Philippikos Bardanes

Philippikos or Philippicus (Latin: Filepicus;[a] Greek: Φιλιππικός, romanizedPhilippikos) was Byzantine emperor from 711 to 713.

Philippikos
Emperor of the Romans
Solidus of Philippicus.png
A solidus of Philippikos
Byzantine emperor
Reign4 November 711– 3 June 713
PredecessorJustinian II
SuccessorAnastasios II
BornPergamum
(now Bergama, Izmir, Turkey)
Died713
Names
Filepicus Bardanes
DynastyTwenty Years' Anarchy
FatherNikephorus

BiographyEdit

Philippicus was originally named Bardanes (Greek: Βαρδάνης, romanizedVardanis; Armenian: Վարդան, Vardan); he was the son of the patrician Nikephoros, who was of Armenian extraction from an Armenian colony in Pergamum.[3] The Armenian background of Philippikos Bardanes has been supported by Byzantinist historians Peter Charanis and Nicholas Adontz,[4] and disputed by Anthony Kaldellis.[5] Kaldellis' adds that Bardanes was probably born and raised in the Byzantine realm (i.e. Romanía), as his father Nikephoros possibly was. Contemporaneous sources attest to Bardanes' tutoring, scholarly interests, learning and eloquence, all of which were in Greek.[5] Byzantine historians Leslie Brubaker and John Haldon suggested Bardanes had some connection or affiliation with the Armenian Mamikonian family,[6] which Kaldellis also denies. Byzantine researcher Toby Bromige felt Kaldellis was too dismissive of the Armenian ancestry of certain Byzantine individuals.[7]

Relying on the support of the Monothelite party, he made some pretensions to the throne on the outbreak of the first great rebellion against Emperor Justinian II; these led to his relegation to Cephalonia by Tiberius Apsimarus, and subsequently to his banishment to Cherson by order of Justinian. Here Bardanes, taking the name of Philippicus, successfully incited the inhabitants to revolt with the help of the Khazars. The successful rebels seized Constantinople, and Justinian fled; Philippikos took the throne. Justinian was subsequently seized and beheaded; his son Tiberius was likewise apprehended by Philippikos's officers, Ioannes and Mauros, and killed in a church. Justinian's principal officers, such as Barasbakourios, were also massacred.

 
Philippicus (left) apprehending Tiberius (son of Justinian II) for execution. Scene from the 12th century Manasses Chronicle.

ReignEdit

Among the first acts of Philippikos Bardanes were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John VI, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the Sixth Ecumenical Council. In response the Roman Church refused to recognize the new emperor and his patriarch. Meanwhile, the Bulgarian ruler Tervel plundered up to the walls of Constantinople in 712. When Philippicus transferred an army from the Opsikion theme to police the Balkans, the Umayyad Caliphate under Al-Walid I made inroads across the weakened defenses of Asia Minor.

In late May 713 the Opsikion troops rebelled in Thrace. Several of their officers penetrated the city and blinded Philippicus on June 3, 713 while he was in the hippodrome.[8] He was succeeded for a short while by his principal secretary, Artemius, who was raised to the purple as Emperor Anastasius II. He died in the same year.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The contemporary coins of Philippikos renders his name in Latin as Filepicus.[1][2] The rendition Philippicus is a modernized version following the Greek rendition of the name.

BibliographyEdit

References
  1. ^ Sear, David (1987). Byzantine Coins and Their Values. Spink Books. p. 276. ISBN 978-1-912667-39-0.
  2. ^ Garipzanov, Ildar H. (2008). The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751-877). BRILL. pp. ix, 28. ISBN 978-90-04-16669-1.
  3. ^ Charanis, Peter (1959). "Ethnic Changes in the Byzantine Empire in the Seventh Century". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. Dumbarton Oaks. 13: 23–44. doi:10.2307/1291127. JSTOR 1291127.
  4. ^ Charanis, Peter (1961). The Armenians in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantinoslavica. p. 13. ISBN 1721178678.
  5. ^ a b Kaldellis, Anthony (2019). Romanland: Ethnicity and Empire in Byzantium. Harvard University Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780674986510.
  6. ^ Brubaker, Leslie; Haldon, John (2011). Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, C. 680-850: A History. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 587. ISBN 978-0-521-43093-7.
  7. ^ Bromige, Toby (8 March 2021). "Anthony Kaldellis, Romanland: Ethnicity and Empire in Byzantium". Cambridge Core. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  8. ^ Theophanes 1982, p. 79.
Sources

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Regnal titles
Preceded by Byzantine Emperor
4 November 711 – 3 June 713
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by
Tiberius III in 699, then lapsed
Consul of the Roman Empire
711
Succeeded by
Lapsed,
Anastasios II in 714