List of monarchs of Kerma

The following is an incomplete list of monarchs of Kerma, known collectively in Middle Kingdom Egyptian texts as Hkꜣr.[1] The Kingdom of Kerma existed as an independent state from around 2500 BC to 1520 BC. It was absorbed into the vigorous Egyptian Empire but would later reemerge as the Kingdom of Kush.

Rulers of KermaEdit


  1. ^ Török 1998, p. 589.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Hamblin 2006, p. 384.
  3. ^ a b Shillington 2004, p. 762.


  • Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6.
  • Török, László (1998). The Kingdom of Kush: Handbook of the Napatan-Meroitic Civilization. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 589 Pages. ISBN 90-04-10448-8.
  • Shillington, Kevin (2004). Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1. London: Routledge. pp. 1912 Pages. ISBN 1-57958-245-1.