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East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[1] or ethno-cultural[2] terms.[3][4] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Chinese mainland, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, North Korea, and South Korea.[3][5][6][7][8][1][9][10][11][12]

East Asia
東亞
(in traditional Chinese)
(in Japanese)(in Korean)(in Vietnamese)
Subregion of Asia
Location of East Asia
States
Dependencies
Major cities
Area[note 2]
 • Total 11,839,074 km2 (4,571,092 sq mi)
Population (2016)[note 3]
 • Total 1,641,908,531
 • Rank 2nd (World)
 • Density 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zone
Languages and language families
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese 東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetan ཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabet Đông Á
Chữ Hán 東亞
Korean name
Hangul 동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja 東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian Зүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kana ひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai 東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai 東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
Uyghur
شەرقىي ئاسىي
Russian name
Russian Восточная Азия
Romanization Vostochnaja Azija

The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[13][14] East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors.[15][16][17] Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[note 4]), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism and Sindoism in Korea.[11] Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.[18][19]

East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Contents

HistoryEdit

In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would already possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.[20] As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic, technological, and political muscle onto its neighbors.[21][22][23] Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically, politically and militarily for over two millennia.[23][24] Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it also supplied Japan, Vietnam and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems.[25] In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region.[26] Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang. Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, and Confucian political institutions.[27] Jomon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was greatly impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for almost all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, and making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, and animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years (939-1870s) until the loss of independence under French Indochina. This cultural affiliation to China remained true even when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan. The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the strongly anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese (among other actions triggering the fourth Chinese invasion), but then after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence. As full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea, Japan and Vietnam actively began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, religion, urban planning, and various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties.[28] For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.[29] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[30][31][22] The transmission of advanced Chinese cultural practices and ways of thinking greatly shaped the region up until the 19th century.[20]

As East Asia's connections with Europe and the Western world strengthened during the late 19th century, China's power began to decline. U.S. Commodore Matthew C. Perry would open Japan to Western ways, and the country would expand in earnest after the 1860s.[32][33] Around the same time, Japan with its rush to modernity transformed itself from an isolated feudal samurai state into East Asia's first industrialized nation.[34][10][33] The modern and powerful Japan would galvanize its position in the Orient as East Asia's greatest power with a global mission poised to advance to lead the entire world.[34] By the early 1900s, the Japanese empire succeeded in asserting itself as East Asia's first modern power. With its newly found international status, Japan would begin to inextricably take a more active position in East Asia and leading role in world affairs at large. Flexing its nascent political and military might, Japan soundly defeated the stagnant Qing dynasty during the First Sino-Japanese War as well as vanquishing imperial rival Russia in 1905; the first major military victory in the modern era of an East Asian power over a European one.[35][32] Its hegemony was the heart of an empire that would include Taiwan and Korea.[34] During World War II, Japanese expansionism with its imperialist aspirations through the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would incorporate Korea, Taiwan, much of eastern China and Manchuria, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Southeast Asia under its control establishing itself as a maritime colonial power in East Asia.[36] After a century of exploitation by the European and Japanese colonialists, post-colonial East Asia saw the defeat and occupation of Japan by the victorious Allies as well as the division of China and Korea during the Cold War. The Korean peninsula became independent but then it was divided into two rival states, while Taiwan became the main territory of de facto state Republic of China after the latter lost Mainland China to the People's Republic of China in the Chinese Civil War. During the latter half of the twentieth century, the region would see the post war economic miracle of Japan, the economic rise of South Korea and Taiwan, and the integration of Mainland China into the global economy through its entry in the World Trade Organization while enhancing its emerging international status as a potential world power.[5][37]

Culturally, China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere).

DefinitionsEdit

In common usage, the term East Asia typically refers to a region including Greater China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia.[38][39][40][41][42]

China, Japan, and Korea represent the three core countries and civilizations of traditional East Asia - as they once shared a common written language, culture, as well as sharing Confucian philosophical tenets and the Confucian societal value system once instituted by Imperial China.[43][44][44][45][46] Other usages define Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea, North Korea and Taiwan as countries that constitute East Asia based on their geographic proximity as well as historical and modern cultural and economic ties, particularly with Japan and Korea having strong cultural influences that originated from China.[46][47][48][3][49][50] Some scholars include Vietnam as part of East Asia as it has been considered part of the greater sphere of Chinese influence. Though Confucianism continues to play an important role in Vietnamese culture, Chinese characters are no longer used in its written language and many scholarly organizations classify Vietnam as a Southeast Asian country.[3][51] Mongolia is geographically north of Mainland China yet Confucianism and the Chinese writing system and culture had no impact in Mongolian society. Thus, Mongolia is sometimes grouped with Central Asian countries such as Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan.[3][51]

Broader and looser definitions by international organizations such as the World Bank refer to the "three major Northeast Asian economies, i.e. Mainland China, Japan, and South Korea", as well as Mongolia, North Korea, the Russian Far East and Siberia.[52] The Council on Foreign Relations includes the Russia Far East, Mongolia, and Nepal.[53] The World Bank also acknowledges the roles of sub-national or de facto states, such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. The Economic Research Institute for Northeast Asia defines the region as "China, Japan, the Koreas, Nepal, Mongolia, and eastern regions of the Russian Federation".[54]

 
The countries of East Asia also form the core of Northeast Asia, which itself is a broader region.
 
East Asia map of Köppen climate classification.
 
UNSD geoscheme for Asia based on statistic convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:[55]
  East Asia

The UNSD definition of East Asia is based on statistical convenience,[55] but also other common definitions of East Asia contain the Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan.[1][56]

Culturally, China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia (East Asian cultural sphere).[2][57][58][59]

Alternative definitionsEdit

There are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not.

In business and economics, "East Asia" is sometimes used to refer to a wide geographical area covering ten Southeast Asian countries in ASEAN, Greater China, Japan and Korea. However, in this context, the term "Far East" is used by the Europeans to cover ASEAN countries and the countries in East Asia. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the region's geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term "Asia Pacific Region" is often used in describing East Asia, Southeast Asia as well as Oceania.

Observers preferring a broader definition of "East Asia" often use the term Northeast Asia to refer to the greater China area, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan, with Southeast Asia covering the ten ASEAN countries. This usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both "East Asia" and "Northeast Asia".[60][61][62] The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea.[53]

EconomyEdit

Country GDP nominal
billions of USD (2017)[63]
GDP nominal per capita
USD (2017)[63]
GDP PPP
billions of USD (2017)[63]
GDP PPP per capita
USD (2017)[63]
  China 12,014.610 8,643.107 23,159.107 16,660.269
  Hong Kong[64] 341.659 46,109.124 454.912 61,393.316
  Macau[65] 49.802 77,451.287 71.778 111,629.024
  Japan 4,872.135 38,439.517 5,428.813 42,831.523
  North Korea N/A N/A N/A N/A
  South Korea 1,538.030 29,891.255 2,029.032 39,433.779
  Mongolia 11.135 3,639.894 39.704 12,978.557
  Taiwan[note 5] 579.302 24,576.665 1,185.480 50,293.541

Territorial and regional dataEdit

EtymologyEdit

Flag Common Name Official Name ISO 3166 Country Codes[66]
Exonym Endonym Exonym Endonym ISO Short Name Alpha-2 Code Alpha-3 Code Numeric
  China 中国 People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国 China CN CHN 156
  Hong Kong 香港 Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
of the People’s Republic of China
中華人民共和國香港特別行政區 Hong Kong HK HKG 344
  Macau 澳門 Macao Special Administrative Region
of the People’s Republic of China
中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區
Região Administrativa Especial de Macau
da República Popular da China
Macao MO MAC 446
  Japan 日本 State of Japan 日本国 Japan JP JPN 392
  Mongolia Монгол улс Mongolia Монгол Улсᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ
Mongolia MG MNG 496
  North Korea 조선 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 (朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of) KP PRK 408
  South Korea 한국 Republic of Korea 대한민국 (大韓民國) Korea (the Republic of) KR KOR 410
  Taiwan[67] 臺灣 / 台灣 Republic of China 中華民國 Taiwan[68] TW TWN 158

DemographicsEdit

State/Territory Area km2 Population[69]
(2016)
Population density
per km2
HDI Capital
  China 9,640,011[note 6] 1,403,500,365[note 7] 138 0.738 Beijing
  Hong Kong 1,104 7,302,843 6,390 0.917 Hong Kong
  Macau 30 612,167 18,662 0.905 Macau
  Japan 377,930 127,748,513 337 0.903 Tokyo
  North Korea 120,538 25,368,620 198 0.733 Pyongyang[70]
  South Korea 100,210 50,791,919 500 0.901 Seoul
  Mongolia 1,564,100 3,027,398 2 0.735 Ulaanbaatar
  Taiwan 36,188 639 0.885 Taipei[71]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Ethnicity Native name Population Language(s) Writing system(s) Major states/territories* Physical appearance
Han/Chinese 漢人 or 汉人, 漢族 or 汉族 1,260,000,000[72] Chinese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Hokkien, Hakka, Gan, Hsiang, etc. Simplified Han characters, Traditional Han characters   (  )    
Yamato/Japanese 日本族 (にほんぞく)
大和民族 (やまとみんぞく)
125,117,000[73] Japanese Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana  
Joseon/Korean 한민족 (韓民族)
조선족 (朝鮮族)
79,432,225[74] Korean Hangul, Han characters (Hanja)     
Bai 白族 1,858,063 Bai, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters  
Hui 回族/回回 10,586,087[75] Northwestern Mandarin, other Chinese Dialects, Huihui language, etc. Simplified Han characters  
Mongols Монголчууд/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ
Монгол/ᠮᠣᠩᠭ᠋ᠣᠯ
8,942,528 Mongolian Mongol script, Cyrillic script   
Zhuang 壮族/Bouxcuengh 18,000,000 Zhuang, Southwestern Mandarin, etc. Simplified Han characters, Latin script  
Manchus 满族/ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ 10,422,873[76] Northeastern Mandarin, Manchurian (endangered), etc. Simplified Han characters, Mongol script  
Hmong/Miao Ghaob Xongb/Hmub/Mongb 9,426,007[77] Hmong, Southwestern Mandarin Latin script, Simplified Han characters  
Tibetans བོད་པ་ 6,500,000 Tibetan, Rgyal Rong, Rgu, etc. Tibetan script  
Yi ꆈꌠ/彝族 8,714,393 Various Loloish, Southwestern Mandarin Yi script, Simplified Han characters  
Tujia 土家族 8,353,912 Northern Tujia, Southern Tujia Simplified Han characters  
Kam Gaeml 2,879,974 Gaeml Simplified Han characters, Latin script  
Tu 土族/Monguor 289,565 Tu, Northwestern Mandarin Simplified Han characters  
Daur 达斡尔族/ᠳᠠᠭᠤᠷ 131,992 Daur, Northeastern Mandarin Mongol script, Simplified Han characters   
Taiwanese Aborigines Pangcah, etc. 533,600 Austronesian languages (Amis, Yami), etc. Latin script, Traditional Han characters  
Ryukyuan (琉球民族(りゅうきゅうみんぞく)
沖縄人 (おきなわじん)
1,900,000 Japanese
Ryukyuan
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana   ( )  
Ainu アイヌ 200,000 Japanese
Ainu[78]
Han characters (Kanji), Katakana, Hiragana  

*Note: The order of states/territories follows the population ranking of each ethnicity, within East Asia only.

CultureEdit

OverviewEdit

The culture of East Asia has largely been influenced by China, as it was the civilization that had the most dominant influence in the region throughout the ages that ultimately laid the foundation for East Asian civilization.[79] The vast knowledge and ingenuity of Chinese civilization and the classics of Chinese literature and culture were seen as the foundations for a civilized life in East Asia. Imperial China served as a vehicle through which the adoption of Confucian ethical philosophy, Chinese calendar system, political and legal systems, architectural style, diet, terminology, institutions, religious beliefs, imperial examinations that emphasized a knowledge of Chinese classics, political philosophy and cultural value systems, as well as historically sharing a common writing system reflected in the histories of Japan and Korea.[80][23][81][82][83][84][85][86][46] The Imperial Chinese tributary system was the bedrock of network of trade and foreign relations between China and its East Asian tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs during the ancient and medieval eras. Through the tributary system, the various dynasties of Imperial China facilitated frequent economic and cultural exchange that influenced the cultures of Japan and Korea and drew them into a Chinese international order.[87][88] The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's foreign policy and trade for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural dominance over the region, and thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular.[31][88] The relationship between China and its cultural influence on East Asia has been compared to the historical influence of Greco-Roman civilization on Europe and the Western World.[84][82][88][80]

ReligionsEdit

Religion Native name Denomination Major book Type Est. Followers Ethnic groups States/territories
Chinese religion none, various classifications including 民間信仰, 神教/神道, etc. Taoism, Confucianism, folk salvationist sects, Wuism, Nuo Chinese classics, Huangdi Sijing, precious scrolls, etc. Pantheism/polytheism ~900,000,000[89][90] Han, Hmong, Qiang, Tujia (worship of the same ancestor-gods)   (   )  
Taoism 道教 Zhengyi, Quanzhen Tao Te Ching Pantheism/polytheism ~20,000,000[90] Han, Zhuang, Hmong, Yao, Qiang, Tujia   (   )  
Confucianism 儒教 Cheng-Zhu, Lu-Wang Four Books and Five Classics Immanent transcendence/pantheism N/A Han, Joseon, Yamato   (   )      
East Asian Buddhism 漢傳佛教 or 汉传佛教 Mahayana Diamond Sutra Non-God ~300,000,000 Han, Joseon, Yamato   (   )      
Tibetan Buddhism བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན། Mahayana Anuttarayoga Tantra Non-God ~10,000,000 Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols    
Shamanism[note 8] and Bon, etc. Бөө мөргөл, བོན N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Tibetans, Manchus, Mongols, Oroqen    
Shintoism 神道 Shinto sects Kojiki, Nihon Shoki Polytheism/pantheism N/A Yamato  
Sindo/Muism 신도 or 무교 Sindo sects N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Joseon  
Ryukyuan religion 琉球神道 or ニライカナイ信仰 N/A N/A Polytheism/pantheism N/A Ryukyuan   ( )

FestivalsEdit

Festival Native Name Other name Calendar Date Gregorian date Activity Religious practices Food Major ethnicities Major states/territories
Chinese New Year 春節 or 春节 Spring Festival Chinese Month 1 Day 1 21 Jan–20 Feb Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks Worship the King of Gods Jiaozi Han, Joseon, Manchus etc.   (  )        
New Year 元旦 Yuan Dan Gregorian 1 Jan 1 Jan Fireworks N/A N/A N/A   (  )          
Losar or Tsagaan Sar ལོ་གསར་ or Цагаан сар White Moon Tibetan, Mongolian Month 1 Day 1 25 Jan–2 Mar Family Reunion, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping, Fireworks N/A Chhaang or Buuz Tibetans, Mongols, Tu etc.   
Lantern Festival 元宵節 or 元宵节 Upper Yuan Festival (上元节) Chinese Month 1 Day 15 4 Feb–6 Mar Lanterns Expo, Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Sky-officer Yuanxiao Han, Joseon, Yamato   (  )        *
Qingming Festival 清明節 or 清明节 Tomb Sweeping Day Solar 15th day since March equinox 4 Apr–6 April Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Burning Hell money Cold Food Han, Joseon, Mongols   (  )      
Dragon Boat Festival 端午節 or 端午节 Duanwu Festival Chinese Month 5 Day 5 Driving poisons & plague away, Dragon Boat Race, Wearing colored lines, Hanging felon herb on the front door. Worship various Gods Zongzi Han, Joseon, Yamato   (  )        *
Ghost Festival 中元節 or 中元节 Mid Yuan Festival Chinese Month 7 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Earth-officer Han, Joseon, Yamato   (  )        *
Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋節 or 中秋节 中秋祭 Chinese Month 8 Day 15 Family Reunion, Enjoying Moon view Worship the Moon Goddess Mooncake Han, Joseon, Yamato   (  )        *
Double Ninth Festival 重陽節 or 重阳节 Double Positive Festival Chinese Month 9 Day 09 Climbing Mountain, Taking care of elderly, Wearing Cornus. Worship various Gods Han, Joseon, Yamato   (   )        *
Lower Yuan Festival 下元節 or 下元节 N/A Chinese Month 10 Day 15 Ancestors Worship, Tomb Sweeping Birthdate of the God of Water-officer Ciba Han, Joseon   (  )      
Small New Year 小年 Jizao (祭灶) Chinese Month 12 Day 23 Cleaning Houses Worship the God of Hearth tanggua Han, Mongols   (  )    
International Labor Day N/A N/A Gregorian 1 May 1 May N/A N/A N/A N/A   (  )    
International Women's Day N/A N/A Gregorian 8 Mar 8 Mar Taking care of women N/A N/A N/A   (  )      

*Japan switched the date to the Gregorian calendar after the Meiji Restoration.

*Not always on that Gregorian date, sometimes April 4.

CollaborationEdit

East Asian Youth GamesEdit

Formerly the East Asian Games is a multi-sport event organised by the East Asian Games Association (EAGA) and held every four years since 2019 among athletes from East Asian countries and territories of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), as well as the Pacific island of Guam, which is a member of the Oceania National Olympic Committees.

The East Asian Games is 1 of 5 Regional Games of the OCA. The others are the East Asian Games, the Central Asian Games, the South Asian Games, the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games), and the West Asian Games.

Free trade agreementsEdit

Name of agreement Parties Leaders at the time Negotiation begins Signing date Starting time Current status
China–South Korea FTA     Xi Jinping, Park Geun-hye May, 2012 Jun 01, 2015 Dec 30, 2015 Enforced
China–Japan–South Korea FTA       Xi Jinping, Shinzō Abe, Park Geun-hye Mar 26, 2013 N/A N/A 10 round negotiation
Japan-Mongolia EPA     Shinzō Abe, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj - Feb 10, 2015 - Enforced
China-Mongolia FTA     Xi Jinping, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj N/A N/A N/A Officially proposed
China-HK CEPA     Jiang Zemin, Tung Chee-hwa - Jun 29, 2003 - Enforced
China-Macau CEPA     Jiang Zemin, Edmund Ho Hau-wah - Oct 18, 2003 - Enforced
Hong Kong-Macau CEPA     Carrie Lam, Fernando Chui Oct 09, 2015 N/A N/A Negotiating
ECFA     Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Jan 26, 2010 Jun 29, 2010 Aug 17, 2010 Enforced
CSSTA (Based on ECFA)     Xi Jinping, Ma Ying-jeou Mar, 2011 Jun 21, 2013 N/A Abolished
CSGTA (Based on ECFA)     Hu Jintao, Ma Ying-jeou Feb 22, 2011 N/A N/A Suspended

Military alliancesEdit

Name Abbr. Parties within the region
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation SCO   (  )  
General Security of Military Information Agreement GSOMIA   
Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty -   (  )  
Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan -   (   )  
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea -   (  )  
Taiwan Relations Act (Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty before 1980) TRA (SAMDT)   (   )  
Major non-NATO ally (Global Partners of NATO) -   (  )    [91]

Cities and townsEdit

Pass of the ISS over Mongolia, looking out west towards the Pacific Ocean, China, and Japan. As the video progresses, you can see major cities along the coast and the Japanese islands on the Philippine Sea. The island of Guam can be seen further down the pass into the Philippine Sea, and the pass ends just to the east of New Zealand. A lightning storm can be seen as light pulses near the end of the video.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Officially known as the Republic of China, formerly a founding member of the United Nations representing the whole of China, now a non-UN member state
  2. ^ The area figure is based on the combined areas of China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan as listed at List of countries and outlying territories by total area.
  3. ^ The population figure is the combined populations of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan as listed at the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects.
  4. ^ includes Tibetan Buddhism traditionally prevailing in Tibetan and Mongolian areas
  5. ^ Listed as "Taiwan" by the IMF
  6. ^ Includes all area which under PRC's government control (excluding "South Tibet" and disputed islands).
  7. ^ A note by the United Nations: "For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong and Macao, Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, and Taiwan."
  8. ^ almost Manchu, Mongolian

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan. 
  2. ^ a b Columbia University – "East Asian cultural sphere" Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system."
  3. ^ a b c d e Prescott, Anne (2015). East Asia in the World: An Introduction. Routledge. ISBN 978-0765643223. 
  4. ^ Miller, David Y. (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiv. ISBN 978-0765618221. 
  5. ^ a b Kort, Michael (2005). The Handbook Of East Asia. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0761326724. 
  6. ^ "Country Profiles: East Asia". Children and Armed Conflict Unit at the University of Essex. 
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