Ulpia Severina

Ulpia Severina, also known as Severina (fl. 3rd century), was a Roman Empress, the wife of the emperor Aurelian. There is evidence that she reigned in her own right for some period after Aurelian's death in 275, which would make her the only woman to have ruled over the entire classical Roman Empire by her own power. Very little is known about her, as there are no literary sources mentioning her existence. Almost everything known about her, including her name, is gathered from coins and inscriptions.[1]

Ulpia Severina
Augusta
Severina Ant.jpg
Antoninianus of Severina.
Empress of the Roman Empire
Tenure270–275
PredecessorCornelia Salonina
SuccessorMagnia Urbica (after eight-month interregnum)
SpouseEmperor Aurelian
IssueUnknown daughter
Full name
Ulpia Severina
Regnal name
Ulpia Severina Augusta
FatherUncertain, perhaps Ulpius Crinitus

LifeEdit

Nothing certain is known of Ulpia Severina before her marriage to Aurelian. It has been suggested that she was the daughter of Ulpius Crinitus, a figure appearing in the Historia Augusta.[2][3] This Ulpius is said to have been a descendant of the line of Trajan and to have supported and adopted Aurelian.[2] However, the Historia Augusta is notoriously unreliable, and the story, and perhaps Ulpius himself, may have been invented by propagandists trying to connect Aurelian with the "Good Emperor" Trajan.[1][2] Some scholars believe that Ulpia Severina was from Dacia, where the nomen Ulpius was common due to the influence of Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Traianus).[1]

At any rate, Ulpia Severina married Aurelian probably before he became emperor in 270. It is known that she had a daughter by him.[2] According to coinage depicting her, Ulpia had gained the title of Augusta at least by the autumn of 274 if not before then. She also received the titles Pia or "pious"[1] and mater castrorum et senatus et patriae[2] or "mother of the barracks (armies), senate, and country".

There is considerable numismatic evidence suggesting that Ulpia Severina ruled in her own right between the death of Aurelian and the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus.[1] Sources mention an interregnum between Aurelian and Tacitus, and some of Ulpia's coins appear to have been minted after Aurelian's death.[2] As such, she may well have been the only woman to have ruled over the whole Roman Empire.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  2. ^ a b c d e f Körner, Christian (December 23, 2008). "Aurelian (A.D. 270-275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  3. ^ Krawczuk, Aleksander. Poczet cesarzowych Rzymu. Warszawa: Iskry. ISBN 83-244-0021-4. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)

External linksEdit

Ulpia Severina
Born: ? Died: ?
Royal titles
Preceded by
Cornelia Salonina
Roman Empress
270–275
Vacant
Interregnum (275-283)
Next known title holder:
Magnia Urbica