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List of Roman and Byzantine Empresses

  (Redirected from List of Roman and Byzantine empresses)
See also: List of Roman emperors and List of Byzantine emperors.
Empress of Rome
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Emblem of the Roman Empire
Livia statue.jpg
Livia, the first Empress of Rome.
First empress Livia (27 BC)
Last empress Maria (1439 AD)

This is a list of women who were Roman Empress, i.e. the wife of the Roman emperor, the ruler of the Roman Empire.

The Romans had no single term for the position: Latin and Greek titles such as Augusta (Greek Augousta, the female form of the honorific Augustus, a title derived from the name of the first emperor, Augustus), Caesarissa (Greek Kaisarissa, the female form of the honorific Caesar, a title derived from the name of Julius Caesar), basilissa (Ancient Greek: βασίλισσα, the female form of basileus), and Autokratorissa, the female form of autocrat, were all used.

In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater castrorum "mother of the castra"" and Mater patriae "mother of the fatherland". Another title of the Byzantine empresses was Eusebestatē Augousta "Most Pious Augusta"; they were also called kyría κυρία "Lady" or déspoina δέσποινα, the female form of δεσπότης "despot". Due to the practice of dividing the Roman empire under different emperors, there were periods when there were more than one Roman empress. All the Roman empresses are listed with some co-empresses. Not all empresses were titled Augusta, and not all Augustae were empresses since the emperor's sister or mistress could bear that title. Some Caesarissas and Despoinas that never were empresses are included, since the titles were quite similar to Empress; however, in the Eastern Roman Empire these titles are often more equivalent to the modern term "crown princess".

The Western Roman Empire produced no known empresses regnant, though the obscure Ulpia Severina probably ruled in her own right for some time after the death of her husband, Aurelian.

The Byzantine Empire had three official empresses regnant: Irene of Athens, Zoë Porphyrogenita and Theodora. There never was a male emperor consort (i.e. a husband of an empress-regnant); however, some husband and wife couples, notably Justinian I and Theodora, were simultaneously coregnant.

Contents

Empress consorts of the Roman EmpireEdit

(27 BC–68 AD) Julio-Claudian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Livia
(LIVIA•DRVSILLA)
Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus (gens Claudia) 30 January, 58 BC 17 January. 38 BC 16 January 27 BC 19 August, AD 14 AD 29 Augustus
  Livia Orestilla ? ? AD 37 or AD 38 few days after marriage ? Caligula
  Lollia Paulina Marcus Lollius ? AD 38 6 months later AD 49
  Milonia Caesonia ? ? late AD 39 or early AD 40 24 January, AD 41 Hours after husband's death
  Messalina Marcus Valerius Messalla c. 17/20 37 or 38 24 January 41 AD AD 48, for conspiring against her husband Claudius
  Agrippina the Younger Germanicus
(gens Claudia)
6 November AD 15 New Year’s Day in AD 49 13 October AD 54 March AD 59, possibly because of her son, Nero's affairs with Poppaea Sabina
  Claudia Octavia Claudius
(gens Claudia)
Late AD 39 or early AD 40 9 June AD 53 13 October 54 1 January 61 9 June AD 62 Nero
  Poppaea Sabina Titus Ollius AD 30 AD 62 AD 65
  Statilia Messalina ? ca. AD 35 AD 66 9 June AD 68 after 68
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(68–96) Year of the Four Emperors & Flavian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Galeria Fundana Galerius (b. ca 15), a Praetor c. 40 c. 50 March 69 December 69 after 69 Vitellius
  Domitia Longina Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo c. 53 c. 70 14 September 81 18 September 96 c. 130 Domitian
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(96–192) Nerva–Antonine dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Pompeia Plotina ? ? ? 28 January 98 7 August 117 121/122 Trajan
  Vibia Sabina Lucius Vibius Sabinus c. 80 100 10 August 117 136 or 137 Hadrian
  Annia Galeria Faustina Major Marcus Annius Verus September 21 about 100 110-115 11 July 138 141 Antoninus Pius
  Annia Galeria Faustina Minor Antoninus Pius
(Antonine)
16 February between 125 and 130 13 May 145 8 March 161 co-empress consort
March 169 sole-empress consort
175 Marcus Aurelius
  Lucilla Marcus Aurelius
(Antonine)
7 March 148 or 150 164 co-empress consort March 169 182 Lucius Verus
  Bruttia Crispina Gaius Bruttius Praesens 164 July of 178 July of 178 co-empress consort
18 March 180 sole empress
182 182 or 187 Commodus
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(193–235) Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Flavia Titiana Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus ? ? 1 January 193 AD 28 March 193 after 193 Pertinax
  Manlia Scantilla (gens Manlia) ? before 153 28 March 193 1 June 193 ? Didius Julianus
  Julia Domna Julius Bassianus 170 late 180s 14 April 193 co-empress consort
February 197 sole empress
April 202 senior empress-consort
4 February 211 217 Septimius Severus
  Publia Fulvia Plautilla Gaius Fulvius Plautianus
(gens Fulvia)
185/around 188/189 13 May 145 April 202 co/junior-empress consort 22 January 205 early 212 Caracalla
  Nonia Celsa ? ? ? 8 April 217 June 218 ? Macrinus
  Julia Cornelia Paula Julius Paulus Prudentissimus
(gens Cornelia)
? 219 late 220 ? Elagabalus
  Julia Aquilia Severa Quintus Aquilius ? 220 221 ?
  Annia Faustina Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus ? July 221 later in 221 ?
  Aquilia Severa Quintus Aquilius ? 221 222 ?
  Sallustia Orbiana Seius Sallustius ? 225/226 227 ? Severus Alexander
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(235–284) Crisis of the Third CenturyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Caecilia Paulina ? ? ? 20 March 235 235/236 Maximinus Thrax
  Furia Sabinia Tranquillina Timesitheus c. 225 May 241 11 February 244 aft. 244 Gordian III
  Marcia Otacilia Severa Otacilius Severus or Severianus
(gens Otacilia)
? 234 February 244 September/October 249 ? Philip the Arab
  Annia Cupressenia Herennia Etruscilla Unknown Etrurian senatorial family September 249 before 230 September/October 249 June 251 June 251
after husband
Decius
  Afinia Gemina Baebiana ? ? ? June 251[1] August 253 ? Trebonianus Gallus
  Gaia Cornelia Supera ? ? ? August 253 October 253 ? Aemilianus
  Julia Cornelia Salonina ? ? ?243 October 253 September 268 Gallienus
Ulpia Severina Ulpius Crinitus? ? ? September 270 September or October 275 ? Aurelian
Magnia Urbica ? ? ? 282 Caesarissa in the West
Late July/early August 283 sole-empress consort
20 November 284 in conflict with Empress Prisca
285 ? Carinus
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(284–364) Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Prisca ? ? ? 20 November 284 in conflict with Magnia Urbica
285 sole-empress consort
1 April 286 co-empress consort in the East
1 May 305 315 Diocletian
  Eutropia Syrian ? around 283 21 July/25 July 285 Caesarissa
1 April 286 co-empress consort in the West
Late 306 husband declared himself Augustus
1 May 305
July 310
after 325 Maximian
Flavia Maximiana Theodora Flavius Afranius Hannibalianus ? 293 293 Caesarissa
1 May 305 empress consort in the West
25 July 306 ? Constantius Chlorus
Galeria Valeria Diocletian ? 293 1 March/21 May 293 Caesarissa
1 May 305
empress consort in the East
5 May 311 315 Galerius
  Valeria Maximilla Galerius ? around 293 28 October 306 empress consort in the West 28 October 312 ? Maxentius
  Minervina ? ? ?[2] 25 July 306 Caesarissa before 307 ? Constantine the Great
Fausta Flavia Maxima Maximian 289 307 307 Caesarissa in the West
309 husband proclaimed to be emperor
April 310 accepted in the East
29 October 312 undisputed empress-consort in the West, senior-empress-consort in the empire
19 September 324 empress-consort of united empire
326
  Flavia Julia Constantia Constantine the Great
(Constantinian)
after 293 313 313 empress-consort in the East 324 c. 330 Licinius
  Unnamed daughter of Julius Constantius
[3]
Julius Constantius
(Constantinian dynasty)
? 335 or 336 335 or 336 Caesarissa
22 May 337 co-empress consort
350 sole empress consort
353/354 ? Constantius II
  Flavia Aurelia Eusebia Flavius Eusebius the Macedonian Consul, ? 353 sole empress consort 360
  Faustina ? ? Winter of 360 sole-empress consort in empire 3 November 361 after 366
  Helena Constantine the Great
(Constantinian dynasty)
November 355 Caesarissa
February 360 empress consort[4]
360? Julian
  Charito Lucillianus ? ? 27 June 363 17 February 364 after 380 Jovian
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(364-379) Valentinian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Marina Severa ? ? ? c. 364 370 ? Valentinian I
  Justina ? c. 340 c. 370 375 c. 391
  Albia Dominica Petronius c. 337 c. 354 c. 364 378 ? Valens
  Flavia Maxima Constantia Constans II
(Constantinian)
c. 361-62 c. 374 383 Gratian
  Laeta ? ? 383 ?
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(379–395) Theodosian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Aelia Flavia Flaccilla ? ? 375-376 August 378 Roman empress consort in the East 385 Theodosius I
  Flavia Galla Valentinian I
(Valentinian)
370-375 387 Roman empress consort in the East
May 15 392 sole-Roman empress consort
17 November 375 394
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

Empress consorts of the Western Roman EmpireEdit

(395–455) Theodosian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Maria Stilicho ? February 398 the Western Roman empress consort 407 Honorius
  Thermantia ? 408 the Western Roman empress consort c. 408 415
  Aelia Galla Placidia Theodosius I
(Theodosian)
392 1 January 421 8 February 421 the Western Roman empress consort 2 September 421 27 November 450 Constantius III
  Licinia Eudoxia Theodosius II
(Theodosian)
422 29 October 437 the Western Roman empress consort 16 March 455 462 Valentinian III
17 March 455 2nd times as the Western Roman empress consort 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(455–476) Non-dynasticEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Aelia Marcia Euphemia Flavius Marcianus ? 453 12 April 467 11 July 472 ? Anthemius
  Galla Placidia Valentiniana Minor Valentinian III
(Valentinian)
439-443 454 or 455 23 March or 11 July 472 23 October or 2 November 472 480 Olybrius
  Unnamed Niece of Leo I ?
(Leonid)
? ? June 474 25 April 480
(since 28 August 475 from Dalmatia)
? Julius Nepos
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

Empresses consort of the Eastern Roman EmpireEdit

(395–457) Theodosian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Aelia Eudoxia Flavius Bauto ? 27 April 395 6 October 404 Arcadius
  Aelia Licinia Eudocia Leontius c. 401 7 June 421 28 July 450 20 October 460 Theodosius II
  Aelia Pulcheria Arcadius
(Theodosian)
19 January 399 28 July 450 July 453 Marcian
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(457–518) Leonid dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Aelia Verina ? ? ? 7 February 457 18 January 474 484 Leo I
  Aelia Ariadne Leo I
(Leonid)
c. 450 466/468 9 February 474
1st time
9 January 475 515 Zeno
  Aelia Zenonis ? ? ? 9 January 475 August 476 476/477 Basiliscus
  Aelia Ariadne Leo I
(Leonid)
c. 450 466/468 August 476
2nd time
9 April 491 515 Zeno
20 May 491
3rd time
515 Anastasius
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(518–602) Justinian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Euphemia ? ? 491-518 July 518 c. 524 Justin I
  Theodora
(Θεοδώρα)
Acacius c. 500 ? 1 August 527 28 June 548 Justinian I
  Aelia Sophia Sittas[5] c. 530 ? 14 November 565 sole empress consort
5 October 578 co-empress consort
5 October 578 after 601 Justin II
  Aelia Anastasia ? ? ? 7 December 574 Caesarissa
September 578 co-empress consort
5 October 578 sole empress consort
14 August 582 593 Tiberius II Constantine
  Constantina Tiberius II Constantine
(Justinian)[6]
c. 560 Autumn 582 27 November 602 c. 605 Maurice
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(602–610) Non-dynasticEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Leontia ? ? ? 23 November 602 October 610 ? Phocas
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(610–711) Heraclian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Fabia Eudokia Rogas of Africa c. 580 5 October 610 13 August 612 Heraclius
  Martina Martinus ? 613 sole-empress consort
629/630 senior empress-consort
11 February 641 after 641
  Gregoria Niketas 610s 629/630 629/630 junior empress-consort
11 February 641 senior empress-consort
May 641 ? Constantine III
  Fausta Valentinus
(Arsacid)
c. 630 642 15 September 668 after 668 Constans II
  Anastasia ? ? ? 668 September 685 after 711 Constantine IV
  Eudokia ? ? ? c. 685? c. 695? ? Justinian II
  Theodora of Khazaria ? ? 703 705 December 711 ?
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(711–717) Non-dynasticEdit

None

(717–802) Isaurian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Maria Tervel of Bulgaria[5]
(Dulo)
? ? 25 March 717 18 June 741 ? Leo III
  Anna Leo III
(Isaurian)
c. 705 ? June 741 rival empress consort November 743 after 743 Artabasdos
  Irene of Khazaria Bihar ? c. 732 c. 732 co-empress consort
18 June 741 rival empress consort
2 November 743 sole empress consort
c. 750 Constantine V
  Maria ? ? c. 750 c. 751
  Eudokia ? ? c. 751 [7] 14 September 775 ?
  Irene Serantapechaina
(Ειρήνη η Αθηναία, Eirēnē)
?
(Sarantapechoi)
c. 752 17 December 769 17 December 769 co-empress consort
25 March 775 sole empress consort
18 June 780 9 August 803 Leo IV
  Maria of Amnia ? c. 770 November 788 January 795 after 823 Constantine VI
  Theodote ? c. 780 September 795 c. 797 after 797
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(802–813) Dynasty of Nikephoros IEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Theophano
(Θεοφανώ)
? ? 20 December 807 807 co-empress consort
26 July 811
2 October 811 ? Staurakios
  Prokopia Nikephoros I c. 770 - after 813 late 8th century 2 October 811 11 July 813 after 813 Michael I
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(813–820) Non-dynasticEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Theodosia Arsaber c. 775 ? 11 July 813 25 December 820 after 826 Leo V
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(820–867) Phrygian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Thekla Bardanes Tourkos ? before 803 25 December 820 c. 823 Michael II
  Euphrosyne Constantine VI
(Isaurian)
c. 790 c. 823 2 October 829 after 836
  Theodora the Armenian
(Θεοδώρα)
Marinos
(Mamikonian)
c. 815 5 June 830 20 January 842 after 867 Theophilos
  Eudokia Dekapolitissa ? ? 855 23 September 867 – 24 September 867 ? Michael III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(867–1056) Macedonian dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became empress Ceased to be empress Death Spouse
  Eudokia Ingerina[8]
(Ευδοκία Ιγγερίνα)
Inger c. 840 865 26 May 866 co-empress consort
24 September 867 sole-empress consort
882 Basil I
  Theophano
(Θεοφανώ)
Constantine Martiniakos ? c. 883 29 August 886 893/897 10 November 897 Leo VI
  Zoe Zaoutzaina Stylianos Zaoutzes ? 893/897[9] May 899
  Eudokia Baïana ? ? Spring 900[7] 12 April 901
  Zoe Karbonopsina (Ζωή Καρβωνοψίνα) ? ? 9 January 906[10] 11 May 912 ?
  Helena Lekapene Romanos I c. 910 May 919 May 919 co-empress consort
27 January 945 sole-empress consort
9 November 959 19 September 961 Constantine VII
  Theodora
(Θεοδώρα)
? ? ? September 920 Caesarissa
17 December 920 senior co-empress consort
20 February 922 Romanos I
  Theophano [11]
(Θεοφανώ)
Anastaso c. 941 956 956 co-empress consort
9 November 959 sole-empress consort
15 March 963
1st time
after 976 Romanos II
August 963
2nd time
10 December 969 – 11 December 969 Nikephoros II
  Theodora the Macedonian
(Θεοδώρα)
Constantine VII
(Macedonian)
c. 946 November 971 10 January 976 ? John I
  Helena Alypius ? 976? 976? only empress or junior empress consort unknown, she predeceased her husband many years
before he became sole emperor in 1025
? Constantine VIII
  Zoe Porphyrogenita
(Ζωή)
Constantine VIII
(Macedonian)
c. 978 12 November 1028 15 November 1028
1st time
11 April 1034 June 1050 Romanos III
11 April 1034
2nd time
10 December 1041 Michael IV
11 June 1042[7]
3rd time
June 1050 Constantine IX
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(1057–1059) Komnenid dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Ekaterina of Bulgaria Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria
(Comitopuli dynasty)
? before 1057 5 June 1057 rival empress consort
31 August 1057 sole empress consort
22 November 1059 after 1059 Isaac I
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(1059–1081) Doukid dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Eudokia Makrembolitissa
(Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα)
John Makrembolites
(Makrembolites)
1021 before 1050 24 November 1059
1st time
22 May 1067 1096 Constantine X
1 January 1068
2nd time
1071 Romanos IV
  Irene Pegonitissa Niketas Pegonites ? ? ?around 1059? Caesarissa
1074 husband unwillingly proclaimed emperor by rebel Norman
? ? Caesar John Doukas
  Martha of Alania (as Maria)
(Μαρία της Αλανίας)
Bagrat IV of Georgia
(Bagrationi)
c. 1050 1065 1065 junior-empress consort
22 May 1067 co-empress consort
1071 sole-empress consort
1075 as senior empress consort
31 March 1078 after 1103 Michael VII
c. 1078 10 December 1081 Nikephoros III
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(1081–1185) Komnenid dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Irene Doukaina
(Ειρήνη Δούκαινα)
Andronikos Doukas
(Doukai)
c. 1066 1078 4 April 1081 15 August 1118 19 February 1123 or 1133 Alexios I
  Anna Komnene
(Άννα Κομνηνή)
Alexios I
(Komnenoi)
1 December 1083 1097 Caesarissa 1118/1137 1153 Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios
  Piroska of Hungary (as Irene) Ladislaus I of Hungary
(Árpád)
1088 1104 1104 co-empress consort
15 August 1118 sole-empress consort
13 August 1134 John II
  Bertha of Sulzbach (as Irene) Berengar II, Count of Sulzbach
(Babenberg)
1110s after Epiphany 1146 1159 Manuel I
  Maria of Antioch Raymond of Antioch
(Ramnulfids)
1145 24 December 1161 24 September 1180 1182
  Agnes of France (as Anna) Louis VII of France
(Capetian)
1171 2 March 1180 24 September 1180 October 1183 after 1204 Alexios II
1183 12 September 1185 Andronikos I
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

(1185–1204) Angelid dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Margaret of Hungary (as Maria) Béla III of Hungary
(Árpád)
1175 c. 1185 12 September 1185 1st time 8 April 1195 1223 Isaac II
  Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamatera
(Ευφροσύνη Δούκαινα Καματερίνα or Καματηρά)
Andronikos Doukas Kamateros
(Kamateroi-Doukai)
c. 1155 c. 1169 8 April 1195 July 17/18 1203 1211 Alexios III
  Margaret of Hungary (as Maria) Béla III of Hungary
(Árpád)
1175 c. 1185 July 1203 2nd time January 1204 1223 Isaac II
  Eudokia Angelina[12]
(Ευδοκία Αγγελίνα)
Alexios III
(Angeloi)
1 December 1083 ?1204? 1211 Alexios V
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

Empress consorts of the Eastern Roman Empire (in exile)Edit

Empress consorts of the Eastern Roman Empire (restored)Edit

(1261–1453, restored to Constantinople) Palaiologan dynastyEdit

Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse
  Theodora Palaiologina Ioannes Doukas Vatatzes
(Vatatzes)
c. 1240 1253 1 January 1259 co-empress consort of Nicaea
18 August 1258 sole-empress consort of Nicaea
25 July 1261 empress consort, restored to Constantinople
8 November 1273 senior empress consort
1281 only empress consort
11 December 1282 4 March 1303 Michael VIII
  Anna of Hungary Stephen V of Hungary
(Árpád)
c. 1260 8 November 1273 co-empress consort 1281/1282 Andronikos II
  Irene of Montferrat William VII, Marquess of Montferrat
(Aleramici)
1274 1284 sole empress consort
16 January 1294 senior empress consort
1317
  Maria of Armenia Leo III of Armenia
(Hetoumids)
10/11 January 1278 c. 1185 16 January 1294 junior empress consort
1317 only empress consort
12 October 1320 July 1333 Michael IX
  Irene of Brunswick Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(Welf)
c. 1293 March 1318 March 1318 co-empress consort
July 1321 rival empress consort
16 August 1324 – 17 August 1324 Andronikos III
  Anna of Savoy Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
(Savoy)
1306 October 1326 October 1326 rival empress consort
24 May 1328 sole empress consort
15 June 1341 1359
  Irene Asanina Andronikos Asen
(Asen)
c. 1300 before 1320 26 October 1341 rival empress consort
8 February 1347 co-empress consort
4 December 1354 1363-1379 John VI
  Helena Kantakouzene John VI
(Kantakouzenoi)
1333 28 May/29 May 1347 28 May/29 May 1347 co-empress consort
1352 rival empress consort
4 December 1354 senior empress consort
12 August 1376 10 December 1396 John V
  Irene Palaiologina Demetrios Palaiologos
(Palaiologoi)
1327 1340 15 April 1353 co-empress consort
4 December 1354 rival empress consort
1357 Matthew Kantakouzenos
  Maria of Bulgaria Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria
(Shishman)
1348 after 17 August 1355 after 17 August 1355 co-empress consort
12 August 1376 senior empress consort
1 July 1379 1390 Andronikos IV
  Helena Kantakouzene John VI
(Kantakouzenoi)
1333 28 May/29 May 1347 1 July 1379 senior empress consort, husband restored
14 April 1390 only empress
17 September 1390 senior empress consort, husband restored
16 February 1391 10 December 1396 John V
  Helena Dragaš Constantine Dragaš
(Dragaš)
c. 1372 10 February 1392 senior empress consort 21 July 1425 23 May 1450 Manuel II
  Irene Gattilusio Francesco II of Lesbos
(Gattilusio)
1384 before 1397 co-empress consort 22 September 1408 1 June 1440 John VII
  Anna of Moscow Vasili I of Moscow
(Rurikid)
1393 c. 1411 1416 Despoina and shortly after co-empress consort August 1417 John VIII
  Sophia Palaiologina of Montferrat Theodore II, Marquess of Montferrat
(Palaiologoi)
1396 19 January 1421 19 January 1421co-empress consort
21 July 1425 sole-empress consort
August 1426 21 August 1434
  Maria Megale Komnene Alexios IV of Trebizond
(Megalokomnenoi)
? September 1427[7] 17 December 1439
Picture Name Father Birth Marriage Became Empress Ceased to be Empress Death Spouse

Pretending Empress consorts of the Roman EmpireEdit

The Western Roman Empire met its end in 476 and the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453. Although others continued to claim similar titles after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 — e.g. Holy Roman Empresses (as heirs of the Western Empire) or Russian Tsaritsas and Empresses (as the Empresses of the Third Rome) — the last reigning Empress consort of the Eastern Roman Empire of Constantinople was Maria of Trebizond. The last Palaiologan pretender, Andreas Palaiologos, sold his right to the imperial succession to Charles VIII of France, but he also willed the imperial titles to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castille, and so in a sense either the French queens or the Spanish queens have been the titular Empresses of the Eastern Roman Empire since the 15th century. Another Palaiologian, Manuel Palaiologos, sold his right of succession to Ottoman Sultan Bayazid II (the Ottoman sultans already claim to be the Kaizer-i Rum or Roman emperors); but since there is no such thing as a sultaness because the Ottomans practiced polygamy, there are no Ottoman consorts. Other possible pretenders may be the former Queens of Greece because the Greek monarchy was mainly created in 1832 to be the successor of the Byzantine Empire. The former Queens of Italy could be another claimant since their husband's were one of the only European monarchs to effectively hold the city of Rome, the seat of the Roman Empire since its beginning.

Neither the Empresses of Russia, the Queens of France, the Queens of Spain, the Queens of Italy or the Queens of the Hellenes claimed any sort of Roman titles and the claimants that clearly made the most point by using the word Roman in their title, the Holy Roman Empresses and the Queens of the Romans, ceased their claim upon the dissolution the empire in 1806. Currently the consorts of five of these states are pretenders in their own countries, themselves, and the current Queen of Spain claims no Roman titles. The status of the current pretenders to the Byzantine successor states of Trebizond, Epirus, and Nicaea are unclear much less their spouses; the despots of Morea became the Byzantine emperors (in exile) in 1453.

For a list of the consorts of the ruler of these states and the spouse of the pretenders of these states, see List of consorts of the Byzantine successor states

Along with the current Pretending Latin emperor, the pretenders of the crusader and client states within the Latin Empire are also unclear.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ never titled
  2. ^ her status as a concumbine or wife is unknown
  3. ^ Mentioned in "Letter To The Senate And People of Athens" by Julian
  4. ^ not known if she live to see this
  5. ^ a b historical theory
  6. ^ adoptive
  7. ^ a b c d Third marriages are the last permitted according to the rules of Orthodox Church, but are highly disapproved by the Church.
  8. ^ formerly mistress of Michael III
  9. ^ There is a contradiction on Zoe Zaoutzaina's particular status 893–897. According to Symeon, the marriage of Leo VI to Theophano was officially void, allowing Leo and Zoe to marry within the year. According to Theophanes, the original marriage was still valid and Zoe remained the royal mistress. Theophano died in her monastery on 10 November 897. According to Theophanes, Leo and Zoe proceeded to marry at this point. Both Symeon and Theophanes agree that Zoe was only crowned Augusta following the death of her predecessor.
  10. ^ Fourth marriages are uncanonical in the eyes of the Orthodox Church.
  11. ^ Lover of future Emperor John I
  12. ^ Sometimes she is not considered the last Byzantine Empress consort before the Fourth Crusader because of the unknown date of her marriage.