Uranus (// (listen) yoor-AY-nəs), sometimes written Ouranos (Ancient Greek: Οὐρανός, lit. 'sky', [oːranós]), was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities. Uranus is associated with the Roman god Caelus. In Ancient Greek literature, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, the primordial Earth Mother (Mother Earth). According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus was conceived by Gaia alone, but according to other sources he was born from Aether and Hemera ('Day'), or Nyx. Uranus and Gaia were the parents of the first generation of Titans, and the ancestors of most of the Greek gods, but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times, and Uranus does not appear among the usual themes of Greek painted pottery. Elemental Earth, Sky, and Styx might be joined, however, in solemn invocation in Homeric epic.
Primordial god of the sky
|Parents||Gaia (Hesiod) or|
Aether and Hemera (Cicero) or
Nyx or Elium and Beruth (Eusebius/Diodorus)
|Consort||Gaia, Hemera (Cicero)|
|Children||The Titans, the Cyclopes, the Meliae, the Erinyes (Furies), the Giants, the Hekatonkheires and Aphrodite|
Most linguists trace the etymology of the name Οὐρανός to a Proto-Greek form *Worsanós (Ϝορσανός), enlarged from *ṷorsó- (also found in Greek οὐρέω (ouréō) 'to urinate', Sanskrit varṣá 'rain', Hittite ṷarša- 'fog, mist'). The basic Indo-European root is *ṷérs- 'to rain, moisten' (also found in Greek eérsē 'dew', Sanskrit várṣati 'to rain', or Avestan aiβi.varəšta 'it rained on'), making Ouranos the "rain-maker", or the "lord of rain".
A less likely etymology is a derivative meaning 'the one standing on high' from PIE *ṷérso- (cf. Sanskrit várṣman 'height, top', Lithuanian viršùs 'upper, highest seat', Russian verx 'height, top'). Of some importance in the comparative study of Indo-European mythology is the identification by Georges Dumézil (1934) of Uranus with the Vedic deity Váruṇa (Mitanni Aruna), god of the sky and waters, but the etymological equation is now considered untenable.
In Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus (Sky) is the offspring of Gaia (Earth). Alcman and Callimachus elaborate that Uranus was fathered by Aether, the god of heavenly light and the upper air. While the mythographer Apollodorus, without giving any ancestors, says simply that Uranus was "the first who ruled the whole world." Under the influence of the philosophers, Cicero, in De Natura Deorum ("Concerning the Nature of the Gods"), claims that he was the offspring of the ancient gods Aether and Hemera, Air and Day. According to the Orphic Hymns, Uranus was the son of Nyx, the personification of night. Uranus was the brother of Pontus, the God of the sea.
According to Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus mated with Gaia, and she gave birth to the twelve Titans: Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Tethys and Cronus; the Cyclopes: Brontes, Steropes and Arges; and the Hecatoncheires ("Hundred-Handed Ones"): Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges.
|Descendants of Gaia (Earth) and Uranus (Sky) |
Further, according to the Theogony, when Cronus castrated Uranus, from Uranus' blood, which splattered onto the earth, came the Erinyes (Furies), the Giants, and the Meliae. Also, according to the Theogony, Cronus threw the severed genitals into the sea (Thalassa), around which "a white foam spread" and "grew" into the goddess Aphrodite, although according to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
|Descendants of Gaia and Uranus' blood, and Uranus' genitals, according Hesiod |
List of the children of Uranus and GaiaEdit
|Titans||Cyclopes||Erinyes 1||Gigantes 1||Telchines||Others|
|• Oceanus||• Themis||• Arges||• Alecto||• Porphyrion||• Pallas||• Actaeus||• Meliae1|
|• Coeus||• Tethys||• Brontes||• Megaera||• Alcyoneus||• Polybotes||• Megalesius||• Curetes 1&2|
|• Crius||• Phoebe||• Steropes||• Tisiphone||• Ephialtes||• Enceladus||• Ormenus||• Aetna|
|• Iapetus||• Mnemosyne||Hecatonchires||Elder Muses||• Eurytus||• Hippolytus||• Lycus||• Aristaeus|
|• Hyperion||• Rhea||• Briareus||• Mneme||• Clytius||• Gration||• Calydnus|
|• Theia||• Cronus||• Cottus||• Melete||• Mimas||• Agrius||• Euonymus|
|• Dione||• Gyes||• Aoide||• Thoas|
1 Some said they were born from Uranus' blood when Cronus castrated him.
2 Kouretes were born from rainwater (Uranus fertilizing Gaia)
This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2016)
In the Olympian creation myth, as Hesiod tells it in the Theogony, Uranus came every night to cover the earth and mate with Gaia, but he hated the children she bore him. Hesiod named their first six sons and six daughters the Titans, the three one-hundred-handed giants the Hekatonkheires, and the one-eyed giants the Cyclopes.
Uranus imprisoned Gaia's youngest children in Tartarus, deep within Earth, where they caused pain to Gaia. She shaped a great flint-bladed sickle and asked her sons to castrate Uranus. Only Cronus, youngest and most ambitious of the Titans, was willing: he ambushed his father and castrated him, casting the severed testicles into the sea.
For this fearful deed, Uranus called his sons Titanes Theoi, or "Straining Gods." From the blood that spilled from Uranus onto the Earth came forth the Giants, the Erinyes (the avenging Furies), the Meliae (the ash-tree nymphs), and, according to some, the Telchines. From the genitals in the sea came forth Aphrodite.
The learned Alexandrian poet Callimachus reported that the bloodied sickle had been buried in the earth at Zancle in Sicily, but the Romanized Greek traveller Pausanias was informed that the sickle had been thrown into the sea from the cape near Bolina, not far from Argyra on the coast of Achaea, whereas the historian Timaeus located the sickle at Corcyra; Corcyrans claimed to be descendants of the wholly legendary Phaeacia visited by Odysseus, and by circa 500 BCE one Greek mythographer, Acusilaus, was claiming that the Phaeacians had sprung from the very blood of Uranus' castration.
After Uranus was deposed, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hekatonkheires and Cyclopes in Tartarus. Uranus and Gaia then prophesied that Cronus in turn was destined to be overthrown by his own son, and so the Titan attempted to avoid this fate by devouring his young. Zeus, through deception by his mother Rhea, avoided this fate.
After his castration, the Sky came no more to cover the Earth at night, but held to its place, and "the original begetting came to an end" (Kerényi). Uranus was scarcely regarded as anthropomorphic, aside from the genitalia in the castration myth. He was simply the sky, which was conceived by the ancients as an overarching dome or roof of bronze, held in place (or turned on an axis) by the Titan Atlas. In formulaic expressions in the Homeric poems ouranos is sometimes an alternative to Olympus as the collective home of the gods; an obvious occurrence would be the moment in Iliad 1.495, when Thetis rises from the sea to plead with Zeus: "and early in the morning she rose up to greet Ouranos-and-Olympus and she found the son of Kronos ..."
William Sale remarks that "... 'Olympus' is almost always used of [the home of the Olympian gods], but ouranos often refers to the natural sky above us without any suggestion that the gods, collectively live there". Sale concluded that the earlier seat of the gods was the actual Mount Olympus, from which the epic tradition by the time of Homer had transported them to the sky, ouranos. By the sixth century, when a "heavenly Aphrodite" (Aphrodite Urania) was to be distinguished from the "common Aphrodite of the people", ouranos signifies purely the celestial sphere itself.
The Greek creation myth is similar to the Hurrian creation myth. In Hurrian religion Anu is the sky god. His son Kumarbis bit off his genitals and spat out three deities, one of whom, Teshub, later deposed Kumarbis. In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu is the sky god and represented law and order.
It is possible that Uranus was originally an Indo-European god, to be identified with the Vedic Váruṇa, the supreme keeper of order who later became the god of oceans and rivers, as suggested by Georges Dumézil, following hints in Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912). Another of Dumézil's theories is that the Iranian supreme God Ahura Mazda is a development of the Indo-Iranian *vouruna-*mitra. Therefore, this divinity has also the qualities of Mitra, which is the god of the falling rain.
Uranus and VáruṇaEdit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2016)
Uranus is connected with the night sky, and Váruṇa is the god of the sky and the celestial ocean, which is connected with the Milky Way.
Georges Dumézil made a cautious case for the identity of Uranus and Vedic Váruṇa at the earliest Indo-European cultural level. Dumézil's identification of mythic elements shared by the two figures, relying to a great extent on linguistic interpretation, but not positing a common origin, was taken up by Robert Graves and others. The identification of the name Ouranos with the Hindu Váruṇa, based in part on a posited PIE root *-ŭer with a sense of "binding"—ancient king god Váruṇa binds the wicked, ancient king god Uranus binds the Cyclops, who had tormented him. The most probable etymology is from Proto-Greek *(W)orsanόj (worsanos) from a PIE root *ers "to moisten, to drip" (referring to the rain).
Cultural context of flintEdit
The detail of the sickle's being flint rather than bronze or even iron was retained by Greek mythographers (though neglected by Roman ones). Knapped flints as cutting edges were set in wooden or bone sickles in the late Neolithic, before the onset of the Bronze Age. Such sickles may have survived latest in ritual contexts where metal was taboo, but the detail, which was retained by classical Greeks, suggests the antiquity of the mytheme.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (September 2021)
The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of only five "wandering stars" (Ancient Greek: πλανῆται [planɛːtai̯]): Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Following the discovery of a sixth planet in 1781 using a telescope, there was long-term disagreement regarding its name. Its discoverer William Herschel named it Georgium Sidus (The Georgian Star) after his monarch George III. This was the name preferred by English astronomers, but others such as the French preferred "Herschel". Finally, the name Uranus became accepted in the mid-19th century, as suggested by astronomer Johann Bode as the logical addition to the existing planets' names, since Mars (Ares in Greek), Venus, and Mercury were the children of Jupiter, Jupiter (Zeus in Greek) the son of Saturn, and Saturn (Cronus in Greek) the son of Uranus. What is anomalous is that, while the others take Roman names, Uranus is a name derived from Greek in contrast to the Roman Caelus.
The pronunciation of the name Uranus preferred among astronomers is // YOOR-ə-nəs, with stress on the first syllable as in Latin Ūranus, in contrast to // yoor-AY-nəs, with stress on the second syllable and a long a, though both are considered acceptable.
- According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, but according to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- Grimal, s.v. "Caelus" p. 38.
- Varro, De lingua Latina 5.58.
- Marion Lawrence, "The Velletri Sarcophagus", American Journal of Archaeology 69.3 (1965), p. 220.
- Parada, s.v. Uranus; Hyginus, Fabulae Theogony 2; Alcman, Frag 61, Callimachus, Frag 498, Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.44.
- "We did not regard them as being in any way worthy of worship," Karl Kerenyi, speaking for the ancient Greeks, said of the Titans (Kerenyi, p. 20); "with the single exception, perhaps, of Cronos; and with the exception, also, of Helios."
- As at Homer, Iliad 15.36 ff., Odyssey 5.184 ff.
- West 2007, p. 137. Originally reconstructed in: Johann Baptist Hofmann, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen (Munich: R. Oldenbourg, 1950).
- Robert S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, vol. 2 (Leiden: Brill, 2009), 1128–1129.
- West 2007, p. 137.
- Georges Dumézil, Ouranos-Varuna – Essai de mythologie comparée indo-européenne (Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve, 1934).
- Manfred Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, vol. 2, s.v. “Váruṇa” (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1996), 515–6. Edgar C. Polomé, “Binder-god”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (London–Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997), 65.
- Hesiod, Theogony 126 ff.; Caldwell, p. 35 line 126-128.
- "Ancient Greece Reloaded". www.ancientgreecereloaded.com. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
- Apollodorus, 1.1.1.
- "NYX - Greek Primordial Goddess of the Night (Roman Nox)". www.theoi.com. Retrieved 2019-05-09.
- Donna Jo Napoli, "Treasury of Greek Mythology: Classic Stories of Gods, Goddesses, Heroes & Monsters"
- Hesiod, Theogony 132–153. Compare with Apollodorus, 1.1.1–3, which first mentions the Hecatoncheires, whom he names as Briareus, "Gyes" and Cottus, then the Cyclopes and the Titans.
- Hesiod, Theogony 132–153; Caldwell, p. 5, table 3.
- Hesiod, Theogony 173–206.
- Homer, Iliad 3.374, 5.370–71, 20.105, Odyssey 8.308, 320; see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
- Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.56.
- Hesiod, Theogony 183–200; Caldwell, p. 6 table 4.
- Alcimus, ap. Schol. Theocrit. i. 65; Ellis, p. l.
- Probably a Giant
- Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Kalydna; Tzetzes on Lycophron, 25
- Hornblower, Simon (2015). Lykophron, Alexandra: Greek Text, Translation, Commentary, and Introduction. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 433.CS1 maint: location (link)
- Stephanus of Byzantium, s.v. Euonymeia
- Hesiod, Theogony 133 ff..
- Modern etymology suggests that the linguistic origin of Τιτάνες lies on the pre-Greek level.
- Callimachus, Aitia ("On Origins"), from book II, fragment 43, discussed by Lane Fox, pp. 270 ff.; Lane Fox notes that Zancle was founded in the 8th century BC.
- Reported by the scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautica, 4.984, (Lane Fox, p. 274 n. 36).
- Acusilaus, in FrGH vol. 2, fragment 4, noted by Lane Fox, p. 274 n. 37
- Kerényi, p. 20.
- Sale, William Merritt (1984). "Homeric Olympus and its formulae". American Journal of Philology. 105 (1): 1–28 [p. 3]. doi:10.2307/294622. JSTOR 294622.
- Guterbock, Hans Gustav. "Hittite Religion" in Forgotten Religions including some Primitive Religions" ed. Vergilius Firm. NY Philadelphia Library 1950: 88f,103f.
- The Durkheim connection was noted by Arnoldo Momigliano, "Georges Dumezil and the Trifunctional Approach to Roman Civilization", History and Theory, 1984; a link between Uranus and Varuna was suggested as early as 1824 by Albrecht Weber, Modern investigations on ancient India: A lecture delivered in Berlin March 4, 1824, 1857.
- Georges Dumézil, Mitra Varuna: Essai sur deux représentations indo-européenes de la souveraineté (Paris: Gallimard, 1948). English translation: Mitra-Varuna: an Essay on Two Indo-European Representations of Sovereignty, trans. Derek Coltman (New York: Zone Books, 1988).
- According to Dumézil, Varuna is the god of "masses of water", while falling rain is rather related to Mitra.
- Gingerich, Owen (October 1958). "The Naming of Uranus and Neptune". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Volume 8 Leaflet no. 352 (352): 9–15. Bibcode:1958ASPL....8....9G – via NASA Astrophysics Data System.
|volume=has extra text (help)
- Because the vowel a is short in both Greek and Latin, the former pronunciation, /ˈjʊərənəs/, is the expected one. The BBC Pronunciation Unit notes that this pronunciation "is the preferred usage of astronomers": Olausson, Lena; Sangster, Catherine (2006). The Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-19-280710-6.
- Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Caldwell, Richard, Hesiod's Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company (June 1, 1987). ISBN 978-0-941051-00-2.
- Cicero, Marcus Tullius, De Natura Deorum in Cicero: On the Nature of the Gods. Academics, translated by H. Rackham, Loeb Classical Library No. 268, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, first published 1933, revised 1951. ISBN 978-0-674-99296-2. Online version at Harvard University Press. Internet Archive.
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Graves, Robert, revised edition, 1960. The Greek Myths.
- Grimal, Pierre, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 9780631201021.
- Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Hyginus, Gaius Julius, Fabulae in Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabuae: Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology, Translated, with Introductions by R. Scott Smith and Stephen M. Trzaskoma, Hackett Publishing Company, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87220-821-6.
- Hornblower, Simon, Lykophron, Alexandra: Greek Text, Translation, Commentary, and Introduction. Oxford University Press. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP, United Kingdom. 2015. ISBN 978-0-19-957670-8, 978-0-19-881064-3
- Kerényi, Carl, The Gods of the Greeks, Thames and Hudson, London, 1951.
- Parada, Carlos, Genealogical Guide to Greek Mythology, Jonsered, Paul Åströms Förlag, 1993. ISBN 978-91-7081-062-6.
- Lane Fox, Robin, Travelling Heroes: In the Epic Age of Homer, Vintage Books, 2010. ISBN 9780679763864.
- Most, G.W., Hesiod, Theogony, Works and Days, Testimonia, Edited and translated by Glenn W. Most, Loeb Classical Library No. 57, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-674-99720-2. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Uranus"
- Stephanus of Byzantium, Stephani Byzantii Ethnicorum quae supersunt, edited by August Meineike (1790-1870), published 1849. A few entries from this important ancient handbook of place names have been translated by Brady Kiesling. Online version at the Topos Text Project.
- West, M. L. (2003), Greek Epic Fragments: From the Seventh to the Fifth Centuries BC, edited and translated by Martin L. West, Loeb Classical Library No. 497, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-674-99605-2. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- West, M. L. (2007), Indo-European Poetry and Myth, OUP Oxford, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. Google Books.