xerxes I[190] Otanes[190] A sister of Darius Darius, Hystaspes, Artaxerxes I, Achaemenes Amytis, Rhodogune - -
Damaspia Artaxerxes I[190] - - Xerxes II[190] - - -
Alogyne of Babylon - - Sogdianus - - -
Cosmartidene of Babylon - - Darius II,[190] Arsites - - -
Andia of Babylon - - Bogapaeus Parysatis - -
Parysatis Darius II[190] Artaxerxes I[190] Andia of Babylon Artaxerxes II,[190] Cyrus,[190] Artostes,[190] Ostanes,[190] Oxendra[190] Amestris,[190] Stateira[190] - -

Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Dynasties (404 - 380 BC)Edit

No known Queens from these dynasties.

Thirtieth Dynasty (380 - 343 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Khedebneithirbinet II
[193]
Nectanebo II[193] Teos[193] - - - - -

Thirty-first Dynasty (Second Persian Dynasty) (343 - 332 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Atossa
[194]
Artaxerxes III[190] - - Arses[190] - - -
  Stateira I Darius III[190] - - Ariobarzanes[190] Stateira II,[190]
Drypetis[190]
- -

Hellenistic PeriodEdit

Argead Dynasty (332 - 309 BC)Edit

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
  Roxana Alexander the Great[195] Oxyartes of Bactria[195] - Alexander IV[195] - - Married Alexander in 327 BC.
  Stateira II Darius III[190] Stateira I[190] - - - Married Alexander in 324 BC.
Parysatis II Artaxerxes III[190] - - - -
Eurydice II of Macedon Philip III[195] Amyntas IV[195] Cynna[195] - - - -

Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 - 30 BC)Edit

Most Queens of this dynasty starting with Arsinoe II held power as co-rulers with their husbands. Below is a list of consorts who are not known to have held power as co-rulers.

Picture Name Spouse Father Mother Sons Daughters Burial Place Notes
Eurydice Ptolemy I[196] Antipater[196] - Ptolemy Keraunos,[196]
Meleager,[196]
Agathocles (?),[196]
Argeus (?)[196]
Ptolemais,[196] Lysandra[196] - -
  Berenice I Magas of Macedon[196] Antigone of Macedon[196] Ptolemy II[196] Arsinoe II,[196] Philotera[196] - -
  Arsinoe I Ptolemy II[196] Lysimachus[196] Nicaea of Macedon Ptolemy III,[196]
Lysimachus[196]
Berenice[196] - Exiled to Coptos by Ptolemy II.
  Cleopatra Selene 1) Ptolemy IX[197]

2) Ptolemy X[197]
Ptolemy VIII[197] Cleopatra III[197] - - - Unlike most Queens of this period, she was not made co-ruler due to the influence of her mother Cleopatra III. After Ptolemy IX was driven out of Egypt by his mother in 107 BC, Cleopatra Selene married her brother Ptolemy X. In 102 BC, she was forced by her mother to divorce Ptolemy X and marry Antiochus VIII of the Seleucid Empire to seal an alliance. She is sometimes named Cleopatra V due to the general confusion over the numbering of the queens named Cleopatra.[197]
Seleucus VII Philometor Berenice IV Antiochus X Eusebes[198] Cleopatra Selene[198] - - - Murdered on the orders of Berenice IV after a few days of marriage.[198] While he was technically a co-regent with Berenice, he is usually not included on Lists of Pharaohs.
Archelaus
[199]
Archelaus[199] (General) - - - - While there is a possibility he was a co-regent,[199] there is no confirmed proof of this.
  Mark Antony Cleopatra VII[200] Marcus Antonius Creticus Julia Alexander Helios,[200]
Ptolemy Philadelphus[200]
Cleopatra Selene II[200] - -

NotesEdit

  • A ^ Thutmose III and Hatshepsut-Meryetre had two daughters named Meritamen.[115]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 16. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  2. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  3. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 17. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  4. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 18. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 26. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  6. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 29. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  7. ^ B. Porter and R.L.B. Moss. Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings, V. Upper Egypt: Sites. Oxford, 1937, pg 88,89
  8. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  9. ^ a b Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit (= Ägyptologische Abhandlungen. Bd. 45). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4, p. 119 & 154.
  10. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 33. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  11. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 34. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  12. ^ a b c d Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005, ISBN 978-0-9547218-9-3
  13. ^ Grajetski Ancient Egyptian Queens: a hieroglyphic dictionary Golden House Publications, pg. 4-5
  14. ^ Christensen, Martin, K. I. (July 27, 2007). "Women in Power: BC 4500-1000". Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 38. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  16. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  17. ^ a b Wolfgang Helck: Untersuchungen zur Thinitenzeit. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, ISBN 3-447-02677-4, pp 108, 117.
  18. ^ Günter Dreyer: Drei archaisch-hieratische Gefässaufschriften mit Jahresnamen aus Elephantine. In: G. Dreyer, J. Osing (Hrsg.): Form und Maß - Beiträge zur Literatur, Sprache und Kunst des Alten Ägypten. (= Festschrift G. Fecht). Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1987, p. 98-109.
  19. ^ Aidan Dodson, Monarchs of the Nile, American Univ in Cairo Press, 2000, p 26 Google Books Link
  20. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 45. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  23. ^ a b c d e Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 48. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  24. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  25. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  26. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  27. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  28. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  29. ^ gizapyramids.org page for G 8530
  30. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 50. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  31. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  32. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 53. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  34. ^ Hassan, Selim. Excavations at Gîza IV. 1932–1933. Cairo: Government Press, Bulâq, 1930. pp 18-62
  35. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  36. ^ Wilfried Seipel: Untersuchungen zu den ägyptischen Königinnen der Frühzeit und des Alten Reiches. pp. 189–190.
  37. ^ a b Tarek El Awady: The royal family of sahure. New evidence, in: M.Barta; F. Coppens, J. Krjci (Hrsg.): Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2005, Prague 2006 ISBN 80-7308-116-4, p. 192-98
  38. ^ a b Vivienne Gae Callender: In Hathor's Image, The wives and mothers of Egyptian kings from Dynasties I-VI, Prague 2011, ISBN 978-80-7308-381-6, p. 162-168
  39. ^ a b c d Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 54. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  40. ^ El-Awady, Tarek (2006). "The royal family of Sahure. New evidence." (PDF). In Bárta, Miroslav; Krejčí, Jaromír (eds.). Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2005. Prague: Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Oriental Institute. ISBN 978-80-7308-116-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-01.
  41. ^ Verner, Miroslav (2014). Sons of the Sun. Rise and decline of the Fifth Dynasty. Prague: Charles University. p. 58. ISBN 978-8073085414.
  42. ^ "Tomb of previously unknown pharaonic queen found in Egypt". The Express Tribune. AFP. 4 January 2015.
  43. ^ Krejčí, Jaromír; Kytnarová, Katarína Arias; Odler, Martin (2014). "Archaeological excavation of the mastaba of Queen Khentkaus III (tomb AC 30) in Abusir". Prague Egyptological Studies. XV: 28–42. ISSN 1214-3189.
  44. ^ "Czech expedition discovers the tomb of an ancient Egyptian unknown queen". Charles University. January 2015.
  45. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  46. ^ M. Verner, Abusir III: The Pyramid Complex of Khentkaus, Czech Institute of Egyptology, Praha, 1995
  47. ^ M. Verner, The Pyramids, 1997
  48. ^ W. Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: a hieroglyphic dictionary, 2005
  49. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 55. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  50. ^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  51. ^ Stevenson Smith, William (1971). "The Old Kingdom in Egypt". In Edwards, I. E. S.; Gadd, C. J.; Hammond, N. G. L. (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 2, Part 2: Early History of the Middle East. Cambridge University.
  52. ^ Cambridge Ancient History Volume 1 Part 2, 2008
  53. ^ a b "Fifth Dynasty tomb and name of a new queen discovered at Saqqara - Ancient Egypt - Heritage". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2019-12-15.
  54. ^ a b c d Brennan, Bianca May Evelyn (3 December 2014). "Nebet".
  55. ^ a b c Callender, Vivienne Gae (2011). In Hathor's Image. Prague: Charles University. pp. 179–182. ISBN 978-80-7308-381-6.
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 57. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  57. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  58. ^ Naguib Kanawati, Conspiracies in the Egyptian Palace: Unis to Pepy I
  59. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  60. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  61. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 59. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  62. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 58. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  63. ^ Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Translated by Ian Shaw. Oxford: Blackwell publishing. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-631-19396-8.
  64. ^ a b c d Rossella Lorenzi. "Ancient Egyptian Queen's Burial Discovered". Archived from the original on March 21, 2011.
  65. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  66. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  67. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 63. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  68. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  69. ^ Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, pp. 143-144
  70. ^ a b Grajetzki, Wolfram. Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary. London: Golden House Publications (2005). ISBN 0-9547218-9-6, p.27
  71. ^ Margaret Bunson: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-1438109978, available online, see p. 181
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  73. ^ Margaret Bunson: Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-1438109978, available online, see p. 348
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  75. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 68. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 70. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  77. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  79. ^ K. S. B. Ryholt, Adam Bülow-Jacobsen, The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period, c. 1800-1550 B.C., Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  80. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  81. ^ C. van Siclen: Egyptian Antiquities in South Texas. Part 2. A kohl Jar of Queen Meresger, in: Varia Aegyptiaca 8 (1992), 29-32
  82. ^ Silke Roth: Die Königsmütter des Alten Ägypten von der Frühzeit bis zum Ende der 12. Dynastie, Wiesbaden 2001, p. 440 ISBN 3-447-04368-7
  83. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  84. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 74. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  85. ^ K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 8772894210, p. 246
  86. ^ Owen Jarus: Burial Chamber of Princess Possibly Found in Ancient Egypt Pyramid, in Live Science
  87. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  88. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  89. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  90. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  91. ^ Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
  92. ^ K.S.B. Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period (Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997), p. 243-245
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C. Museum Tuscalanum Press. p. 40. ISBN 87-7289-421-0.
  94. ^ Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-87-7289-421-8.
  95. ^ Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 114–115. ISBN 978-87-7289-421-8.
  96. ^ Ryholt, Kim (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800–1550 B.C. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications. Vol. 20. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-87-7289-421-8.
  97. ^ Yehia, Maha (2016). "The Three Stelae of King Nehsy from Tell Habwe at Al Arish Museum: A New Interpretation". Journal of Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Fayoum University. 10 (2): 474–5.
  98. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 79. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  99. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  100. ^ a b c d e f g h Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  101. ^ Moscow I.1.b.32 and London, University College London 14326, S. Hodjash, O. Berlev: Egyptian Reliefs and Stelae in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, Leningrad 1982, p. 86-93, no. 41
  102. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  103. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  104. ^ a b c d e f g h Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 80. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  106. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 82. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  107. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 126, 128. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  108. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  109. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 88. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  110. ^ Shaw, Ian; and Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. The British Museum Press, 1995, p. 28.
  111. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  112. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  113. ^ Bleiberg, Edward. "Amenhotep I," The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Ed. Donald Redford. Vol. 1, p. 71. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  114. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  115. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  116. ^ a b c d e Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 94. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  117. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  119. ^ Anneke Bart: The New Kingdom Tombs of El Kab / Nekhen
  120. ^ Grajetzki, Wolfram. Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary. London: Golden House Publications. ISBN 0-9547218-9-6 (2005), p.56
  121. ^ a b c d e Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 115. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  122. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  123. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  124. ^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  125. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  126. ^ a b c d e f g h Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 125. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  127. ^ a b c d e f g h Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  128. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 135. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  129. ^ Hawass, Z; et al. (2010). "Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun's family". JAMA. 303 (7): 3. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.121. PMID 20159872.
  130. ^ Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet. Thames and Hudson.
  131. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 139. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  132. ^ a b c d Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 140. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  133. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  134. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  135. ^ a b c d e f g Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 143. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  136. ^ a b c d Demas, Martha, and Neville Agnew, eds. 2012. Valley of the Queens Assessment Report: Volume 1. Los Angeles, CA: Getty Conservation Institute. Getty Conservation Institute, link to article
  137. ^ a b c d e f g h Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 146. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  138. ^ a b c d e f g Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 154. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  139. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  140. ^ a b c d e Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 158. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  141. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  142. ^ a b c Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 157. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  143. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  144. ^ Frédéric Payraudeau, Sébastien Poudroux: Varia tanitica II. Une nouvelle fille-épouse de Ramsès II, in: Bulletin De L’institut Français D’archéologie Orientale, 120 (2020), pp. 253–264 (online}
  145. ^ a b c d Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 160. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  146. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  147. ^ a b c d e f Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 163. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  148. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce (2000). Ramesses: Egypt's Greatest Pharoah. London: Penguin Books. p. 91.
  149. ^ a b c d e f Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 167. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  150. ^ a b Mark Collier, Aidan Dodson, & Gottfried Hamernik, P. BM 10052, Anthony Harris and Queen Tyti, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 96 (2010), pp.242-247
  151. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  152. ^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  153. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  154. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  155. ^ a b c d e Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 179. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  156. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 181. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  157. ^ a b Chris Bennett, "Queen Karimala, Daughter of Osochor?" Göttinger Miszellen 173 (1999), pp. 7-8
  158. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 175. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  159. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  160. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  161. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  162. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  163. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  164. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  165. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  166. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  167. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  168. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  169. ^ a b c d e f g Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  170. ^ a b Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, 1991. Christian Settipani, p.153,163,164 and 166
  171. ^ Kenneth Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 1996, Aris & Phillips Limited, Warminster, ISBN 0-85668-298-5, § 92
  172. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  173. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  174. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  175. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 226–7. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  176. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  177. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  178. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  179. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  180. ^ Dunham, Dows; Macadam, M. F. Laming (1949). "Names and Relationships of the Royal Family of Napata". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 35: 139–149.
  181. ^ a b c d e f g Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  182. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  183. ^ a b c R. Morkot: The Black Pharaohs, Egypt's Nubian Rulers, London 2000, p. 205 ISBN 0-948695-24-2
  184. ^ Settipani, Christian (1991). Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité, Étude des possibilités de liens généalogiques entre les familles de l'Antiquité et celles du haut Moyen Âge européen [Our ancient ancestors: study into possible genealogical links between families in Antiquity and those in the Middle Ages of Europe] (in French). Paris. pp. 153, 160, 161–162. ISBN 2864960508.
  185. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  186. ^ a b c d Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 186. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  187. ^ a b c d e f g Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  188. ^ a b "Amasis". Livius. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  189. ^ a b Tyldesley, Joyce (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 187. ISBN 0-500-05145-3.
  190. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  191. ^ a b c Brosius, Maria (2000). "Women i. In Pre-Islamic Persia". Encyclopaedia Iranica. London et al. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  192. ^ "Historical Persian Queens, Empresses, Warriors, Generals of Persia". Retrieved 2020-10-03.
  193. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  194. ^ LeCoq, P. (1986). "Arses". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. p. 548.
  195. ^ a b c d e f Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  196. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  197. ^ a b c d e Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  198. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  199. ^ a b c Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 275. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.
  200. ^ a b c d Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2010). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. United Kingdom: Thames & Hudson. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-500-28857-3.