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Anu (Akkadian: 𒀭𒀭 DAN, Anu‹m) or An (Sumerian: 𒀭 AN, from 𒀭 an "sky, heaven")[1] is the earliest attested sky-father deity. In Sumerian religion, where he is first known to have been worshiped, he was also "King of the Gods", "Lord of the Constellations, Spirits and Demons", and "Supreme Ruler of the Kingdom of Heaven", where Anu himself wandered the highest Heavenly Regions. He was believed to have the power to judge those who had committed crimes, and to have created the stars as soldiers to destroy the wicked. His attribute was the Royal Tiara. His attendant and vizier was the god Ilabrat.[1]

Anu
Sky Father, King of the Gods, Lord of the Constellations
Cuneiform sumer dingir.svg
Ur III Sumerian cuneiform for An (and determinative sign for deities see: DINGIR)
Abode Heaven
Army Deities and Stars
Symbol DINGIR
Personal Information
Consort Uraš (early Sumerian),
Ki (later Sumerian),
Antu (East Semitic)
Children Enlil, Enki, Nikikurga, Nidaba, Baba, in some versions: Inanna
Parents Apsu and Nammu (Sumerian)
Anshar and Kishar (East Semitic)
Greek equivalent Ouranos

Contents

OriginsEdit

An appears to have originated as the supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon,[1][2] but, by the time that written records began, his cult was already in decline and his position as the chief god of Sumer had already been largely ceded to his son Enlil.[3][4] An's primary role in the Sumerian pantheon was as an ancestor figure; the most powerful and important deities in the Sumerian pantheon were believed to be the offspring of An and his consort Ki.[2][5][6] These deities were known as the Anunnaki,[7] which means "offspring of An".[8] Although it is sometimes unclear which deities were considered members of the Anunnaki,[9] the group probably included the "seven gods who decree":[9] An, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, Nanna, Utu, and Inanna.[10]

The functions of Anu and Enlil frequently overlapped, especially during later periods as the cult of Anu continued to wane and the cult of Enlil rose to greater prominence.[3][4]

Divine genealogy and syncretismsEdit

The earliest texts make no reference to An's origins. Later he is regarded as the son of Anšar and Kišar, as in the first millennium creation epic Enūma eliš, also known as the Enuma Elish (Tablet I, 11-14). In early Sumerian texts from the third millennium BC, An's consort is the goddess Uraš;[2][1] the Sumerians later attributed this role to Ki, the personification of the earth.[2][1] The Sumerians believed that rain was An's seed[11] and that, when it fell, it impregnated Ki, causing her to give birth to all the vegetation of the land.[11] During the Akkadian Period, Ki was supplanted by Antu, a goddess whose name is probably derived from Anu's own.[2][1] The Akkadians believed that rain was milk from the clouds,[11] which they believed were Antu's breasts.[11]

An/Anu frequently receives the epithet "father of the gods," and many deities are described as his children in one context or another. Inscriptions from third-millennium Lagaš name An as the father of Gatumdug, Baba and Ningirsu. In later literary texts, Adad, Enki/Ea, Enlil, Girra, Nanna/Sin, Nergal and Šara also appear as his sons, while goddesses referred to as his daughters include Inana/Ištar, Nanaya, Nidaba, Ninisinna, Ninkarrak, Ninmug, Ninnibru, Ninsumun, Nungal and Nusku. An/Anu is also the head of the Annunaki, and created the demons Lamaštu, Asag and the Sebettu. In the epic Erra and Išum, Anu gives the Sebettu to Erra as weapons with which to massacre humans when their noise becomes irritating to him (Tablet I, 38ff). An was also sometimes equated with Amurru, and, in Seleucid Uruk, with Enmešara and Dumuzi.

WorshipEdit

 
Part of the front of the temple from Uruk, which was originally dedicated to An, but was later dedicated to Inanna[12]

An's main cult center was the Eanna temple, whose name means "House of Heaven" (Sumerian: e2-anna; Cuneiform: 𒂍𒀭 E2.AN),[Notes 1] in Uruk.[Notes 2] Although the temple was originally dedicated to An,[12] it was later transformed into the primary cult center of Inanna.[12] After its dedication to Inanna, the temple seems to have housed priestesses of the goddess.[12]

An was believed to be source of all legitimate power; he was the one who bestowed the right to rule upon gods and kings alike.[2][13][1] According to scholar Stephen Bertman, An "...was the supreme source of authority among the gods, and among men, upon whom he conferred kingship. As heaven's grand patriarch, he dispensed justice and controlled the laws known as the meh that governed the universe."[13] In inscriptions commemorating his conquest of Sumer, Sargon of Akkad proclaims An and Inanna as the sources of his authority.[13] A hymn from the early second millennium BCE professes that "his utterance ruleth over the obedient company of the gods".[13]

Although An was a very important deity, his nature was often ambiguous and ill-defined;[2] he almost never appears in Mesopotamian artwork[2] and has no known anthropomorphic iconography.[2] During the Kassite and Neo-Assyrian periods, Anu was represented by a horned cap.[2][13]

MythologyEdit

SumerianEdit

Sumerian creation mythEdit

The main source of information about the Sumerian creation myth is the prologue to the epic poem Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld,[14] which briefly describes the process of creation: originally, there was only Nammu, the primeval sea.[15] Then, Nammu gave birth to An, the sky, and Ki, the earth.[15] An and Ki mated with each other, causing Ki to give birth to Enlil, the god of the wind.[15] Enlil separated An from Ki and carried off the earth as his domain, while An carried off the sky.[16]

In Sumerian, the designation "An" was used interchangeably with "the heavens" so that in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god An or the heavens is being denoted.[17] In Sumerian cosmogony, heaven was envisioned as a series of three domes covering the flat earth;[18][1] Each of these domes of heaven was believed to be made of a different precious stone.[18] An was believed to be the highest and outermost of these domes, which was thought to be made of reddish stone.[1] Outside of this dome was the primordial body of water known as Nammu.[15]

Inanna and EbihEdit

Inanna and Ebih, otherwise known as Goddess of the Fearsome Divine Powers, is a 184-line poem written by the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna describing An's granddaughter Inanna's confrontation with Mount Ebih, a mountain in the Zagros mountain range.[19] An briefly appears in a scene from the poem in which Inanna petitions him to allow her to destroy Mount Ebih.[19] An warns Inanna not to attack the mountain,[19] but she ignores his warning and proceeds to attack and destroy Mount Ebih regardless.[19]

Inanna Takes Command of HeavenEdit

The poem Inanna Takes Command of Heaven is an extremely fragmentary, but important, account of Inanna's conquest of the Eanna temple in Uruk.[12] It begins with a conversation between Inanna and her brother Utu in which Inanna laments that the Eanna temple is not within their domain and resolves to claim it as her own.[12] The text becomes increasingly fragmentary at this point in the narrative,[12] but appears to describe her difficult passage through a marshland to reach the temple while a fisherman instructs her on which route is best to take.[12] Ultimately, Inanna reaches An, who is shocked by her arrogance, but nevertheless concedes that she has succeeded and that the temple is now her domain.[12] The text ends with a hymn expounding Inanna's greatness.[12] This myth may represent an eclipse in the authority of the priests of An in Uruk and a transfer of power to the priests of Inanna.[12]

AkkadianEdit

Epic of GilgameshEdit

In a scene from the Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh, Anu's daughter Ishtar, the East Semitic equivalent to Inanna, attempts to seduce the hero Gilgamesh.[20] When Gilgamesh spurns her advances,[20] Ishtar angrily goes to heaven and tells Anu that Gilgamesh has insulted her.[20] Anu asks her why she is complaining to him instead of confronting Gilgamesh herself.[20] Ishtar demands that Anu give her the Bull of Heaven[20] and swears that if he does not give it to her, she will break down the gates of Irkalla and raise the dead to eat the living.[20] Anu gives Ishtar the Bull of Heaven, and Ishtar sends it to attack Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu.[21]

HittiteEdit

In Hittite mythology, Anu was believed to have overthrown his father Alalu[22][23] and proclaimed himself ruler of the universe.[22][23] He was later overthrown by his own son Kumarbi;[22][23] Anu attempted to flee, but Kumarbi bit off Anu's genitals and swallowed them, and banished him to the underworld,[22] along with his allies, the old gods,[24][25] whom the Hittites syncretized with the Anunnaki.[24] As a consequence of swallowing Anu's genitals, Kumarbi became impregnated with Anu's son Teshub and four other offspring.[22] Teshub overthrew his father Kumarbi, thus avenging his other father Anu's overthrow and mutillation.[22] This series of divine coups later became the basis for the Greek creation story described in Hesiod's Theogony.[26]

Family treeEdit


Abzū
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mummu Tīama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Laḫmu
 
 
 
Laḫamu
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anšargal
 
 
 
Kišargal
 
 
 
 
 
 
An
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ninḫursaĝ
 
 
 
 
 
Enki
born to Namma
 
 
 
Ninkikurga
born to Namma
Nidaba
born to Uraš
 
 
 
Ḫaya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ninsar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ninlil
 
 
 
Enlil
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ninkurra
 
 
Ningal
maybe daughter of Enlil
 
 
 
Nanna Nergal
maybe son of Enki
Ninurta
maybe born to Ninḫursaĝ
 
Baba
born to Uraš
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uttu Inanna
possibly also the daughter of Enki or the daughter of An
 
Dumuzid
maybe son of Enki
Utu Ninkigal
married Nergal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Meškiaĝĝašer Lugalbanda
 
 
 
Ninsumun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Enmerkar Gilgāmeš
 
 
Urnungal

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ é-an-na = sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven'[='An'] + genitive) (Halloran 2009)
  2. ^ modern-day Warka, Biblical Erech

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stephens 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Black & Green 1992, p. 30.
  3. ^ a b Schneider 2011, p. 58.
  4. ^ a b Kramer 1963, p. 118.
  5. ^ Katz 2003, p. 403.
  6. ^ Leick 1998, p. 8.
  7. ^ Black & Green, p. 34.
  8. ^ Black & Green 1992, p. 34.
  9. ^ a b Kramer 1963, p. 123.
  10. ^ Kramer 1963, pp. 122–123.
  11. ^ a b c d Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 182.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Harris 1991, pp. 261-278.
  13. ^ a b c d e Mark 2017.
  14. ^ Kramer 1961, pp. 30-33.
  15. ^ a b c d Kramer 1961, pp. 37-40.
  16. ^ Kramer 1961, pp. 37-41.
  17. ^   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainJastrow, Morris (1911). "Anu". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 156–157. 
  18. ^ a b Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 180.
  19. ^ a b c d Karahashi 2004, p. 111.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Dalley 1989, p. 80.
  21. ^ Dalley 1989, pp. 81-82.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Puhvel 1987, p. 25.
  23. ^ a b c Coleman & Davidson 2015, p. 19.
  24. ^ a b Leick 1998, p. 141.
  25. ^ Van Scott 1998, p. 187.
  26. ^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 25-27.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit