Deity(Redirected from Deities)
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
A deity (// ( listen) or // ( listen))[page needed] is a natural or supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion)", or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". A male deity is a god, while a female deity is a goddess.
Monotheistic religions accept only one deity (predominantly referred to as God), polytheistic religions accept multiple deities, henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as equivalent aspects of the same divine principle, while several nontheistic religions deny any supreme eternal creator deity but accept a pantheon of deities which live, die, and are reborn just like any other being.:35-37:357-358
A deity does not need to be omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent, or eternal,[a] however an almighty monotheistic God generally does have these attributes. Monotheistic religions typically refer to the incorporeal God in masculine terms,:96 while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine, androgynous and gender neutral.
Historically, many ancient cultures such as Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Nordic culture and Asian culture personified natural phenomena, variously as either their conscious causes or simply their effects, respectively. Some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities have been envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities have also been envisioned as a form of existence (Saṃsāra) after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, wherein a being becomes a guardian deity and lives blissfully in heaven. But in Indian religions, all deities are also subject to death when their merit runs out.:35-38:356-359
The English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité,[page needed] the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus ("god"). Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) origin to *deiwos.
According to Douglas Harper, the PIE root *dewos- yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one," from *div- "to shine", and it is a cognate with Greek language dios "divine" and Zeus, and Latin deus "god" (Old Latin deivos).:230-231 Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi.:496 Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Latin dea and Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, divine, terrestrial things of high excellence, exalted, shining ones".:496
The closely linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, and is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that which is invoked".:230-231 Guth in the Irish language means "voice." The term *ghut- is also the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo ("to call"), Sanskrit huta- ("invoked," an epithet of Indra), from the root *gheu(e)- ("to call, invoke."),
An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to- ("poured"), which from the root *gheu- ("to pour, pour a libation"). The term *gheu- is also the source of the Greek khein "to pour". Originally the German root was a neuter noun, but the gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity.:230-231 In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
The term deity often connotes the concept of sacred or divine (as a god or goddess) in a polytheistic religion. However, there is no universally accepted consensus concept of deity across religions and cultures, and the concept of deity has been envisioned in diverse ways.
Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance.:vii-ix It has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe" (God), to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling" (god), to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages".:vii-ix
A monotheistic God is omnipotent, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent and eternal. Historically, various cultures have conceptualized a deity differently than a monotheistic God. A deity need not be almighty, omnipresent, omniscient, omnibenevolent or eternal.
Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies).
Difference between deity and GodEdit
A typical deity such as in Hinduism, differs from the monotheistic concept of God in other major religions, in that the deity need not be omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent, or a combination of these.
A deity – god or goddess – is typically conceptualized as a "supernatural, divine" concept manifesting in various ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in their outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires.
In other cases, the deity is an inner principle or reality such as the idea of "soul". The Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman (soul, self) as deva (deity), thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle (Brahman, gender neutral) is part of and within every human being and living creature, that this soul within is spiritual and divine, and to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Scholars infer the probable existence of deities in the prehistoric period from inscriptions and prehistoric arts such as cave drawings, but it is unclear what these sketches and paintings are and why they were made. Some engravings or sketches show animals, hunters or rituals. The Venus of Willendorf, a female figurine found in Europe and dated to about 25,000 BCE has been interpreted as an exemplar of a prehistoric divine feminine.
The diverse African cultures developed sophisticated theology and concepts of deities over their history. In Nigeria and neighboring West African countries, for example, two prominent deities (locally called Òrìṣà) are found in the Yoruba religion, namely the god Ogun and the goddess Osun. Both are complex deities. Ogun is the primordial masculine deity as well as the archdivinity and guardian of the trades such as tools making and use, metal working, hunting, warriors, protector, equity and justice. Osun is an equally powerful primordial feminine deity and a multidimensional guardian of fertility, water, maternal, health, social relations, love and peace. Ogun and Osun deity traditions were brought into North and South America with slave ships. They were preserved by the African people in their plantation communities, and their festivals continue to be observed in the modern era.
In Southern African cultures, a similar masculine-feminine deity combination has been revered in other forms, particularly as the Moon and Sun deities. One Southern African cosmology consists of Hieseba or Xuba (deity, god), Gaune (evil spirits) and Khuene (people). The Hieseba includes Nladiba (male, creator sky god) and Nladisara (females, Nladiba's two wives). The Sun (female) and the Moon (male) deities are viewed as offsprings of Nladiba and two Nladisara. The Sun and Moon are viewed as manifestations of the supreme deity, and worship is timed and directed to them. In other African cultures, in contrast, the Sun is seen as male, while the Moon is female, both symbolism for the godhead.:199-120 In Zimbabwe, the supreme deity is androgynous with both male-female aspects, envisioned as the giver of rain, treated simultaneously as the god of darkness and light, and is called Mwari Shona.:89 In the Lake Victoria region, the term for a deity is Lubaale, or alternatively Jok.
The ancient Egyptian culture had numerous deities. Egyptian records and inscriptions list the names of many whose nature is unknown, but they also make vague indirect references to other unnamed deities. The Egyptologist James P. Allen estimates that more than 1,400 deities are named in Egyptian texts, whereas Christian Leitz estimates there are "thousands upon thousands" of Egyptian deities. The ancient Egyptian terms for deities were nṯr (god), and feminine nṯrt (goddess); however, these terms may have also applied to any being – spirits and deceased human beings, but not demons – who in some way were outside the sphere of everyday life. Egyptian deities typically had a cult, role and mythologies associated with them.
Among the numerous deities, around 200 are prominent in the Pyramid texts and ancient temples of Egypt, many zoomorphic. Among these, were Min (fertility god), Neith (creator goddess), Anubis, Atum, Bes, Horus, Isis, Ra, Meretseger, Nut, Osiris, Shu, Sia and Thoth.:11-12 Most Egyptian deities represented natural phenomenon, physical objects or social aspects of life, as hidden immanent forces within these phenomena. The deity Shu, for example represented the world's air; the goddess Meretseger represented parts of the earth, and the god Sia represented the abstract powers of perception. Some deities such as Ra and Osiris were associated with the judgement of the dead and their care during the permanent afterlife.:26-28 Major gods often had many roles and were involved in multiple phenomena.
The first written evidence of deities in Egypt are from early 3rd millennium BCE, but these likely emerged from prehistoric Egyptian beliefs. However, deities became systematized and sophisticated after the formation of one Egyptian state under the Pharaohs and their treatment as sacred kings with exclusive right to interact with the gods, in the later part of the 3rd millennium BCE. Over time, through the early centuries of the common era, as Egyptians interacted and traded with neighboring cultures, foreign deities were adopted and venerated.
The ancient Greek civilization had numerous deities, both gods and goddesses, as part of its religious beliefs and mythologies. These continued to be revered through the early centuries of the common era, and many of the Greek deities inspired and were adopted as part of much larger pantheon of Roman deities.:91-97 The Greek religion was polytheistic, but had no centralized church, nor did it have any sacred texts.:91-97 The deities were largely associated with myths, and they represented powers of natural phenomenon or aspects of human behavior.:91-97
The Greek deities likely trace back to more ancient Indo-European traditions, since the gods and goddesses found in distant cultures are mythologically comparable and are also linguistically cognates.:230-231 Among goddesses, for example, the goddess of dawn is Eos in Greek, who also appears as Indic Usha, Roman Aurora, Latvian Auseklis; while among gods, Zeus (Greek), Deus (Latin), Zio (Old German), Dyaus (Indic) are cognates and share similar mythologies.:230-232
Greek deities varied with its city states and islands, but in most part the pantheon of gods and goddesses of the ancient Greek culture shared panhellenic themes, as well as celebrated similar festivals, rites and ritual grammar associated with them. The twelve Olympian gods, for example, were not only panhellenic but also inspired the Dii Consentes galaxy of Roman deities – Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Demeter, Hephaestus, Hera, Hermes, Hestia, Poseidon and Zeus. Other important Greek deities included Dionysus, Hades and Heracles.:96-97
Besides the Olympians, the Greeks worshipped various local gods, the satyr-god Pan (goat and shepherds guardian god), Nymphs (spirits of rivers), Naiads (who dwelled in springs), Dryads (who were spirits of the trees), Nereids (who inhabited the sea), river gods, Satyrs (nature spirits), and others. In addition, there were the dark powers of the underworld, such as the Erinyes (or Furies), said to pursue those guilty of crimes against blood-relatives. The gods of Greek mythology, like many Indo-European traditions, were anthropomorphic. Their iconography, states Burkert, is as "persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts". They had fantastic abilities and powers, each had some unique expertise and in some aspects a flawed personality,:52 they were not omnipotent and could be wounded in some circumstances.
Greek deities led to cults, were used politically, and they inspired votive rituals for favors such as bountiful crops, healthy family, victory in war, or peace for a loved one who just died.:94-95
The Inca culture has believed in Viracocha (also called Pachacutec) as the creator deity.:27-30:726-729 Viracocha has been an abstract deity to Incan culture, one who existed before he created space and time. All other deities of the Inca people have corresponded to elements of nature.:726-729 Of these, the most important ones have been Inti (sun deity) responsible for agricultural prosperity and as the father of the first Inca king, and Mama Qucha the goddess of the sea, lakes, rivers and waters. Inti in some mythologies is the son of Viracocha and Mama Qucha.
Inca people have revered many male and female deities. Among the feminine deities have been Mama Kuka (goddess of joy), Mama Ch'aska (goddess of dawn), Mama Allpa (goddess of harvest and earth, sometimes called Mama Pacha or Pachamama), Mama Killa (moon goddess) and Mama Sara (goddess of grain).:31-32 During and after the imposition of Christianity during Spanish colonialism, the Incan people retained their original beliefs in deities through syncretism, where they overlay the Christian God and teachings over their original beliefs and practices. The male deity Inti became accepted as the Christian God, but the Andean rituals centered around Incan deities have been retained and continued thereafter into the modern era by the Incan people.
Maya and AztecEdit
In Mayan culture, Kukulkan has been the supreme creator deity, also revered as the god of reincarnation, water, fertility and wind.:797-798 The Mayan people built step pyramid temples to honor Kukulkan, aligning them to the Sun's position on the spring equinox.:843-844 Other deities found at Mayan archaeological sites include Xib Chac – the benevolent male rain deity, and Ixchel – the benevolent female earth, weaving and pregnancy goddess.:843-844 The Maya calendar had 18 months, each with 20 days (and five unlucky days of Uayeb); each month had a presiding deity, who inspired social rituals, special trading markets and community festivals.
A deity with aspects similar to Kulkulkan in the Aztec culture has been called Quetzalcoatl.:797-798 However, states Timothy Insoll, the Aztec ideas of deity remain poorly understood. What has been assumed is based on what was constructed by Christian missionaries. The deity concept was likely more complex than these historical records. In Aztec culture, there were hundred of deities, but many were henotheistic incarnations of one another (similar to the avatar concept of Hinduism). Unlike Hinduism and other cultures, Aztec deities were usually not anthropomorphic, and were instead zoomorphic or hybrid icons associated with spirits, natural phenomena or forces.The Aztec deities were often represented through ceramic figurines, revered in home shrines.
Norse and GermanEdit
In Norse mythology, Æsir means gods, while Ásynjur means goddesses.:49-50 These terms, states John Lindow, may be ultimately rooted in the Indo-European root for "breath" (as in "life giving force"), and to the cognates os which means deity in Old English and anses in Gothic.:49-50
Another group of deities found in Norse mythology are termed as Vanir, and are associated with fertility. The Æsir and the Vanir went to war, according to the Norse and Germanic mythologies. According to the Norse texts such as Ynglinga saga, the Æsir–Vanir War ended in truce and ultimate reconciliation of the two into a single group of deities, after both sides chose peace, exchanged ambassadors (hostages),:181 and intermarried.:52-53
The Norse mythology describes the cooperation after the war, as well as differences between the Æsir and the Vanir which were considered scandalous by the other side.:181 The goddess Freyja of the Vanir taught magic to the Æsir, while the two sides discover that while Æsir forbid mating between siblings, Vanir accepted such mating.:181
Temples hosting images of Nordic deities (such as Thor, Odin and Freyr), as well as pagan worship rituals, continued in Nordic countries through the 12th century, according to historical records. This shocked Christian missionaries, and over time Christian equivalents were substituted for the Nordic deities to help suppress paganism.:187-188
The Polynesian people developed a theology centered on numerous deities, with clusters of islands having different names for the same idea. There are great deities found across the Pacific Ocean. Some deities are found widely, and there are many local deities whose worship is limited to one or a few islands or sometimes to isolated villages on the same island.:5-6
The Māori people, of what is now New Zealand, called the supreme being as Io, who is also referred elsewhere as Iho-Iho, Io-Mataaho, Io Nui, Te Io Ora, Io Matua Te Kora among other names.:239 The Io deity has been revered as the original uncreated creator, with power of life, with nothing outside or beyond him.:239Other deities in the Polynesian pantheon include Tangaloa (god who created men),:37-38 La'a Maomao (god of winds), Tu-Matauenga or Ku (god of war), Tu-Metua (mother goddess), Kane (god of procreation) and Rangi (sky god father).:261, 284, 399, 476
The Polynesian deities have been part of a sophisticated theology, addressing questions of creation, the nature of existence, guardians in daily lives as well as during wars, natural phenomena, good and evil spirits, priestly rituals, as well as linked to the journey of the souls of the dead.:6–14, 37–38, 113, 323
The Roman pantheon had numerous deities, both Greek and non-Greek.:96-97 The more famed deities, found in the mythologies and the 2nd millennium CE European arts, have been the anthropomorphic deities syncretized with the Greek deities. These include the six gods and six goddesses: Venus, Apollo, Mars, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, Juno, Mercury, Vesta, Neptune, Jupiter (Jove, Zeus); as well Bacchus, Pluto and Hercules.:96-97 The non-Greek major deities include Janus, Fortuna, Vesta, Quirinus and Tellus (mother goddess, probably most ancient).:96-97 Some of the non-Greek deities had likely origins in more ancient European culture such as the ancient Germanic religion, while others may have been borrowed, for political reasons, from neighboring trade centers such as those in the Minoan or ancient Egyptian civilization.
The Roman deities, in a manner similar to the ancient Greeks, inspired community festivals, rituals and sacrifices led by flamines (priests, pontifs), but priestesses (Vestal Virgins) were also held in high esteem for maintaining sacred fire used in the votive rituals for deities.:100-101 Deities were also maintained in home shrines (lararium), such as Hestia honored in homes as the goddess of fire hearth.:100-101 This Roman religion held reverence for sacred fire, and this is also found in Hebrew culture (Leviticus 6), Vedic culture's Homa, ancient Greeks and other cultures.
Ancient Roman scholars such as Varro and Cicero wrote treatises on the nature of gods of their times. Varro stated, in his Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum, that it is the superstitious man who fears the gods, while the truly religious person venerates them as parents. Cicero, in his Academica, praised Varro for this and other insights. According to Varro, there have been three accounts of deities in the Roman society: the mythical account created by poets for theatre and entertainment, the civil account used by people for veneration as well as by the city, and the natural account created by the philosophers. The best state is, adds Varro, where the civil theology combines the poetic mythical account with the philosopher's.
The Roman deities continued to be revered in Europe through the era of Constantine, and past 313 CE when he issued the Edict of Toleration.:118-120
Ancient Mesopotamian culture in Sumer (southern Iraq) had numerous ‘’dingir’’ (deities, gods and goddesses).:69-74 Both male and female deities were revered, with some anthropomorphic, some zoomorphic (such as a flying dragon, turtle, snake, goat), and some as natural objects (mountain, moon, sun, bright stars).:69-74
The Sumerian deities had numerous functions, such as presiding over procreation, rains, irrigation, agriculture, destiny and justice.:69-74 The gods were fed, clothed, entertained and worshipped to prevent natural catastrophes as well as to prevent social chaos such as pillaging, rape or atrocities of war.:69-74 Many deities were patron guardians of city-states. Over their history, some Sumerian deities were absorbed into others. Usually the case was that a matriarchal guardian deity was absorbed into a patriarchal deity, as one city state conquered the other.:69-74
The Sumerian mythology of the 1st millennium BCE treated Anšar (later Aššur) and Kišar as primordial deities. Another significant deity in Sumerian culture was Marduk. He rose from an obscure deity of the 3rd millennium BCE to being one of the most important and complex deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon of the 1st millennium BCE. Marduk was worshiped as creator of heaven, earth and humankind, and as the patron deity of the city of Babylon.:62, 73 Marduk's iconography is zoomorphic, and he is most often found in Middle Eastern archaeological remains depicted as a “snake-dragon” or a "human-animal hybrid".
Buddhism does not believe in a creator deity. However, deities are an essential part of Buddhist cosmology, rebirth and Saṃsāra doctrines. The heavenly gods (devas, deities) are asserted to be a realm of existence in Buddhism, and typically subdivided into twenty six sub-realms.:35
In Buddhist mythology, devas are beings inhabiting certain happily placed worlds of Buddhist cosmology. These beings are numerous but mortal (being in saṃsāra) who live in the heavenly realm, then die and are reborn like all other beings. A rebirth in the heavenly realm is believed to be from leading an ethical life and very good karma accumulation. A Deva does not need to work, and is able to enjoy in the heavenly realm all pleasures found on Earth. However, the pleasures of this realm lead to attachment (Upādāna ), lack of spiritual pursuits and therefore no nirvana.:37 The vast majority of Buddhist lay people in countries practicing Theravada, states Kevin Trainor, have historically pursued Buddhist rituals and practices because they are motivated with their potential rebirth into the Deva realm. The Deva realm in Buddhist practice in Southeast Asia and East Asia, states Keown, include gods found in Hindu traditions such as Indra and Brahma, and concepts in Hindu cosmology such as Mount Meru.:37-38
Christianity is a monotheistic religion where most mainstream congregations and denominations accept the concept of the Holy Trinity. John Calvin and other Christian scholars, states Scott Swain, traced the "scriptural witness to the deity of the Son and the Spirit".:233-234 The world is viewed as an element in God's actualization, states Samuel Powell, while the Spirit is viewed as more than an aspect of deity and as the divine essence that is "the unity and relation of the Father and the Son".:273 According to George Hunsinger, the doctrine of the Trinity justifies worship in a Church, wherein Jesus Christ is deemed to be a full deity with the Christian cross as his icon.:296
The theological examination of Jesus Christ, of divine grace in incarnation, his non-transferability and completeness has been a historic topic. For example, the Council of Chalcedon in 451 CE, states John Webster, reached the consensus that in "one person Jesus Christ, fullness of deity and fullness of humanity are united, the union of the natures being such that they can neither be divided nor confused". Jesus Christ, according to the New Testament, is the self-disclosure of the one, true God, both in his teaching and in his person; Christ, in Christian faith, is considered the incarnation of God.:4, 29
In the ancient Vedic texts of Hinduism, a deity is often referred to as Deva (god) or Devi (goddess).:496 The root of these terms mean "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence".:492 Deva is masculine, and the related feminine equivalent is devi. In the earliest Vedic literature, all supernatural beings are called Asuras.:5-11, 22, 99-102:121 Over time, those with a benevolent nature become deities and are referred to as Sura, Deva or Devi.:2-6
Devas or deities in Hindu texts differ from Greek or Roman theodicy, states Ray Billington, because many Hindu traditions believe that a human being has the potential to be reborn as a deva (or devi), by living an ethical life and building up saintly karma. Such a deva enjoys heavenly bliss, till the merit runs out, and then the soul (gender neutral) is reborn again into Saṃsāra. Thus deities are henotheistic manifestations, embodiments and consequence of the virtuous, the noble, the saint-like living in many Hindu traditions.
Ilah, ʾIlāh (Arabic: إله; plural: آلهة ʾālihah), is an Arabic term meaning "deity". It appears in the name of the monotheistic god of Islam as Allah (al-Lāh). al-Lāh translated means "the god". The first statement of the shahada or Muslim confession of faith is "there is no ʾilāh but al-Lāh" "there is no god but God". Islam a strictly monotheistic and the Shahada asserts, state Juliane Hammer and Omid Safi, that "there is no deity but God, and Muhammad is His messenger". This pillar of Islam does not accept the possibility of deities, alternate representations or any equal partners to God's divinity; the Quran, states Gavin D'Costa, denies "Christ's divinity and the Holy Trinity".
The term Allah is used by Muslims for God. The Persian word Khuda (Persian: خدا) can be translated as god, lord or king, and is also used today to refer to God in Islam by Persian and Urdu speakers. The Turkic word for god is Tengri; it exists as Tanrı in Turkish. In Malaysia, many States have laws prohibiting non-Muslims from using the word Allah, but these have been ruled unconstitutional if the use does not involve the propagation of non-Muslim religions to Muslims.
Like many ancient Indian traditions, Jainism does not believe in a creator, omnipotent, omniscient, eternal God; however, the cosmology of Jainism incorporates a meaningful causality-driven reality, and includes four realms of existence (gati), and one of them for deva (celestial beings, gods).:351-357 A human being can choose and live an ethical life (karma), such as being non-violent (ahimsa) against all living beings, thereby gain merit and be reborn as deva.:357-358
Jain texts reject a trans-cosmic God, one who stands outside of the universe and lords over it, but they state that the world is full of devas who are in human-image with sensory organs, with the power of reason, conscious, compassionate and with finite life.:356-357 Like Hinduism, Jainism believes in the existence of the soul (Self, atman) and considers it to have "god-quality", whose knowledge and liberation is the ultimate spiritual goal in both religions. Jains also believe that the spiritual nobleness of perfected souls (Jina) and devas make them worship-worthy beings, with powers of guardianship and guidance to better karma. In Jain temples or festivals, the Jinas and Devas are revered.:356-357
Judaism, states Huw Owen, affirms the existence of one God (Yahweh, or YHWH), who is not abstract, but He who revealed himself throughout Jewish history particularly during the Exodus and the Exile.:4 Judaism reflects a monotheism that gradually arose, was affirmed with certainty in the sixth century "Second Isaiah", and has ever since been the axiomatic basis of its theology.:4
The classical presentation of Judaism has been as a monotheistic faith that rejected deities and related idolatry. However, states Breslauer, modern scholarship suggests that idolatry was not absent in biblical faith, and it resurfaced multiple times in Jewish religious life. The rabbinic texts and other secondary Jewish literature suggest worship of material objects and natural phenomena through the medieval era, while the core teachings of Judaism maintained monotheism.[page needed]
According to Aryeh Kaplan, God is always referred to as "He" in Judaism, "not to imply that the concept of sex or gender applies to God", but because "there is no neuter in the Hebrew language, and the Hebrew word for God is a masculine noun" as he "is an active rather than a passive creative force".
Ahura Mazda (//); (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz, Lord or simply as spirit) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism. Ahura Mazda is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna. The literal meaning of the word Ahura is "mighty" or "lord" and Mazda is wisdom. Zoroaster argued that God is almighty, though not omnipotent.
Émile Durkheim states that gods represent an extension of human social life to include supernatural beings. According to Matt Rossano, God concepts may be a means of enforcing morality and building more cooperative community groups.
Sigmund Freud suggested that God concepts are a projection of one's father. Psychologists of religion, state Barrett and Keil, have proposed that the personality and characteristics of deities reflects a culture's sense of self-esteem and that a culture projects its revered values into deities and in spiritual terms. The cherished, desired or sought human personality is congruent with the personality it defines to be gods. Lonely and fearful societies tend to invent wrathful, violent, submission-seeking deities (or God), while happier and secure societies tend to invent loving, non-violent, compassionate deities.
- The American Heritage Book of English Usage: A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1996. ISBN 0395767857.
- O'Brien, Jodi (2009). Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 191. ISBN 9781412909167. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Stevenson, Angus (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 461. ISBN 9780199571123. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Littleton], C. Scott (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 378. ISBN 9780761475590. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Becking, Bob; Dijkstra, Meindert; Korpel, Marjo; Vriezen, Karel (2001). Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah. London: New York. p. 189. ISBN 9780567232120. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
The Christian tradition is, in imitation of Judaism, a monotheistic religion. This implies that believers accept the existence of only one God. Other deities either do not exist, are seen as the product of human imagination or are dismissed as remanents of a persistent paganism
- Korte, Anne-Marie; Haardt, Maaike De (2009). The Boundaries of Monotheism: Interdisciplinary Explorations Into the Foundations of Western Monotheism. BRILL. p. 9. ISBN 9004173161. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Brown, Jeannine K. (2007). Scripture as Communication: Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics. Baker Academic. p. 72. ISBN 9780801027888. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Taliaferro, Charles; Harrison, Victoria S.; Goetz, Stewart (2012). The Routledge Companion to Theism. Routledge. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9781136338236. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Reat, N. Ross; Perry, Edmund F. (1991). A World Theology: The Central Spiritual Reality of Humankind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–75. ISBN 9780521331593. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Keown, Damien (2013). Buddhism: A Very Short Introduction (New ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199663835. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Bullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael (2013). The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Publishing. ISBN 9780199644650. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Murdoch, John (1861). English Translations of Select Tracts, Published in India: With an Introd. Containing Lists of the Tracts in Each Language. Graves. pp. 141–142. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
We [monotheists] find by reason and revelation that God is omniscient, omnipotent, most holy, etc, but the Hindu deities possess none of those attributes. It is mentioned in their Shastras that their deities were all vanquished by the Asurs, while they fought in the heavens, and for fear of whom they left their abodes. This plainly shows that they are not omnipotent.
- Hood, Robert E. (1990). Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-talk. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 128–129. ISBN 9780800624491.
African people may describe their deities as strong, but not omnipotent; wise but not omniscient; old but not eternal; great but not omnipresent (...)
- Trigger, Bruce G. (2003). Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 441–442. ISBN 9780521822459.
[Historically...] people perceived far fewer differences between themselves and the gods than the adherents of modern monotheistic religions. Deities were not thought to be omniscient or omnipotent and were rarely believed to be changeless or eternal
- Taliaferro, Charles; Marty, Elsa J. (2010). A Dictionary of Philosophy of Religion. New York: Continuum. pp. 98–99. ISBN 9781441111975.
- Wilkerson, W.D. (2014). Walking With The Gods. Sankofa. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0991530012.
- Trigger, Bruce G. (2003). Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 473–474. ISBN 9780521822459.
- "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press. 1995.
- O'Brien, Julia M. (2014). Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies. Oxford University Press, Incorporated. ISBN 9780199836994. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale (2004). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge. Routledge. p. 655. ISBN 9781135963156. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Bonnefoy, Yves (1992). Roman and European Mythologies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 274–275. ISBN 9780226064550. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Pintchman, Tracy (2014). Seeking Mahadevi: Constructing the Identities of the Hindu Great Goddess. SUNY Press. pp. 1–2, 19–20. ISBN 9780791490495. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Roberts, Nathaniel (2016). To Be Cared For: The Power of Conversion and Foreignness of Belonging in an Indian Slum. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520963634. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Malandra, William W. (1983). An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion: Readings from the Avesta and the Achaemenid Inscriptions. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0816611157. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Fløistad, Guttorm (2010). Volume 10: Philosophy of Religion (1st ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media B.V. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9789048135271. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Daniel T. Potts (1997). Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations. Cornell University Press. pp. 186–187. ISBN 0-8014-3339-8.
- Potter, Karl H. (2014). The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3: Advaita Vedanta up to Samkara and His Pupils. Princeton University Press. pp. 272–274. ISBN 9781400856510. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Olivelle, Patrick (2006). The Samnyasa Upanisads: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780195361377. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2008). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. London: Routledge. pp. 899–900. ISBN 9781135189792. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hoad, T. F. (2008). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Paw Prints. ISBN 9781439505717. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Mallory, J.P.; Adams, D.Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1st ed.). London: Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 9781884964985. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Monier-Williams, Monier; Leumann, Ernst; Cappeller, Carl (2005). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages (Corrected ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120831056. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hawley, John S.; Wulff, Donna M. (1998). Devi: Goddesses of India (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 2, 18–21. ISBN 9788120814912.
- Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism (3rd ed.). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9780791470824.
- Mallory, J.P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world (Reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 418–423. ISBN 9780199287918. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Owen, Huw Parri (1971). Concepts of Deity. Springer. ISBN 9781349000937. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Libbrecht, Ulrich (2007). Within the Four Seas...: Introduction to Comparative Philosophy. Paris: Peeters. p. 42. ISBN 9042918128.
- Beck, Guy L. (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 169, note 11. ISBN 9780791464151.
- Williams, George M. (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology (Reprint ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–35. ISBN 9780195332612.
- Gupta, Bina (2012). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge, and Freedom. New York: Routledge. pp. 21–25. ISBN 9780415800037.
- Bowker, John (2014). God A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–96. ISBN 9780198708957.
- Cohen, Signe (2008). Text and authority in the older Upaniṣads. Leiden: Brill. pp. 40, 219–220, 243–244. ISBN 9789004167773.
- Fowler, Jeaneane (1997). Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. pp. –10, 17–18, 114–118, 132–133, 149. ISBN 9781898723608. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Choon Kim, Yong; Freeman, David H. (1981). Oriental Thought: An Introduction to the Philosophical and Religious Thought of Asia. Totowa, New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams and Company. pp. 15–19. ISBN 9780822603658. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Brooks, Philip (2012). The Story of Prehistoric Peoples. New York: Rosen Central. pp. 22–23. ISBN 9781448847907. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Ruether, Rosemary Radford (2006). Goddesses and the Divine Feminine: A Western Religious History (1st ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780520250055. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Murphy, Joseph M.; Sanford, Mei-Mei (2002). Osun across the Waters: A Yoruba Goddess in Africa and the Americas. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 0253108632. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Barnes, Sandra T. (1997). Africa's Ogun: Old World and New (2nd ed.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. ix–x, 1–3, 59, 132–134, 199–200. ISBN 0253210836. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Juang, Richard M.; Morrissette, Noelle (2007). Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 843–844. ISBN 9781851094417. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Andrews, Tamra (2000). Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9780195136777. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Barnard, Alan (2001). Hunters and Herders of Southern Africa: A Comparative Ethnography of the Khoisan Peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–88, 153–155, 252–256. ISBN 9780521428651. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lynch, Patricia Ann; Roberts, Jeremy (2010). African Mythology, A to Z (2nd ed.). New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 9781438131337. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Makward, Edris; Lilleleht, Mark; Saber, Ahmed (2004). North-south Linkages and Connections in Continental and Diaspora African Literatures. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World. pp. 302–304. ISBN 9781592211579. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Pinch, Geraldine (2003). Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195170245. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Wilkinson 2003, p. 72
- Allen 1999, pp. 44–54, 59
- Leitz, Christian, "Deities and Demons: Egypt" in Johnston 2004, pp. 393–394
- Hornung 1982, p. 42
- Baines 2001, p. 216
- Hornung 1982, p. 62
- Assmann 2001, pp. 7–8, 83
- Allen 2000, pp. 43–45
- Dunand & Zivie-Coche 2004, p. 26
- Hart 2005, pp. 91, 147
- Hart 2005, pp. 85–86
- Wilkinson 1999, pp. 261–262
- Traunecker 2001, p. 29
- Wilkinson 2003, pp. 12–15.
- Silverman, David P., "Divinity and Deities in Ancient Egypt", in Shafer 1991, p. 58
- Frankfurter, David, "Histories: Egypt, Later Period" in Johnston 2004, p. 160
- Martin, Thomas R. (2013). ncient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 0300160054. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Gagarin, Michael (2009). Ancient Greece and Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195170726. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Flensted-Jensen, Pernille (2000). Further Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis. Stuttgart: Steiner. pp. 9–12. ISBN 9783515076074. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Greek Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.
- Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion (11th ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780674362819. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Campbell, Kenneth L. (2014). Western Civilization: A Global and Comparative Approach Volume I: To 1715. Routledge. ISBN 9781317452270. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Stoll, Heinrich Wilhelm (1852). Handbook of the religion and mythology of the Greeks. p. 3. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Garland, Robert (1992). Introducing New Gods: The Politics of Athenian Religion. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 1–9. ISBN 0801427665. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Parker, Janet; Stanton, Julie (2006). Mythology: Myths, Legends and Fantasies. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik. p. 501. ISBN 9781770074538. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- Roza, Greg (2007). Incan Mythology and Other Myths of the Andes (1st ed.). New York: Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 27–30. ISBN 9781404207394. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Littleton, C. Scott (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology: Vol. 6. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. ISBN 9780761475651. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Kolata, Alan L. (2013). Ancient Inca. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780521869003. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Sherman, Josepha (2015). Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore. Routledge. p. 238. ISBN 9781317459385. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 2243–2244. ISBN 9781598842043. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Koschorke, Klaus ,; Ludwig, Frieder; Delgado, Mariano; Spliesgart, Roland (2007). A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450-1990: A Documentary Sourcebook. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans. pp. 323–325. ISBN 9780802828897. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kuznar, Lawrence A. (2001). Ethnoarchaeology of Andean South America: Contributions to Archaeological Method and Theory. Ann Arbor, Michigan: International Monographs in Prehistory. pp. 45–47. ISBN 9781879621299. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Fagan, Brian M.; Beck, Charlotte (2006). The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 345. ISBN 9780195076189. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Insoll, Timothy (2011). The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 563–567. ISBN 9780199232444. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Issitt, Micah Lee; Main, Carlyn (2014). Hidden Religion: The Greatest Mysteries and Symbols of the World's Religious Beliefs: The Greatest Mysteries and Symbols of the World’s Religious Beliefs. ABC-CLIO. pp. 373–375. ISBN 9781610694780. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Faust, Katherine A.; Richter, Kim N. (2015). The Huasteca: Culture, History, and Interregional Exchange. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 162–163. ISBN 9780806149578. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lindow, John (2002). Norse Mythology: A Guide to Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199839698. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Warner, Marina (2003). World of Myths. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292702042. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Gimbutas, Marija; Dexter, Miriam Robbins (2001). The Living Goddesses (1st ed.). Berkeley, California: Uniersity of California Press. pp. 191–196. ISBN 9780520229150.
- Christensen, Lisbeth Bredholt; Hammer, Olav; Warburton, David (2014). The Handbook of Religions in Ancient Europe. Routledge. pp. 328–329. ISBN 9781317544531. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Oosten, Jarich G. (2015). The War of the Gods (RLE Myth): The Social Code in Indo-European Mythology. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781317555841. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Williamson, Robert W. (2013). Religion and Social Organization in Central Polynesia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107625693. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Coulter, Charles Russel (2013). Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781135963903. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Long, Charlotte R. (1987). The Twelve Gods of Greece and Rome. Brill Archive. pp. 232–243. ISBN 9004077162. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Woodard, Roger (2013). Myth, ritual, and the warrior in Roman and Indo-European antiquity (1st ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 25–26, 93–96, 194–196. ISBN 9781107022409. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Ruiz, Angel (2013). Poetic Language and Religion in Greece and Rome. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 90–91. ISBN 9781443855655. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Mysliwiec, Karol; Lorton, David (2000). The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E. (1st ed.). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. p. 188. ISBN 0801486300.
- Todd, Malcolm (2004). The Early Germans. (2nd ed.). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 103–105. ISBN 9781405137560. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kristensen, f. (1960). The Meaning of Religion Lectures in the Phenomenology of Religion. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 138. ISBN 9789401765800. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Walsh, P.G. (1997). The Nature of the Gods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. xxvi. ISBN 9780191623141. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Barfield, Raymond (2011). The Ancient Quarrel Between Philosophy and Poetry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 75–76. ISBN 9781139497091. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Strazny, Philipp (2013). Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Routledge. p. 1046. ISBN 9781135455224. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (1988). Altyn-Depe. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. pp. 77–78. ISBN 9780934718547. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses - Anšar and Kišar (god and goddess)". Oracc.museum.upenn.edu. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- Leeming, David (2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 122–124. ISBN 9780190288884. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses - Marduk (god)". Oracc.museum.upenn.edu. Retrieved June 6, 2017.
- van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter W. (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (2nd ed.). Leiden: Brill. pp. 543–549. ISBN 0802824919.
- Bienkowski, Piotr; Millard, Alan (2000). Dictionary of the ancient Near East. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 246. ISBN 081222115X. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- McClelland 2010, p. 136.
- Trainor 2004, p. 62.
- Fowler, Merv (1999). Buddhism : beliefs and practices. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. p. 65. ISBN 9781898723660. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
For a vast majority of Buddhists in Theravadin countries, however, the order of monks is seen by lay Buddhists as a means of gaining the most merit in the hope of accumulating good karma for a better rebirth.
- Gowans, Christopher (2004). Philosophy of the Buddha: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 169. ISBN 9781134469734. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Emery, Gilles; Levering, Matthew (2011). The Oxford Handbook of the Trinity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199557813. Retrieved June 22, 2017.
- Larsen, Timothy; Treier, Daniel J. (2007). The Cambridge Companion to Evangelical Theology. 51: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139827508. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Aslanoff,, Catherine (1995). The Incarnate God: The Feasts and the life of Jesus Christ. Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 9780881411300. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Inbody, Tyron (2005). The Faith of the Christian Church: An Introduction to Theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 205–232. ISBN 9780802841513. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Lipner, Julius (2010). Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (2nd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9780415456777.
(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu.
- Chakravarti, Sitansu S. (1992). Hinduism, a Way of Life (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9788120808997. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hale, Wash Edward (1986). Ásura in Early Vedic Religion (1st ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120800618.
- Gier, Nicholas F. (2000). Spiritual Titanism: Indian, Chinese, and Western Perspectives. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 59–76. ISBN 9780791445280.
- Billington, Ray (2002). Understanding Eastern Philosophy. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 9781134793488. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Yust, Karen Marie (2006). Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives from the World's Religious Traditions. p. 300. ISBN 9781461665908. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Hammer, Juliane; Safi, Omid (2013). The Cambridge companion to American Islam (1st ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 213. ISBN 9781107002418. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Piamenta, Moshe (1983). The Muslim Conception of God and Human Welfare: As Reflected in Everyday Arabic Speech. Brill Archive. pp. 16–17. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Murphy, Francesca Aran (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Christology. Oxford University Press. p. 598. ISBN 9780191061677. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "High Court grants Catholic publication Herald rht right to use 'Allah' word again". The Star (Malaysia). January 1, 2010. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012.
- Titze, Kurt; Bruhn, Klaus (1998). Jainism: A Pictorial Guide to the Religion of Non-violence (2nd ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 9788120815346. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kelting, M. Whitney (2001). Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen, Mandal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion. Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780198032113. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Wiley, Kristi L. (2004). The A to Z of Jainism. Scarecrow Press. p. 186. ISBN 9780810863378. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kelting, M. Whitney (2009). Heroic Wives Rituals, Stories and the Virtues of Jain Wifehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 44-48. ISBN 9780199736799. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Terry, Michael (2013). Reader's Guide to Judaism. Routledge. pp. 287–288. ISBN 9781135941505. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kochan, Lionel (1990). Jews, Idols, and Messiahs: The Challenge from History. Oxford, UK: B. Blackwell. ISBN 9780631154778. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kaplan, Aryeh (1983). The Aryeh Kaplan Reader: The Gift He Left Behind : Collected Essays on Jewish Themes from the Noted Writer and Thinker (1st ed.). Brooklyn, New York: Mesorah Publications. pp. 144–145. ISBN 9780899061733. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- "Ahura Mazda | Definition of Ahura Mazda by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
- Rossano, Matt (2007). "Supernaturalizing Social Life: Religion and the Evolution of Human Cooperation" (PDF). Retrieved June 21, 2009.
- Barrett, Justin L.; Keil, Frank C. (December 1996). "Conceptualizing a Nonnatural Entity: Anthropomorphism in God Concepts" (PDF). Cognitive Psychology. 31 (3): 219–247. doi:10.1006/cogp.1996.0017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Allen, James P. (Jul–Aug 1999). "Monotheism: The Egyptian Roots". Archaeology Odyssey. 2 (3).
- Allen, James P. (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-77483-3.
- Assmann, Jan (2001) . The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Translated by David Lorton. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3786-5.
- Baines, John (2001) . Fecundity Figures: Egyptian personification and the iconology of a genre. Griffith Institute. ISBN 978-0-8014-3786-1.
- Dunand, Françoise; Zivie-Coche, Christiane (2004) . Gods and Men in Egypt: 3000 BCE to 395 CE. Translated by David Lorton. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8853-5.
- Hart, George (2005). The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Second Edition. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-02362-4.
- Hornung, Erik (1982) . Conceptions of God in Egypt: The One and the Many. Translated by John Baines. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1223-3.
- Johnston, Sarah Iles, ed. (2004). Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01517-3.
- McClelland, Norman C. (2010), Encyclopedia of Reincarnation and Karma, McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-5675-8
- Trainor, Kevin (2004), Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-517398-7
- Shafer, Byron E., ed. (1991). Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9786-5.
- Traunecker, Claude (2001) . The Gods of Egypt. Translated by David Lorton. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-3834-9.
- Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-05120-7.
- Wilkinson, Toby (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-18633-9.