John VIII Palaiologos

John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus (Greek: Ἰωάννης Παλαιολόγος, romanizedIōannēs Palaiologos; 18 December 1392 – 31 October 1448) was the penultimate Byzantine emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448.

John VIII Palaiologos
Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans
Palaio.jpg
Portrait by Benozzo Gozzoli
Byzantine emperor
Reign21 July 1425 – 31 October 1448
Coronation19 January 1421
PredecessorManuel II Palaiologos
SuccessorConstantine XI Palaiologos
Born18 December 1392
Died31 October 1448(1448-10-31) (aged 55)
Spouse
(m. 1414; died 1417)

(m. 1421⁠–⁠1426)

(m. 1427; died 1439)
DynastyPalaiologos
FatherManuel II Palaiologos
MotherHelena Dragaš
ReligionCatholic/Orthodox

BiographyEdit

John VIII was the eldest son of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš,[1] the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš. He was associated as co-emperor with his father before 1416 and became sole emperor on 1 July 1425,[2] although he had already assumed full power on 19 January 1421.[3][4][5]

In June 1422, John VIII Palaiologos supervised the defense of Constantinople during a siege by Murad II,[6] but had to accept the loss of Thessalonica, which his brother Andronikos had given to Venice in 1423. To secure protection against the Ottomans, he made two journeys to Italy in 1423 and 1439. In 1423 he became the last Byzantine emperor (the first since emperor Constans II´visit in 663) to make a visit to Rome.[7] During the second journey he visited Pope Eugene IV in Ferrara and consented to the union of the Greek and Roman churches. The Union was ratified at the Council of Florence in 1439, which John attended with 700 followers including Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople and George Gemistos Plethon, a Neoplatonist philosopher influential among the academics of Italy. The Union failed due to opposition in Constantinople, but through his prudent conduct towards the Ottoman Empire he succeeded in holding possession of the city.

John VIII Palaiologos named his brother Constantine XI, who had served as regent in Constantinople in 1437–1439, as his successor. Despite the machinations of his younger brother Demetrios Palaiologos his mother Helena was able to secure Constantine XI's succession in 1448.

John VIII died at Constantinople in 1448, becoming the last reigning Byzantine emperor to die of natural causes.

MarriagesEdit

John VIII Palaiologos was married three times. His first marriage was in 1414 to Anna of Moscow, daughter of Grand Prince Basil I of Moscow (1389–1425) and Sophia of Lithuania.[8] She died in August 1417 of plague.

The second marriage, arranged by his father Manuel II and Pope Martin V, was to Sophia of Montferrat in 1421.[8] She was a daughter of Theodore II, Marquess of Montferrat, and his second wife Joanna of Bar. Joanna was a daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar, and Marie de Valois. Her maternal grandparents were John II of France and Bonne of Bohemia.

His third marriage, arranged by the future cardinal, Bessarion, was to Maria of Trebizond in 1427.[8] She was a daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond and Theodora Kantakouzene.[8] She died in the winter of 1439, also from plague.[9] None of the marriages produced any children.

Representation in artEdit

John VIII Palaiologos was famously depicted by several painters on the occasion of his visit to Italy.[10] Perhaps the most famous of his portraits is the one by Benozzo Gozzoli, on the southern wall of the Magi Chapel, at the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, in Florence. According to some interpretations, John VIII would be also portrayed in Piero della Francesca's Flagellation. A portrait of John appears in a manuscript at the Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula.

GalleryEdit

AncestryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Çelik 2021, p. xx.
  2. ^ Chasin 1989, p. 281.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, p. 1053
  4. ^ Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Palaiologos, Ioannes VIII."
  5. ^ Speake, Graham (2021). Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition. Routledge. p. 852. ISBN 9781135942069.
  6. ^ Barker 1969, p. xxxiv.
  7. ^ Çelik 2021, p. 380.
  8. ^ a b c d Nicol 1992, p. 5.
  9. ^ Runciman 1965, p. 21.
  10. ^ Drawings of John VIII Palaiologos Archived 5 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Pisanello, Florence 1439

SourcesEdit

  • Barker, John W. (1969). Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship. Rutgers University Press.
  • Çelik, Siren (2021). Manuel II Palaiologos (1350–1425): A Byzantine Emperor in a Time of Tumult. Cambridge University Press.
  • Chasin, Martin (1989). "The Crusade of Varna". In Hazard, Harry W.; Zacour, Norman P. (eds.). A History of the Crusades:The Impact of the Crusades on Europe. 6. University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Nicol, Donald M. (1992). The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans. Cambridge University Press.
  • Runciman, Steven (1965). The Fall of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge University Press.

Further readingEdit

  • Harris, Jonathan, The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8
  • Kolditz, Sebastian, Johannes VIII. Palaiologos und das Konzil von Ferrara-Florenz (1438/39). 2 Vol., Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann Verlag 2013–2014, ISBN 978-3-7772-1319-4.
  • Lazaris, Stavros, "L’empereur Jean VIII Paléologue vu par Pisanello lors du concile de Ferrare – Florence", Byzantinische Forschungen, 29, 2007, p. 293-324 [1]
  • Nicol, Donald M. (1993) [1972]. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
John VIII Palaiologos
Palaiologos dynasty
Born: 18 December 1392 Died: 31 October 1448
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Manuel II Palaiologos
Byzantine Emperor
1425–1448
Succeeded by
Constantine XI Palaiologos Dragases