Ur (/ʊər/ oor; Sumerian: 𒌶𒆠, 𒋀𒀕𒆠, or 𒋀𒀊𒆠[note 1] Urim;[1] Akkadian: 𒋀𒀕𒆠 Uru;[2] Arabic: أُوْر, romanizedʾūr; Hebrew: אוּר, romanizedʾūr) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (Arabic: تل ٱلْمُقَيَّر) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.[3] Although Ur was once a coastal city near the mouth of the Euphrates on the Persian Gulf, the coastline has shifted and the city is now well inland, on the south bank of the Euphrates, 16 km (10 mi) from Nasiriyah in modern-day Iraq.[4] The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a city-state from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being King Tuttues.

Ur
Tell el-Muqayyar
Ur is located in Iraq
Ur
Ur
Shown within Iraq
Ur is located in Near East
Ur
Ur
Ur (Near East)
Ur is located in West and Central Asia
Ur
Ur
Ur (West and Central Asia)
LocationTell el-Muqayyar, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq
RegionMesopotamia, Middle East
Coordinates30°57′42″N 46°06′18″E / 30.9616529°N 46.1051259°E / 30.9616529; 46.1051259
TypeSettlement
History
Foundedc. 3800 BC
Abandonedafter 500 BC
PeriodsUbaid period to Iron Age
CulturesSumerian
Site notes
Excavation dates1853–1854, 1922–1934, 2015-present
ArchaeologistsJohn George Taylor, Charles Leonard Woolley, Elizabeth C Stone, Paul Zimansky, Adelheid Otto
Official nameUr Archaeological City
Part ofAhwar of Southern Iraq
CriteriaMixed: (iii)(v)(ix)(x)
Reference1481-006
Inscription2016 (40th Session)
Area71 ha (0.27 sq mi)
Buffer zone317 ha (1.22 sq mi)

The city's patron deity was Nanna (in Akkadian, Sin), the Sumerian and Akkadian moon god, and the name of the city is in origin derived from the god's name, UNUGKI, literally "the abode (UNUG) of Nanna".[4] The site is marked by the partially restored ruins of the Ziggurat of Ur, which contained the shrine of Nanna, excavated in the 1930s. The temple was built in the 21st century BC (short chronology), during the reign of Ur-Nammu and was reconstructed in the 6th century BC by Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon.[5]

Layout edit

 
Sumer and Elam c. 2350 BC. Ur was located close to the coastline near the mouth of the Euphrates.
 
The name 𒋀𒀊𒆠 URIM5KI for "Country of Ur" on a seal of King Ur-Nammu

Society and culture edit

Archaeological discoveries have shown unequivocally that Ur was a major Sumerian urban center on the Mesopotamian plain. Especially the discovery of the Royal Tombs has confirmed its splendour. These tombs, which date to the Early Dynastic IIIa period (approximately in the 25th or 24th century BC), contained an immense treasure of luxury items made of precious metals and semi-precious stones imported from long distances (Ancient Iran, Afghanistan, India, Asia Minor, the Levant and the Persian Gulf).[5] This wealth, unparalleled up to then, is a testimony of Ur's economic importance during the Early Bronze Age.[6]

Lizard-headed nude woman nursing a child, from Ur, Ubaid period, c. 4500–4000 BC; Iraq Museum
Enthroned King Ur-Nammu (c. 2047–2030 BC)

Excavation in the old city of Ur in 1929 revealed the Lyres of Ur, instruments similar to the modern harp but in the shape of a bull and with eleven strings.[7]

Standard of Ur mosaic (c. 2600 BC)
The Standard of Ur mosaic, from the royal tombs of Ur, is made of red limestone, bitumen, lapis lazuli, and shell. The "peace" side shows comfort, music, and prosperity. The "war" side shows the king, his armies, and chariots trampling on enemies.

History edit

Prehistory edit

When Ur was founded, the Persian Gulf's water level was two-and-a-half metres higher than today. Ur is thought, therefore, to have had marshy surroundings; irrigation would have been unnecessary, and the city's evident canals likely were used for transportation. Fish, birds, tubers, and reeds might have supported Ur economically without the need for an agricultural revolution sometimes hypothesized as a prerequisite to urbanization.[8][9]

Prehistoric Ubaid period edit

Archaeologists have discovered evidence of early occupation at Ur during the Ubaid period (c. 5500–3700 BC),[10] a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-'Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted initially in 1919 by Henry Hall and later by Leonard Woolley.[11][12]

Later, a layer of soil covered the occupation levels from the Ubaid period. Excavators of the 1920s interpreted the layer of soil as evidence for the Great Flood of the Book of Genesis and Epic of Gilgamesh. It is now understood that the South Mesopotamian plain was exposed to regular floods from the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, with heavy erosion from water and wind, which may have given rise to the Mesopotamian and derivative Biblical Great Flood stories.[13][14]

Bronze Age edit

There are various main sources informing scholars about the importance of Ur during the Early Bronze Age. Proto-cuneiform tablets from the Early Dynastic period, c. 2900 BC, have been recovered.[15][16] The First Dynasty of Ur seems to have had great wealth and power, as shown by the lavish remains of the Royal Cemetery at Ur. The Sumerian King List provides a tentative political history of ancient Sumer and mentions, among others, several rulers of Ur. Mesannepada is the first king mentioned in the Sumerian King List, and appears to have lived in the 26th century BC. That Ur was an important urban centre already then seems to be indicated by a type of cylinder seal called the City Seals. These seals contain a set of Proto-Cuneiform signs which appear to be writings or symbols of the name of city-states in ancient Mesopotamia. Many of these seals have been found in Ur, and the name of Ur is prominent on them.[17] Ur came under the control of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire founded by Sargon the Great between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC. This was a period when the Semitic-speaking Akkadians, who had entered Mesopotamia in approximately 3000 BC, gained ascendancy over the Sumerians, and indeed much of the ancient Near East.

Ur III edit

 
Map of the world around 2000 BC showing the Third Dynasty of Ur

After a short period of chaos following the fall of the Akkadian Empire the third Ur dynasty was established when the king Ur-Nammu came to power, ruling between c. 2047 BC and 2030 BC. During his rule, temples, including the Ziggurat of Ur, were built, and agriculture was improved through irrigation. His code of laws, the Code of Ur-Nammu (a fragment was identified in Istanbul in 1952) is one of the oldest such documents known, preceding the Code of Hammurabi by 300 years. He and his successor Shulgi were both deified during their reigns, and after his death he continued as a hero-figure: one of the surviving works of Sumerian literature describes the death of Ur-Nammu and his journey to the underworld.[18]

Ur-Nammu was succeeded by Shulgi, the greatest king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who solidified the hegemony of Ur and reformed the empire into a highly centralized bureaucratic state. Shulgi ruled for a long time (at least 42 years) and deified himself halfway through his rule.[19]

 
Ziggurat of Ur

The Ur empire continued through the reigns of three more kings with Semitic Akkadian names,[13] Amar-Sin, Shu-Sin, and Ibbi-Sin. It fell around 1940 BC to the Elamites in the 24th regnal year of Ibbi-Sin, an event commemorated by the Lament for Ur.[20][21]

According to one estimate, Ur was the largest city in the world from c. 2030 to 1980 BC. Its population was approximately 65,000 (or 0.1 per cent share of global population then).[citation needed]

The city of Ur lost its political power after the demise of the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nevertheless, its important position which kept on providing access to the Persian Gulf ensured the ongoing economic importance of the city during the second millennium BC. The city came to be ruled by the Amorite first dynasty of Babylon which rose to prominence in southern Mesopotamia in the 19th century BC. During the Old Babylonian Empire, in the reign of Samsu-iluna, Ur was abandoned. It later became a part of the native Sealand Dynasty for several centuries. It then came under the control of the Kassites in the 16th century BC, and sporadically under the control of the Middle Assyrian Empire between the 14th and 11th centuries BC.[22]

Iron Age edit

The city, along with the rest of southern Mesopotamia and much of the Near East, Asia Minor, North Africa and southern Caucasus, fell to the north Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian Empire from the 10th to late 7th centuries BC. From the end of the 7th century BC Ur was ruled by the so-called Chaldean Dynasty of Babylon. In the 6th century BC there was new construction in Ur under the rule of Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. The last Babylonian king, Nabonidus, improved the ziggurat. However, the city started to decline from around 530 BC after Babylonia fell to the Persian Achaemenid Empire, and was no longer inhabited by the early 5th century BC.[13] The demise of Ur was perhaps owing to drought, changing river patterns, and the silting of the outlet to the Persian Gulf.

Identification with the Biblical Ur edit

 
"Abraham's House" in Ur, photographed in 2016

Ur is possibly the city of Ur Kasdim mentioned in the Book of Genesis as the birthplace of the Hebrew and Muslim patriarch Abraham (Avraham in Hebrew, Ibrahim in Arabic), traditionally believed to have lived some time in the 2nd millennium BC.[23][24] There are however conflicting traditions and scholarly opinions identifying Ur Kasdim with the sites of Şanlıurfa, Urkesh, Urartu or Kutha.

The biblical Ur is mentioned four times in the Torah or Hebrew Bible, with the distinction "of the Kasdim/Kasdin"—traditionally rendered in English as "Ur of the Chaldees". The Chaldeans had settled in the vicinity by around 850 BC, but were not extant anywhere in Mesopotamia during the 2nd millennium BC period when Abraham is traditionally held to have lived. The Chaldean dynasty did not rule Babylonia (and thus become the rulers of Ur) until the late 7th century BC, and held power only until the mid 6th century BC. The name is found in Genesis 11:28, Genesis 11:31, and Genesis 15:7. In Nehemiah 9:7, a single passage mentioning Ur is a paraphrase of Genesis.[citation needed]

Pope John Paul II wanted to visit the city according to the biblical tradition within a journey through the Middle East including Israel, Jordan and Palestine but the visit was cancelled due to differences between the Government of Saddam Hussein and representatives of the Holy See[25] which caused the government of Iraq to prohibit the visit.

In March 2021, Pope Francis visited Ur during his journey through Iraq.[26]

Archaeology edit

 
Rawlinson's March 1854 letter to The Athenaeum announcing his reading of the Nabonidus cylinders which connected Muqeyer or "Um Qeer" with the name Ur[27]
Bitumen "mortar" among Ur's mudbricks
Circular groups of bricks excavated in 1900

The site consists of a mound, roughly 1200 by 800 meters with a height of about 20 meters above the plan. The mound is split by the remnants of an ancient canal into north and south portions.[28] The remains of a city wall are visible surrounding the site. The occupation size ranged from about 15 hectares in the Jemdet Nasr period to 90 hectares in the Early Dynastic period and then peaking in the Ur III period at 108 hectares and the Isin-Larsa period at 140 hectares, extending beyond the city walls. Subsequent period had varying lesser degrees of occupation.[29]

In 1625, the site was visited by Pietro Della Valle, who recorded the presence of ancient bricks stamped with strange symbols, cemented together with bitumen, as well as inscribed pieces of black marble that appeared to be seals. He retrieved several inscribed bricks.[30] European archaeologists did not identify Tell el-Muqayyar as the site of Ur until Henry Rawlinson successfully deciphered some bricks from that location, brought to England by William Loftus in 1849.[31][32]

The site was first excavated in 1853 and 1854, on behalf of the British Museum and with instructions from the Foreign Office, by John George Taylor, British vice consul at Basra from 1851 to 1859.[33][34][35] Taylor uncovered the Ziggurat of Ur and a structure with an arch later identified as part of the "Gate of Judgment".[36] Among the finds were copies of a standard cylinder of Nabonidus, Neo-Babylonian ruler, mentioning the prince regent Belshar-uzur, usually thought to be the Belshazzar of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible.[37] Between 1854 and 1918 locals excavated over two hundred tablets from the site, mostly from the temple Ê-nun-maḫ, of the moon god Sin.[38] Built by the Ur III ruler Ur-Nammu, the ziggurat was later repaired by Isin ruler Ishme-Dagan early in the 2nd millennium BC.[39] Stamped bricks on the ziggurat detail the rebuilding of the temple of Ningal by 14th century BC Kassite ruler Kurigalzu I.[40]

Some cuneiform tablets were found. Thirty four of these tablets were inadvertently mixed in with those excavated at Kutalla. Only in recent years has this error been recognized.[41][42] Typical of the era, his excavations destroyed information and exposed the tell. Natives used the now loosened, 4,000-year-old bricks and tile for construction for the next 75 years, while the site lay unexplored,[43] the British Museum having decided to prioritize archaeology in Assyria.[36]

The site was considered rich in remains, and relatively easy to explore. After some soundings were made during a week in 1918 by Reginald Campbell Thompson, H. R. Hall worked the site for one season (using 70 Turkish prisoners of war) for the British Museum in 1919, laying the groundwork for more extensive efforts to follow. Some cuneiform tablets from the Isin-Larsa period were found, including omen and medical texts. They are now in the British Museum.[44][45][46]

 
Aerial photograph of Ur in 1927

Excavations from 1922 to 1934 were funded by the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania and led by the archaeologist Sir Charles Leonard Woolley.[47] The last two seasons focused on closing the site properly.[48][43][49] A total of about 1,850 burials were uncovered, including 16 that were described as "royal tombs" containing many valuable artifacts, including the Standard of Ur. Most of the royal tombs were dated to about 2600 BC. The finds included the unlooted tomb of a queen thought to be Queen Puabi (formerly transcribed as Shub-ab), known from a cylinder seal found in the tomb, although there were two other different and unnamed seals found in the tomb. Many other people had been buried with her, in a form of human sacrifice.[50] Near the ziggurat were uncovered the temple E-nun-mah and buildings E-dub-lal-mah (built for a king), E-gi-par (residence of the high priestess) and E-hur-sag (a temple building).

Outside the temple area, many houses used in everyday life were found. Excavations were also made below the royal tombs layer: a 3.5-metre-thick (11 ft) layer of alluvial clay covered the remains of earlier habitation, including pottery from the Ubaid period, the first stage of settlement in southern Mesopotamia. Woolley later wrote many articles and books about the discoveries.[51] One of Woolley's assistants on the site was the British archaeologist Max Mallowan.[52]

A number of royal inscription were found during the Woolley excavations.[53][54] Numerous cuneiform tablets were also recovered. These included archives, temple and domestic, from the Early Dynastic period,[55] the Ur III period,[56][57] Old and Middle Babylonian period,[58][59] and the Neo-Babylonian and Persian periods.[60] Many literary and religious texts were also recovered.[61][62][63]

The discoveries at the site reached the headlines in mainstream media in the world with the discoveries of the Royal Tombs. As a result, the ruins of the ancient city attracted many visitors. One of these visitors was the already famous Agatha Christie, who as a result of this visit ended up marrying Max Mallowan.[64][65] During this time the site was accessible from the Baghdad–Basra railway, from a stop called "Ur Junction".[66]

In 2009, an agreement was reached for a joint University of Pennsylvania and Iraqi team to resume archaeological work at the site of Ur.[67] Excavations began in 2015 under the direction of Elizabeth C Stone and Paul Zimansky of the State University of New York.[68] The first excavation season was primarily to re-excavate Woolley's work in an Old Babylonian housing area with two new trenches for confirmation. Among the finds were a cylinder seal and balance pan weights. A number of cuneiform tablets were unearthed, a few Ur III period, a few Old Babylonian period, and a number of Old Akkadian period.[69] A similar though smaller dig was made in a Neo-Babylonian housing area. [70][71] In the 2017 season an urban area adjacent to Wooleys very large AH area was excavated. The burial vault of a Babylonian general Abisum was found. Abisum is known from year 36 of Hammurabi into the reign of Samsu-iluna. Thirty cuneiform tablets were found around the vault and another 12 inside the tomb itself. Some distance south of Area AH a German team of Munich University directed by Adelheid Otto excavated an Old Babylonian home. In levels below the final occupation were found tablets dating to Sin-Eribam and Silli-Adad, rulers of Larsa. They included a new copy of the Lament for Sumer and Ur.[72][73][74]

The Royal Tomb Excavation edit

When the Royal Tombs at Ur were discovered, their size was unknown. Excavators started digging two trenches in the middle of the desert to see if they could find anything that would allow them to keep digging. They split into two teams – A and team B. Both teams spent the first few months digging a trench and found evidence of burial grounds by collecting small pieces of golden jewelry and pottery. This was called the "gold trench". After the first season of digging finished, Woolley returned to England. In Autumn, Woolley returned and started the second season. By the end of the second season, he had uncovered a courtyard surrounded by many rooms.[75] In their third season of digging archaeologists had uncovered their biggest find yet, a building that was believed to have been constructed by order of the king, and a second building thought to be where the high priestess lived. As the fourth and fifth season came to a close, they had discovered so many items that most of their time was now spent recording the objects they found instead of actually digging objects.[76] Items included gold jewelry, clay pots and stones. One of the most significant objects was the Standard of Ur. By the end of their sixth season they had excavated 1850 burial sites and deemed 17 of them to be "Royal Tombs". Some clay sealings and cuneiform tablet fragment were found in an underlying layer.[77]

Woolley finished his work excavating the Royal Tombs in 1934, uncovering a series of burials. Many servants were killed and buried with the royals, who he believed went to their deaths willingly. Computerized tomography scans on some of the surviving skulls have showed signs that they were killed by blows to the head that could be from the spiked end of a copper axe, which showed Woolley's initial theory of mass suicide via poison to be incorrect.[78]

Inside Puabi's tomb there was a chest in the middle of the room. Underneath that chest was a hole in the ground that led to what was called the "King's Grave": PG-789. It was believed to be the king's grave because it was buried next to the queen. In this grave, there were 63 attendants who were all equipped with copper helmets and swords. It is thought to be his army buried with him. Another large room was uncovered, PG-1237, called the "Great death pit". This large room had 74 bodies, 68 of which were women. This was based on artifacts found with the bodies, weapons and whetstones in the case of males and simple, non-gold, jewelry in the case of females. There is some debate about the gender of one body. Two large ram statues were found in PG-1237 which are believed to be the remains of lyres. Several lyres were found just outside the entrance. The bodies were found to have perimortem blunt force injuries which caused their death. They also had skeleton markers for long term manual labor.[79][80][81]

 
Reconstructed Sumerian headgear and necklaces found in the tomb of Puabi in the "Royal tombs" of Ur

Most of the treasures excavated at Ur are in the British Museum, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and the Baghdad Museum. At the Penn Museum the exhibition "Iraq's Ancient Past",[82] which includes many of the most famous pieces from the Royal Tombs, opened to visitors in late Spring 2011. Previously, the Penn Museum had sent many of its best pieces from Ur on tour in an exhibition called "Treasures From the Royal Tombs of Ur." It traveled to eight American museums, including those in Cleveland, Washington and Dallas, ending the tour at the Detroit Institute of Art in May 2011.[citation needed]

Samples from two stratigraphic layers in the royal cemetery area, from before the royal burials, have been radiocarbon dated. The ED Ia layer dated to c. 2900 BC and the ED Ic layer to c. 2679 BC.[83][84]

Current status edit

 
U.S. soldiers ascend the reconstructed Ziggurat of Ur in May 2010

Though some of the areas that were cleared during modern excavations have sanded over again, the Great Ziggurat is fully cleared and stands as the best-preserved and most visible landmark at the site.[85] The famous Royal tombs, also called the Neo-Sumerian Mausolea, located about 250 metres (820 ft) south-east of the Great Ziggurat in the corner of the wall that surrounds the city, are nearly totally cleared. Parts of the tomb area appear to be in need of structural consolidation or stabilization.[citation needed]

There are cuneiform (Sumerian writing) on many walls, some entirely covered in script stamped into the mud-bricks. The text is sometimes difficult to read, but it covers most surfaces. Modern graffiti has also found its way to the graves, usually in the form of names made with coloured pens (sometimes they are carved). The Great Ziggurat itself has far more graffiti, mostly lightly carved into the bricks. The graves are completely empty. A small number of the tombs are accessible. Most of them have been cordoned off. The whole site is covered with pottery debris, to the extent that it is virtually impossible to set foot anywhere without stepping on some. Some have colours and paintings on them. Some of the "mountains" of broken pottery are debris that has been removed from excavations. Pottery debris and human remains form many of the walls of the royal tombs area. In May 2009, the United States Army returned the Ur site to the Iraqi authorities, who hope to develop it as a tourist destination.[86]

Preservation edit

 
Wall plaque from Ur, 2500 BC; the British Museum

Since 2009, the non-profit organization Global Heritage Fund (GHF) has been working to protect and preserve Ur against the problems of erosion, neglect, inappropriate restoration, war and conflict. GHF's stated goal for the project is to create an informed and scientifically grounded Master Plan to guide the long-term conservation and management of the site, and to serve as a model for the stewardship of other sites.[87]

Since 2013, the institution for Development Cooperation of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs DGCS[88] and the SBAH, the State Board of Antiquities and Heritage of the Iraqi Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, have started a cooperation project for "The Conservation and Maintenance of Archaeological site of UR". In the framework of this cooperation agreement, the executive plan, with detailed drawings, is in progress for the maintenance of the Dublamah Temple (design concluded, works starting), the Royal Tombs—Mausolea 3rd Dynasty (in progress)—and the Ziqqurat (in progress). The first updated survey in 2013 has produced a new aerial map derived by the flight of a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) operated in March 2014. This is the first high-resolution map, derived from more than 100 aerial photograms, with an accuracy of 20 cm or less. A preview of the ortho-photomap of Archaeological Site of Ur is available online.[89]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Literal transliteration: Urim2 = ŠEŠ. ABgunu = ŠEŠ.UNUG (𒋀𒀕) and Urim5 = ŠEŠ.AB (𒋀𒀊), where ŠEŠ=URI3 (The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature.)

References edit

  1. ^ Kramer, S. N. (1963). The Sumerians, Their History, Culture, and Character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 28, 298.
  2. ^ Edwards, I. E. S.; et al. (December 2, 1970). The Cambridge Ancient History: Prolegomena & Prehistory. Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. Part 1, p. 149. ISBN 9780521070515.
  3. ^ Tell el-Muqayyar: in Arabic Tell means 'mound' or 'hill' and Muqayyar means 'built of bitumen'. Muqayyar is variously transcribed as Mugheir, Mughair, Moghair, etc.
  4. ^ a b Ebeling, Erich; Meissner, Bruno; Edzard, Dietz Otto (1997). Meek – Mythologie. Reallexikon der Assyriologie (in German). De Gruyter. p. 360. ISBN 978-3-11-014809-1.
  5. ^ a b Zettler, R. L.; Horne, L., eds. (1998). Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
  6. ^ Aruz, J., ed. (2003), Art of the First Cities. The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, New York, the U.S.A.: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  7. ^ Galpin, F. W. (1929). "The Sumerian Harp of Ur, c. 3500 B. C." Music & Letters. Oxford University Press. 10 (2): 108–123. doi:10.1093/ml/X.2.108. ISSN 0027-4224. JSTOR 726035. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  8. ^ Jennifer R. Pournelle, "KLM to CORONA: A Bird's Eye View of Cultural Ecology and Early Mesopotamian Urbanization"; in Settlement and Society: Essays Dedicated to Robert McCormick Adams ed. Elizabeth C. Stone; Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, UCLA, and Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2007.
  9. ^ Crawford 2015, p. 5.
  10. ^ Carter, Robert A. and Philip, Graham Beyond the Ubaid: Transformation and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Number 63) The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (2010) ISBN 978-1-885923-66-0 p. 2; "Radiometric data suggest that the whole Southern Mesopotamian Ubaid period, including Ubaid 0 and 5, is of immense duration, spanning nearly three millennia from about 5500 to 3800 B.C."
  11. ^ Henry R.H. Hall, C.L. Woolley, et al., "Al 'Ubaid", 1927
  12. ^ Hall, Henry R. and Woolley, C. Leonard. 1927. Al-'Ubaid. Ur Excavations 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ a b c Georges Roux – Ancient Iraq
  14. ^ "Secrets of Noah's Ark – Transcript". Nova. PBS. 7 October 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  15. ^ Lecompte, Camille. "Observations on Diplomatics, Tablet Layout and Cultural Evolution of the Early Third Millennium: The Archaic Texts from Ur". Materiality of Writing in Early Mesopotamia, edited by Thomas E. Balke and Christina Tsouparopoulou, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 133-164, 2016
  16. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat, "An Archaic Recording System and the Origin of Writing." Syro Mesopotamian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–32, 1977
  17. ^ Matthews, R.J. (1993). Cities, Seals and Writing: Archaic Seal Impressions from Jemdet Nasr and Ur, Berlin.
  18. ^ Amélie Kuhrt (1995). The Ancient Near East: C.3000-330 B.C. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16762-0.
  19. ^ Potts, D. T. (1999). The Archaeology of Elam. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-521-56496-4. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  20. ^ Ur III Period (2112–2004 BC) by Douglas Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8020-4198-1
  21. ^ Dahl, Jacob Lebovitch (2003). The ruling family of Ur III Umma. A Prosopographical Analysis of an Elite Family in Southern Iraq 4000 Years ago (PDF). UCLA dissertation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-12.
  22. ^ Brinkman, John Anthony. "Ur:" The Kassite Period and the Period of the Assyrian Kings"." (1969): 310–348
  23. ^ Salaheddin, Sinan (April 4, 2013). "Home of Abraham, Ur, unearthed by archaeologists in Iraq". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  24. ^ "Journey of Faith". National Geographic Magazine. May 15, 2012. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  25. ^ Pullella, Philip (2020-12-07). "Pope Francis to make risky trip to Iraq in early March". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  26. ^ Lowen, Mark (2021-03-05). "Pope Francis on Iraq visit calls for end to violence and extremism". BBC News. Retrieved 2021-10-28.
  27. ^ Frame, G.; Jeffers, J.; Pittman, H. (2021). Ur in the Twenty-First Century CE: Proceedings of the 62nd Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale at Philadelphia, July 11–15, 2016. Penn State University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-64602-151-2. Retrieved 2024-01-05.
  28. ^ Jacobsen, Thorkild, "The Waters of Ur", Iraq, vol. 22, pp. 174–85, 1960
  29. ^ [1]Hammer, Emily, and Angelo Di Michele, "The Suburbs of the Early Mesopotamian City of Ur (Tell al-Muqayyar, Iraq)", American Journal of Archaeology 127.4, pp. 449-479, 2023
  30. ^ P. Delia Valle, "Les fameux voyages de Pietro Delia Valle, gentil-homme Romain, surnomm? l'illustre voyageur", Vol. 4, Paris, 1663-1665
  31. ^ William Loftus, Travels and researches in Chaldæa and Susiana; with an account of excavations at Warka, the Erech of Nimrod, and Shúsh, Shushan the Palace of Esther, in 1849-52, J. Nisbet and Co., 1857
  32. ^ Crawford 2015, p. 3.
  33. ^ [2]J.E. Taylor, "Notes on the Ruins of Muqeyer", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 15, pp. 260–276, 1855.
  34. ^ [3]JE Taylor, "Notes on Abu Shahrein and Tel-el-Lahm", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 15, pp. 404–415, 1855. [In the relevant publications he is erroneously listed as J. E. Taylor].
  35. ^ E. Sollberger, "Mr. Taylor in Chaldaea", Anatolian Studies, vol. 22, pp. 129–139, 1972.
  36. ^ a b Crawford 2015, p. 4.
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Further reading edit

  • [8]Benati, Giacomo, "Re-modeling political economy in early 3rd millennium BC Mesopotamia: patterns of socio-economic organization in Archaic Ur (Tell al-Muqayyar, Iraq)", Cuneiform Digital Library Journal 2015.2, 2015
  • Black, J. and Spada, G., "Texts from Ur: Kept in the Iraq Museum and the British Museum.", Nisaba 19, Messina: Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Antichitá 2008 ISBN 9788882680107
  • [9]Chambon, Grégory "Archaic metrological systems from Ur", Cuneiform Digital Library Journal 2003.5, 2003
  • D. Charpin, "Le Clergé d'Ur au siècle d'Hammurabi (XIXe-XVIIIe siècles av. J.-C.)", HEO 22, Geneva-Paris, 1986
  • D. Charpin, "Le pillage d'Ur et la protection du temple de Ningal en l'an 12 de Samsu-iluna", in: D. Charpin (ed.), Archibab 4. Nouvelles recherches sur la ville d'Ur à l'époque paléo babylonienne, Mémoires de NABU 22, Paris, 2019
  • Crawford, Harriet, "Ur: The City of the Moon God", London: Bloomsbury, 2015. ISBN 978-1-47252-419-5
  • D’Agostino, F., Pomponio, F., and Laurito, R., "Neo-Sumerian Texts from Ur in the British Museum.", Nisaba 5, Messina: Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Antichitá, 2004 ISBN 9788882680107
  • C. J. Gadd, "History and monuments of Ur, Chatto & Windus", 1929 (Dutton 1980 reprint: ISBN 0-405-08545-1).
  • P. R. S. Morrey, "Where Did They Bury the Kings of the IIIrd Dynasty of Ur?", Iraq, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1984.
  • P.R.S. Morrey, "What Do We Know About the People Buried in the Royal Cemetery?", Expedition Magazine, Penn Museum, vol. 20, iss. 1, pp. 24–40, 1977
  • J. Oates, "Ur and Eridu: The Prehistory", Iraq, vol. 22, pp. 32–50, 1960.
  • Pardo Mata, Pilar, "Ur, ciudad de los sumerios". Cuenca: Alderaban, 2006. ISBN 978-84-95414-38-0.
  • Susan Pollock, "Chronology of the Royal Cemetery of Ur", Iraq, vol. 47, pp. 129–158, British Institute for the Study of Iraq, 1985
  • Susan Pollock, "Of Priestesses, Princes and Poor Relations: The Dead in the Royal Cemetery of Ur", Cambridge Archaeological Journal, vol. 1, iss. 2, 1991
  • Leon Legrain, "Ur Excavations III: Archaic seal-impressions", Publications of the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, to Mesopotamia : Ur excavations, Oxford University Press, 1936
  • Wencel, M. M., "New radiocarbon dates from southern Mesopotamia (Fara and Ur)", Iraq, 80, pp. 251–261, 2018
  • Woolley, Leonard, "Ur Excavations II. The Royal Cemetery", Plates, Publications of the Joint Expedition of the British Museum and of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, to Mesopotamia : Ur excavations, Oxford University Press, 1927
  • C. L. Woolley, "The Excavations at Ur, 1923–1924", Antiquaries Journal 5, pp. 1–20, 1925
  • C. L. Woolley, "The Excavations at Ur, 1924–1925", Antiquaries Journal 5, pp. 347–402, 1925
  • C. L. Woolley, "The Excavations at Ur, 1925–1926", Antiquaries Journal 6, pp. 365–401, 1926
  • C. L. Woolley, "The Excavations at Ur, 1926–1927", Antiquaries Journal 7, pp. 385–423, 1927
  • C. L. Woolley, "Excavations at Ur, 1927–1928", Antiquaries Journal 8, pp. 415–448, 1928
  • C. L. Woolley, "Excavations at Ur, 1928–1929", Antiquaries Journal 9, pp. 305–343, 1929
  • C. L. Woolley, "Excavations at Ur, 1929–1930", Antiquaries Journal 10, pp. 315–343 and pl. XXVIII, 1930
  • C. L. Woolley, "Excavations at Ur, 1930–1931", Antiquaries Journal 11, pp. 343–381, 1931
  • C. L. Woolley, "Excavations at Ur, 1931–1932", Antiquaries Journal 12, pp. 355–392 and pl. LVIII, 1932

External links edit