Ebla (Arabic: إبلا, modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh), was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. Ebla was an important center throughout the third millennium BC and in the first half of the second millennium BC. Its discovery proved the Levant was a center of ancient, centralized civilization equal to Egypt and Mesopotamia, and ruled out the view that the latter two were the only important centers in the Near East during the early Bronze Age. The first Eblaite kingdom has been described as the first recorded world power.
Ruins of the outer wall and the "Damascus Gate"
|Alternate name||Tell Mardikh
|Location||Idlib Governorate, Syria|
|Founded||c. 3500 BC|
|Abandoned||7th century AD|
|Cultures||Kish civilization, Amorite|
Starting as a small settlement in the early Bronze Age (c. 3500 BC), Ebla developed into a trading empire and later into an expansionist power that imposed its hegemony over much of northern and eastern Syria. Ebla was destroyed during the 23rd century BC; it was then rebuilt and was mentioned in the records of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The second Ebla was a continuation of the first, ruled by a new royal dynasty. It was destroyed at the end of the third millennium BC, which paved the way for the Amorite tribes to settle in the city, forming the third Ebla. The third kingdom also flourished as a trade center; it became a subject and an ally of Yamhad (modern-day Aleppo) until its final destruction by the Hittite king Mursili I in c. 1600 BC.
Ebla maintained its prosperity through a vast trading network. Artifacts from Sumer, Cyprus, Egypt and as far as Afghanistan were recovered from the city's palaces. The kingdom had its own language, Eblaite and the political organization of Ebla had features different from the Sumerian model. Women enjoyed a special status and the queen had major influence in the state and religious affairs. The pantheon of gods was mainly north Semitic and included deities exclusive to Ebla. The city was excavated starting in 1964, and became famous for the Ebla tablets, an archive of about 20,000 cuneiform tablets found there, dated to around 2350 BC.[note 1] Written in both Sumerian and Eblaite and using the cuneiform, the archive has allowed a better understanding of the Sumerian language and provided important information over the political organization and social customs of the mid third millennium BC's Levant.
A possible meaning of the word "Ebla" is "white rock", referring to the limestone outcrop on which the city was built. Ebla was first settled around 3500 BC; its growth was supported by many satellite agricultural settlements. The city benefited from its role as an entrepôt of growing international trade, which probably began with an increased demand for wool in Sumer. Archaeologists designate this early habitation period "Mardikh I"; it ended around 3000 BC. Mardikh I is followed by the first and second kingdoms era between about 3000 and 2000 BC, designated "Mardikh II". I. J. Gelb consider Ebla as part of the Kish civilization, which was a cultural entity of East Semitic-speaking populations that stretched from the center of Mesopotamia to the western Levant.
|First Eblaite Kingdom|
The first kingdom at its greatest extent, including vassals
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|•||Established||c. 3000 BC|
|•||Disestablished||c. 2300 BC|
|Today part of|| Syria
During the first kingdom period between about 3000 and 2300 BC, Ebla was the most prominent kingdom among the Syrian states, especially during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, which is known as "the age of the archives" after the Ebla tablets.
The early period between 3000 and 2400 BC is designated "Mardikh IIA". General knowledge about the city's history prior to the written archives is obtained through excavations. The first stages of Mardikh IIA is identified with building "CC", and structures that form a part of building "G2", which was apparently a royal palace built c. 2700 BC. Toward the end of this period, a hundred years' war with Mari started. Mari gained the upper hand through the actions of its king Saʿumu, who conquered many of Ebla's cities. In the mid-25th century BC, king Kun-Damu defeated Mari, but the state's power declined following his reign.[note 2]
The archive period, which is designated "Mardikh IIB1", lasted from c. 2400 BC until c. 2300 BC. The end of the period is known as the "first destruction", mainly referring to the destruction of the royal palace (called palace "G" and built over the earlier "G2"), and much of the acropolis. During the archive period, Ebla had political and military dominance over the other Syrian city-states of northern and eastern Syria, which are mentioned in the archives. Most of the tablets, which date from that period, are about economic matters but also include royal letters and diplomatic documents.
The written archives do not date from before Igrish-Halam's reign, which saw Ebla paying tribute to Mari, and an extensive invasion of Eblaite cities in the middle Euphrates region led by the Mariote king Iblul-Il. Ebla recovered under King Irkab-Damu in about 2340 BC; becoming prosperous and launching a successful counter-offensive against Mari. Irkab-Damu concluded a peace and trading treaty with Abarsal;[note 3] it is one of the earliest-recorded treaties in history.
At its greatest extent, Ebla controlled an area roughly half the size of modern Syria, from Ursa'um in the north, to the area around Damascus in the south, and from Phoenicia and the coastal mountains in the west, to Haddu in the east. Large parts of the kingdom were under the direct control of the king and was administered by governors; the rest consisted of vassal kingdoms. One of the most important of these vassals was Armi, which is the city most often mentioned in the Ebla tablets. Ebla had more than sixty vassal kingdoms and city-states, including Hazuwan, Burman, Emar, Halabitu and Salbatu.
The vizier was the king's chief official. The holder of the office possessed great authority; the most powerful vizier was Ibrium, who campaigned against Abarsal during the term of his predecessor Arrukum. During the reign of Isar-Damu, Ebla continued the war against Mari, which defeated Ebla's ally Nagar, blocking trade routes between Ebla and southern Mesopotamia via upper Mesopotamia. Ebla conducted regular military campaigns against rebellious vassals, including several attacks on Armi, and a campaign against the southern region of Ib'al—close to Qatna. In order to settle the war with Mari, Isar-Damu allied with Nagar and Kish. The campaign was headed by the Eblaite vizier Ibbi-Sipish, who led the combined armies to victory in a battle near Terqa. The alliance also attacked Armi and occupied it, leaving Ibbi-Sipish's son Enzi-Malik as governor. Ebla suffered its first destruction a few years after the campaign, probably following Isar-Damu's death.
First destruction of Ebla
The first destruction occurred c. 2300 BC; palace "G" was burned, baking the clay tablets of the royal archives and preserving them. Many theories about the cause and the perpetrator have been posited:
- High (early) dating hypothesis: Giovanni Pettinato supports an early dating for Ebla that would put the destruction at around 2500 BC.[note 4] Pettinato, while preferring the date of 2500 BC, later accepted the event could have happened in 2400 BC.[note 5] The scholar suggests the city was destroyed in 2400 BC by a Mesopotamian such as Eannatum of Lagash—who boasted of taking tribute from Mari—or Lugalzagesi of Umma, who claimed to have reached the Mediterranean.[note 6]
- Akkadian hypothesis: Both kings Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin claimed to have destroyed a town called Ibla, The discoverer of Ebla, Paolo Matthiae, considers Sargon a more likely culprit;[note 7] his view is supported by Trevor Bryce, but rejected by Michael Astour.[note 8]
- Mari's revenge: According to Alfonso Archi and Maria Biga, the destruction happened approximately three or four years after the battle of Terqa. Archi and Biga say the destruction was caused by Mari in retaliation for its humiliating defeat at Terqa. This view is supported by Mario Liverani. Archi says the Mariote king Isqi-Mari destroyed Ebla before ascending the throne of his city.
- Natural catastrophe: Astour says a natural catastrophe caused the blaze which ended the archive period. He says the destruction was limited to the area of the royal palace and there is no convincing evidence of looting. He dates the fire to c. 2290 BC (Middle Chronology).
|Second Eblaite Kingdom|
Approximate borders of the second kingdom
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|•||Established||c. 2300 BC|
|•||Disestablished||c. 2000 BC|
The second kingdom's period is designated "Mardikh IIB2", and spans the period between 2300 and 2000 BC. The second kingdom lasted until Ebla's second destruction, which occurred anytime between 2050 and 1950 BC, with the 2000 BC dating being a mere formal date. The Akkadians under Sargon and his descendant Naram-Sin invaded the northern borders of Ebla aiming for the forests of the Amanus Mountain; the intrusions were separated by roughly 90 years and the areas attacked were not attached to Akkad. Archi accept that the Ibla mentioned in the annals of Sargon and Naram-Sin is the Syrian Ebla but do not consider them responsible for the destruction which ended the Archive period. By the time of Naram-Sin, Armi was the hegemonic city in northern Syria and was destroyed by the Akkadian king.
A new local dynasty ruled the second kingdom of Ebla, but there was continuity with its first kingdom heritage. Ebla maintained its earliest features, including its architectural style and the sanctity of the first kingdom's religious sites. A new royal palace was built in the lower town, and the transition from the archive period is marked only by the destruction of palace "G". Little is known about the second kingdom because no written material have been discovered aside from one inscription dating to the end of the period.
The second kingdom was attested to in contemporaneous sources; in an inscription, Gudea of Lagash asked for cedars to be brought from Urshu in the mountains of Ebla, indicating Ebla's territory included Urshu north of Carchemish in modern-day Turkey. Texts that dates to the seventh year of Amar-Sin (c. 2040 BC),[note 9] a ruler of the Ur III empire, mention a messenger of the Ensí ("Megum") of Ebla.[note 10][note 11] The second kingdom was considered a vassal by the Ur III government, but the nature of the relation is unknown and it included the payment of tribute. A formal recognition of Ur's overlordship appears to be a condition for the right of trade with that empire.
The second kingdom disintegrated toward the end of the 21st century BC, and ended with the destruction of the city by fire, although evidence for the event has only been found outside of the so-called "Temple of the Rock", and in the area around palace "E" on the acropolis. The reason for the destruction is not known; according to Astour, it could have been the result of a Hurrian invasion c. 2030 BC, led by the former Eblaite vassal city of Ikinkalis.[note 12] The destruction of Ebla is mentioned in the fragmentary Hurro-Hittite legendary epic "Song of Release" discovered in 1983, which Astour considers as describing the destruction of the second kingdom. In the epic, an Eblaite assembly led by a man called "Zazalla" prevents king Meki from showing mercy to prisoners from Ebla's former vassal Ikinkalis, provoking the wrath of the Hurrian storm god Teshub and causing him to destroy the city.
|Third Eblaite Kingdom|
|Historical era||Bronze Age|
|•||Established||c. 2000 BC|
|•||Disestablished||c. 1600 BC|
The third kingdom is designated "Mardikh III"; it is divided into periods "A" (c. 2000–1800 BC) and "B" (c. 1800–1600 BC). In period "A", Ebla was quickly rebuilt as a planned city. The foundations covered the remains of Mardikh II; new palaces and temples were built, and new fortifications were built in two circles—one for the low city and one for the acropolis. The city was laid out on regular lines and large public buildings were built. Further construction took place in period "B".
The first known king of the third kingdom is Ibbit-Lim, who described himself as the Mekim of Ebla.[note 13] A basalt votive statue bearing Ibbit-Lim's inscription was discovered in 1968; this helped to identify the site of Tell-Mardikh with the ancient kingdom Ebla. The name of the king is Amorite in the view of Pettinato; it is therefore probable the inhabitants of third kingdom Ebla were predominantly Amorites, as were most of the inhabitants of Syria at that time.
By the beginning of the 18th century BC, Ebla had become a vassal of Yamhad, an Amorite kingdom centered in Aleppo. Written records are not available for this period, but the city was still a vassal during Yarim-Lim III of Yamhad's reign. One of the known rulers of Ebla during this period was Immeya, who received gifts from the Egyptian Pharaoh Hotepibre, indicating the continuing wide connections and importance of Ebla. The city was mentioned in tablets from the Yamhadite vassal city of Alalakh in modern-day Turkey; an Eblaite princess married a son of King Ammitaqum of Alalakh, who belonged to a branch of the royal Yamhadite dynasty.
Ebla was destroyed by the Hittite King Mursili I in about 1600 BC. Indilimma was probably the last king of Ebla; a seal of his crown prince Maratewari was discovered in the western palace "Q". According to Archi, the "Song of Release" epic describes the destruction of the third kingdom and preserves older elements.
Ebla never recovered from its third destruction. It was a small village in the phase designated "Mardikh IV" (1600–1200 BC), and was mentioned in the records of Alalakh as a vassal to the Idrimi dynasty. "Mardikh V" (1200–535 BC) was a rural, early Iron Age settlement that grew in size during later periods. Further development occurred during "Mardikh VI", which lasted until c. 60 AD. "Mardikh VII" began in the 3rd century AD and lasted until the 7th century, after which the site was abandoned.
Ebla consisted of a lower town and a raised acropolis in the center. During the first kingdom, the city had an area of 56 hectares and was protected by mud-brick fortifications. Ebla was divided into four districts—each with its own gate in the outer wall. The acropolis included the king's palace "G", and one of two temples in city dedicated to Kura (called the "Red Temple"). The lower city included the second temple of Kura in the southeast called "Temple of the Rock". During the second kingdom, a royal palace (Archaic Palace "P5") was built in the lower town northwest of the acropolis, in addition to temple "D" built over the destroyed "Red Temple".
During the third kingdom, Ebla was a large city nearly 60 hectares in size, and was protected by a fortified rampart, with double chambered gates. The acropolis was fortified and separated from the lower town. New royal palace "E" was built on the acropolis (during Mardikh IIIB), and a temple of Ishtar was constructed over the former "Red" and "D" temples (in area "D"). The lower town was also divided into four districts; palace "P5" was used during Mardikh IIIA, and replaced during Mardikh IIIB by the "Intermediate Palace".
Other third kingdom buildings included the vizier palace,[note 14] the western palace (in area "Q"), the temple of Shamash (temple "N"), the temple of Rasap (temple "B1") and the northern palace (built over the "Intermediate Palace"). In the north of the lower town, a second temple for Ishtar was built, while the former "Temple of the Rock" was replaced by a temple of Hadad.[note 15]
The kings of the first kingdom were buried outside the city; the last ten kings (ending with Irkab-Damu) were buried in Darib, while older kings were buried in a royal mausoleum located in Binas and only one royal tomb dating to the first kingdom was discovered in Ebla (Hypogeum G4). This first kingdom tomb was probably built during the reign of the last king and might be an indication of Eblaite adoption of Mesopotamian traditions to bury the kings beneath their royal palaces.
The third kingdom royal necropolis was discovered beneath palace Q (the western palace); it contains many hypogea but only three were excavated. Those tombs were natural caves in the bedrock of the palace's foundation; they all date to the 19th and 18th centuries BC and had a similar plan consisting of an entrance shaft, burial chambers and a dromos connecting the shaft to the chamber.
The royal tomb found in the royal palace G is designated hypogeum G4; it dates to the archive period, most probably the reign of Isar-Damu. The tomb is heavily damaged; most of its stones were sacked and nothing of the roof system remains. It also lacks any skeletal remains or funerary goods suggesting that it was either heavily pillaged, never used, or was built as a cenotaph.
Excavated between 1992 and 1995, it is located underneath the western sector of the palace at a depth of almost 6 meters. The tomb is composed of two rooms opened on each other's with lime plaster floors. Both rooms are rectangular in shape; the eastern room (L.6402) is 4 meters wide, more than 3,5 meters long (total length is unknown due to heavy damage) and west-east oriented. The western room (L.5762) is 5.20 meters long, 4 meters wide and west-east oriented. Limestone was used to build the walls and few blocks protruding from the sides toward the middle of the rooms suggest the roof to have been a corbelled vault.
Western palace tombs
- The tomb of the princess: dating to c. 1800 BC, it is the oldest and smallest of the third kingdom tombs found. Excavated in 1978, it contained the remains of a young woman, hence the naming. The dormos has steps, partially cut in the bedrock and partially paved with stones, leading to the chamber, which was achieved through the enlargement of a natural cave. The tomb is the only one not pillaged; it contained precious jewels and funerary objects.
- The tomb of the cisterns: this tomb is the most damaged in the necropolis. It consists of a double room burial; the earliest, (Q79A), was built at the same period of the tomb of the princess, and was badly damaged when the tomb was reused, and a dromos was built in the place of Q79A toward the end of the 17th century BC (leading to the founding of burial Q79B). This was probably the resting place of a king; a club (a symbol of royal power) was discovered in Q79A.
- The tomb of the lord of the goats: it is the largest in the necropolis; it includes two depositional chambers and is reached through a vertical shaft. The occupier of the tomb is not known with certainty, he is called the lord of the goats by archaeologists due to the existence of a throne decorated with bronze goat heads in the tomb. A silver cup that has the name of king Immeya inscribed was found in the tomb making that king the most likely owner of the burial.
The first kingdom's government consisted of the king (styled Malikum) and the grand vizier, who headed a council of elders (Abbu) and the administration. The second kingdom was a monarchy, but little is known about it because of a lack of written records. The third kingdom was a city-state monarchy with reduced importance under the authority of Yamhad.
Administration of the first kingdom
The queen shared the running of affairs of state with the king. The crown prince was involved in internal matters and the second prince was involved in foreign affairs. Most duties, including military ones, were handled by the vizier and the administration, which consisted of 13 court dignitaries—each of whom controlled between 400 and 800 men forming a bureaucracy with 11,700 people. Each of the four quarters of the lower city was governed by a chief inspector and many deputies. To oversee royal interest, the king employed agents (mashkim), collectors (ur) and messengers (kas).
Many client kingdoms owed allegiance to Ebla and each was ruled by its own king (En); those vassal kings were highly autonomous, paying tribute and supplying military assistance to Ebla. The administrative center in the capital was named the "SA.ZA"; it included the royal palaces, storerooms and some temples. Regions beyond the walls of the capital were collectively named in Eblaite texts "uru-bar" (literally meaning outside of the city). The villages and towns under the central authority were either ruled directly from the capital, or had appointed officials. The titles of the civil servants do not clearly define the bearer's responsibilities and authority as each town had its own political traditions.
- Lugal: while in Mesopotamia a lugal designated a king, in Ebla it designated a governor who was directly under the authority of the capital. The nature of this title as part of Eblaite bureaucracy is ambiguous; each lugal was under the authority of the grand vizier, and the bearers ruled cities directly under the authority of the capital and they all brought goods to be kept in Ebla's storehouses. Pettinato counted 14 different lugals in the Eblaite administrative texts and deduced that the kingdom was divided into fourteen departments; two of them in the capital itself and the remaining twelve spanned the rest of the kingdom.
- Ugula: the title is translated as superintendent; some ugulas were actually independent rulers and some represented the highest authority of a tribal group. Many cities had an appointed ugula as their head of administration such as the city of Darum.
The regions under the direct control of the king that were economically vital for the capital are called the "chora" by archaeologists. Regions under direct control of the king extended beyond the chora and it is difficult to determine the exact size of the kingdom and the chora due to the constant military expansion of Ebla which added new territories; some of those were ruled directly while others were allowed to retain their own rulers as vassals.
Generally, the chora is the core region of Ebla that includes the economic hinterland supporting the capital. It includes the cities and villages where the king or his vizier had palaces, towns that included important sanctuaries of gods related to the royal institution, towns visited by the monarch during the different rituals he participated in (such as the renewal of royalty ritual),[note 16] and other cities such as the ones where textiles were delivered. The chora spans around 3000 km2; from west to east it includes the plains east of Jabal Zawiya, the Maṭkh swamp, al-Hass mountain and mount Shabīth. Areas directly on the borders of the chora such as al-Ghab, al-Rouge plain and al-Jabbul have close cultural affinity with the chora.
Kings of Ebla
For the first kingdom monarchs, tablets listing offerings to kings mention ten names, and another list mentions 33 kings.[note 17] No kings are known from the second kingdom and all dates are estimates according to the Middle chronology.
The first kingdom
|Sakume||c. 3100 BC.||The first king ruled approximately 660 years before the destruction of the first kingdom; the year 2400 was used by Robert R Stieglitz as the date of the destruction resulting in the year c. 3100 BC for the beginning of Sakume's reign.|
|Su (.) (...)||Name damaged.|
|Enmanu||c. 2740 BC|
|Namanu||c. 2720 BC.|
|Da (.) (.)||c. 2700 BC.||Name damaged.|
|Sagisu||c. 2680 BC.|
|Dane'um||c. 2660 BC.|
|Ibbini-Lim||c. 2640 BC.|
|Ishrut-Damu||c. 2620 BC.|
|Isidu||c. 2600 BC.|
|Isrut-Halam||c. 2580 BC.|
|Iksud||c. 2560 BC.|
|Talda-Lim||c. 2540 BC.|
|Abur-Lim||c. 2520 BC.|
|Agur-Lim||c. 2500 BC.|
|Ib-Damu||c. 2480 BC.||A seal bearing his name was found in Kültepe.|
|Baga-Damu||c. 2460 BC.|
|Enar-Damu||c. 2440 BC.||Amongst the most referenced deified kings in the offering lists.|
|Eshar-Malik||c. 2420 BC.|
|Kun-Damu||c. 2400 BC.|
|Adub-Damu||c. 2380 BC.||Short reign.|
|Igrish-Halam||c. 2360 BC.||Ruled 12 years.|
|Irkab-Damu||c. 2340 BC.||Ruled 11 years.|
|Isar-Damu||c. 2320 BC.||Ruled about 35 years.|
|Ir'ak-Damu||A prince, might have ascended the throne for a short period.|
The third kingdom
|Ibbit-Lim||c. 2000 BC.|
|Immeya||c. 1750 BC.||His grave is identified with the so-called "Tomb of the Lord of the Goats".|
|Hammu(....)||A successor of Immeya, not necessarily the direct one, the name was damaged but probably Hammurabi.|
|Indilimma||c. 1600 BC.|
People, language and culture
The first and second kingdoms
Mardikh II's periods shared the same culture. the population of Ebla during Mardikh IIB1 is estimated to have numbered around 40,000 in the capital, and over 200,000 people in the entire kingdom. The Eblaites of Mardikh II were Semites, close to their North-Western Semitic neighbors, such as the Amorites. Giovanni Pettinato said the Eblaite language, one of the oldest attested Semitic languages, was a West Semitic language; Gelb and others said it was an East Semitic dialect closer to the Akkadian language. Academic consensus considers Eblaite an East-Semitic language which exhibits both West-Semitic and East-Semitic features.[note 18]
Ebla held several religious and social festivals, including rituals for the succession of a new king, which normally lasted for several weeks. The Eblaite calendars were based on a solar year divided into twelve months. Two calendars were discovered; the "old calendar" used during the reign of Igrish-Halam, and a "new calendar" introduced by vizier Ibbi-Sipish. Many months were named in honor of deities; in the new calendar, "Itu be-li" was the first month of the year, and meant "the month of the lord". Each year was given a name instead of a number.
Women received salaries equal to those of men and could accede to important positions and head government agencies. The Eblaites imported Kungas from Nagar,[note 19] and used them to draw the carriages of royalty and high officials, as well as diplomatic gifts for allied cities. Society was less centered around the palace and the temple than in Mesopotamian kingdoms. The Eblaite palace was designed around the courtyard, which was open toward the city, thus making the administration approachable. This contrasts with Mesopotamian palaces, which resembled citadels with narrow entrances and limited access to the external courtyard. Music played an important part in the society and musicians were both locals, or hired from other cities such as Mari. Ebla also hired acrobats from Nagar, but later reduced their number and kept some to train local Eblaite acrobats.
The third kingdom
The Mardikh III population was predominately Semitic Amorite. The Amorites were mentioned in the first kingdom's tablets as neighbors and as rural subjects, and they came to dominate Ebla after the destruction of the second kingdom. The city witnessed a great increase in construction, and many palaces, temples and fortifications were built. The Amorite Eblaites worshiped many of the same deities as the Eblaites of earlier periods, and maintained the sanctity of the acropolis in the center of the city. The third kingdom's iconography and royal ideology were under the influence of Yamhad's culture; kingship was received from the Yamhadite deities instead of Ishtar of Ebla, which is evident by the Eblaite seals of Indilimma's period.
During the first kingdom period, the palace controlled the economy, but wealthy families managed their financial affairs without government intervention. The economic system was redistributive; the palace distributed food to its permanent and seasonal workers. It is estimated that around 40,000 persons contributed to this system, but in general, and unlike in Mesopotamia, land stayed in the hands of villages, which paid an annual share to the palace. Agriculture was mainly pastoral; large herds of cattle were managed by the palace. The city's inhabitants owned around 140,000 head of sheep and goats, and 9,000 cattle.
Ebla derived its prosperity from trade; its wealth was equal to that of the most important Sumerian cities, and its main commercial rival was Mari. Ebla's main articles of trade were probably timber from the nearby mountains, and textiles. Handicrafts also appear to have been a major export, evidenced by the quantity of artifacts recovered from the palaces of the city. Ebla possessed a wide commercial network reaching as far as modern-day Afghanistan. It shipped textiles to Cyprus, possibly through the port of Ugarit, but most of its trade seems to have been directed by river-boat towards Mesopotamia—chiefly Kish. The main palace G was found to contain artifacts dating from Ancient Egypt bearing the names of Pharaohs Khafra and Pepi I.
Ebla continued to be a center of trade during the second kingdom, evidenced by the surrounding cities that appeared during its period and were destroyed along with the city.[note 20] Trade continued to be Ebla's main economic activity during the third kingdom; archaeological finds show there was an extensive exchange with Egypt and coastal Syrian cities such as Byblos.
Ebla was a polytheistic state. During the first kingdom, Eblaites worshiped their dead kings. The pantheon of the first Ebla included pairs of deities and they can be separated into three genres; in the first and most common one, there were the couples, such as the deity and his female consort. The second type of pairs was the divine twosomes, such as the deities that cooperate to create the cosmos, like in the Egyptian and Mesopotamian pantheons. The third type included divine pairs who were actually a single deity that had two names. Eblaites worshiped few Mesopotamian deities, preferring North-Western Semitic gods, some of which were unique to Ebla. The first genre of pairs included Nidakul, who was exclusive to Ebla, and his consort, Belatu ("his wife"); Rasap and his consort Adamma; the patron gods of the city Kura, who was unique to Ebla, and his consort Barama. The third genre included the artisan god Kamish/Tit, Kothar-wa-Khasis and the planet Venus represented by twin mountain Gods; Shahar as the morning star and Shalim as the evening star.
The first Eblaites worshiped many other deities, such as the Syrian goddess Ishara,[note 21] who was the goddess of the royal family. Ishtar was also worshiped but was mentioned only five times in one of the monthly offering lists, while Ishara was far more important, appearing 40 times. Other deities included Damu;[note 22] the Mesopotamian god Utu; Ashtapi; Dagan; Hadad (Hadda) and his consort Habadu; and Shipish, the goddess of the sun who had a temple dedicated to her cult. The four city gates were named after the gods Dagan, Hadda, Rasap and Utu, but it is unknown which gate had which name. Overall, the offering list mentioned about 40 deities receiving sacrifices.
During the third kingdom, Amorites worshiped common northern Semitic gods; the unique Eblaite deities disappeared. Hadad was the most important god, while Ishtar took Ishara's place and became the city's most important deity apart from Hadad.
Biblical connection theories
At the beginning of the process of deciphering the tablets, Pettinato made claims about a possible connections between Ebla and the Bible, citing an alleged references in the tablets to the existence of Yahweh, the Patriarchs, Sodom and Gomorrah and other Biblical references. However, much of the initial media excitement about a supposed Eblaite connections with the Bible, based on preliminary guesses and speculations by Pettinato and others, is now widely discredited and the academic consensus is that Ebla "has no bearing on the Minor Prophets, the historical accuracy of the Biblical Patriarchs, Yahweh worship, or Sodom and Gomorrah". In Ebla studies, the focus has shifted away from comparisons with the Bible; Ebla is now studied as a civilization in its own right. The claims led to a bitter personal and academic conflict between the scholars involved, as well as what some described as political interference by the Syrian authorities.
In 1964, Italian archaeologists from the University of Rome La Sapienza under the direction of Paolo Matthiae began excavating at Tell Mardikh. In 1968, they recovered a statue dedicated to the goddess Ishtar bearing the name of Ibbit-Lim, mentioning him as king of Ebla. That identified the city, long known from Lagashite and Akkadian inscriptions. In the next decade, the team discovered a palace (palace G) dating from c. 2500 – 2000 BC. Finds in the palaces include a small sculpture made out of precious materials, black stones and gold. Other artifacts included wood furniture inlaid with mother-of-pearl and composite statues created from colored stones. A silver bowl bearing king Immeya's name was recovered from the "Tomb of the Lord of the Goats", together with Egyptian jewels and an Egyptian ceremonial mace presented by pharaoh Hotepibre.
About 17,000 cuneiform tablet fragments were discovered; when put together, they constitute 2,500 complete tablets, making the archive of Ebla one of the biggest from the third millennium BC. About 80% of the tablets are written using the usual Sumerian combination of logograms and phonetic signs, while the others exhibited an innovative, purely phonetic representation using Sumerian cuneiform of a previously unknown Semitic language, which was called "Eblaite". Bilingual Sumerian/Eblaite vocabulary lists were found among the tablets, allowing them to be translated. The tablets provide many important insights into the cultural, economic and political life in northern Mesopotamia around the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. They also provide insight into the everyday lives of the inhabitants, and contain information about state revenues, Sumerian-Eblaite dictionaries, diplomatic exchanges with foreign rulers, school texts, hymns and myths.
The tablets constitute one of the oldest archives and libraries ever found; there is tangible evidence of their arrangement and even classification. The larger tablets had originally been stored on shelves, but had fallen onto the floor when the palace was destroyed. The locations of the fallen tablets allowed the excavators to reconstruct their original positions on the shelves; they found the tablets had originally been shelved according to subject.
These features were absent from earlier Sumerian excavations. Sophisticated techniques of arrangement of texts, coupled with their composition, evidence the great antiquity of archival and library practices, which may be far older than was assumed to be the case before the discovery of the Ebla library. A sizable portion of the tablets contain literary and lexicographic texts; evidence seems to suggest the collection also served—at least partially—as a true library rather than a collection of archives intended solely for use by the kings, their ministers, and their bureaucracy. The tablets show evidence of the early transcription of texts into foreign languages and scripts, classification and cataloging for easier retrieval, and arrangement by size, form and content. The Ebla tablets have thus provided scholars with new insights into the origin of library practices that were in use 4,500 years ago.
Ebla's first kingdom is an example of early Syrian centralized states, and is considered one of the earliest empires by scholars, such as Samuel Finer, and Karl Moore, who consider it the first-recorded world power. Ebla's discovery changed the former view of Syria's history as a bridge between Mesopotamia and Egypt; it proved the region was a center of civilization in its own right.
Syrian Civil War
As a result of the Syrian Civil War, excavations of Ebla stopped in March 2011, and large-scale looting occurred after the site came under the control of an opposition armed group. Many tunnels were dug and a crypt full of human remains was discovered; the remains were scattered and discarded by the robbers, who hoped to find jewelry and other precious artifacts. Besides excavations by rebels, nearby villagers also began digging at the site with the aim of finding and looting artifacts; some villagers removed carloads of soil suitable for making ceramic liners for bread-baking ovens from the tunnels.
- All dates in the article are estimated by the Middle Chronology, unless stated otherwise.
- The political weakness started during the short reign of Adub-Damu.
- Probably located along the Euphrates river east of Ebla.
- At first Pettinato supported the Naram-Sin theory before proposing the High dating.
- Michael Astour argues that using the chronology accepted by Pettinato, one obtains the date of 2500 BC for the reign of Ur-Nanshe of Lagash, who ruled approximately 150 years prior to Lagash's destruction at the hands of king Lugalzagesi. Since Ur-Nanshe ruled in 2500 BC, and his reign is separated by at least 150 years from Hidar of Mari's reign which saw Ebla's destruction, then the date for that event is pulled beyond 2500 BC and even 2400 BC.
- Astour argue that according to the middle chronology used for the 2400 BC date, Eannatum's reign ended in 2425 BC and Ebla was not destroyed until 2400 BC; according to the same chronology Lugalzagesi's reign would have started fifty years after 2400 BC.
- At first Matthiae supported the Naram-Sin theory then switched to Sargon.
- Astour believes that Sargon and his grandson were referring to a city with a similar name in Iraq named "Ib-la". Astour says the archives of Ebla at the time of their destruction correspond to the political situation predating the establishment of the Akkadian empire, not just the reign of Naram-Sin. It is also unlikely Sargon was responsible because at the time of their destruction, the Ebla tablets describe Kish as independent. Lugalzagesi sacked Kish and was killed by Sargon before Sargon destroyed Ibla or Ebla.
- Amar-Sin's reign lasted from 2045 to 2037 BC (middle chronology).
- "Megum" is thought to have been a title of the ruler of Ebla rather than a personal name. King Ibbit-Lim of the latter third kingdom of Ebla also used this title. An Eblaite seal that reads the sentence Ib-Damu Mekim Ebla, was used in the 19th century BC by an Assyrian merchant named Assur-Nada from Kültepe. Ib Damu was the name of an Eblaite king from the early period of the first kingdom.
- In a tablet, the name of Ili-Dagan "the man of Ebla" is mentioned, and he was thought to be a ruler. However, other texts mentions him as the envoy of Ebla's ruler.
- Unidentified location to the north of Ebla in the proximity of Alalakh.
- This led Astour, David I. Owen and Ron Veenker to identify Ibbit-Lim with the pre-Amorite Megum of the Third Ur era. However, this identification is now refuted.
- Called the southern palace (in area "FF"), it was located at the foot of the southern side of the acropolis.
- Area HH.
- The ritual had the king and the queen visiting Ninas, and making offerings to royal ancestors.
- Tablet TM.74.G.120 discovered by Alfonso Archi.
- Grammatically, Eblaite is closer to Akkadian, but lexically and in some grammatical forms, Eblaite is closer to West-Semitic languages.
- The Kunga is a hybrid of a donkey and a female onager, which Nagar was famous for breeding.
- Archaeologist Alessandro de Maigret deduced that Ebla retained its trading position.
- At the beginning of Ebla's studies, it was believed that the existence of Ishara and another god Ashtapi in Ebla's pantheon, is a proof for a Hurrian existence in the Eblaite first kingdom. However it is now known that those deities were pre-Hurrian and perhaps pre-Semitic deities, later incorporated into the Hurrian pantheon.
- Probably an old Semitic deity and not identical to the Sumerian Damu.
- Dolce 2010, p. 248.
- Micale, Mantellini & Peyronel 2013, p. 182.
- Hamblin 2006, p. 241.
- Shaw 1999, p. 211.
- Leick 2009, p. 54.
- Matthiae 2013a, p. 37.
- Van De Mieroop 2002, p. 133.
- Wright 2004, p. 173.
- Ökse 2011, p. 268.
- Dolce 2010, p. 250.
- Dolce 2010, p. 247.
- Dolce 2010, p. 246.
- Dolce 2008, p. 66.
- Nadali 2007, p. 349.
- Astour 2002, p. 79.
- Liverani 2013, p. 119.
- Dolce 2008, p. 68.
- Matthiae 2013a, p. 38.
- Astour 1992, p. 19.
- Astour 2002, p. 74.
- Pettinato 1981, p. 105.
- Bryce 2014, p. 15.
- Tonietti 2010, p. 69.
- Nadali 2007, p. 350.
- Roux 1992, p. 200.
- Feliu 2003, p. 40.
- Podany 2010, p. 24.
- Cooper 2006, p. 64.
- Archi 2011, p. 5.
- Neff 2014, p. 14.
- Hamblin 2006, p. 242.
- Astour 2002, p. 101.
- Tubb 1998, p. 39.
- Aubet 2001, p. 18.
- Astour 1981, p. 4.
- Cooper 2010, p. 89.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 135.
- Otto & Biga 2010, p. 486.
- Astour 2002, p. 66.
- Astour 2002, p. 83.
- Astour 2002, p. 59.
- Liverani 2013, p. 123.
- Otto & Biga 2010, p. 484.
- Otto & Biga 2010, p. 485.
- Liverani 2013, p. 121.
- Podany 2010, p. 57.
- Biga 2014, p. 103.
- Stieglitz 2002, p. 219.
- Ristvet 2014, p. 54.
- Astour 2002, p. 63.
- Astour 2002, p. 61.
- Astour 2002, p. 62.
- Gurney 2003, p. 119.
- Astour 2002, p. 64.
- Astour 2002, p. 68.
- Bryce 2014, p. 16.
- Astour 2002, p. 65.
- Horowitz 1998, p. 82.
- Astour 2002, p. 72.
- Astour 2002, p. 70.
- Podany 2010, p. 59.
- Bretschneider, Van Vyve & Leuven 2009, p. 7.
- Astour 2002, p. 75.
- Astour 2002, p. 78.
- Bryce 2014, p. 324.
- Archi 2015, p. 26.
- Archi 2015, p. 471.
- Dolce 2010, p. 245.
- Dolce 2010, p. 252.
- Astour 2002, p. 76.
- Astour 2002, p. 81.
- Crawford 2015, p. 83.
- Pinnock 2000, p. 1405.
- Archi 2002, p. 26.
- Archi 2002, p. 25.
- Goetze 1953, p. 103.
- Michalowski 1995, p. 185.
- Klengel 1992, p. 36.
- Astour 2002, p. 87.
- Astour 2002, p. 132.
- Hamblin 2006, p. 250.
- Archi 2002, p. 24.
- Astour 2002, p. 124.
- Bachvarova 2009, p. 66.
- Astour 2002, p. 153.
- Bachvarova 2009, p. 67.
- Weiss 1985, p. 213.
- Harmanâah 2007, p. 75.
- Bryce 2014, p. 25.
- Hooks 1990, p. 226.
- Matthiae 2013b, p. 103.
- Klengel 1992, p. 41.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 22.
- Thuesen 2000, p. 61.
- Feldman 2007, p. 55.
- Matthiae 2008, p. 35.
- Frayne 1990, p. 807.
- Teissier 1984, p. 72.
- Bryce 2009, p. 211.
- Matthiae 2013b, p. 106.
- Matthiae 2006, p. 86.
- Astour 1969, p. 388.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 16.
- Hooks 1990, p. 225.
- Cooper 2010, p. 86.
- Pinnock 2007, p. 110.
- Pinnock 2007, p. 112.
- Gilchrist 1995, p. 537.
- Pinnock 2013, p. 543.
- Dolce 2010, p. 251.
- Matthiae 2013a, p. 40.
- Matthiae 2008, p. 34.
- Bonacossi 2013, p. 421.
- Baffi & Peyronel 2013, p. 200.
- Akkermans & Schwartz 2003, p. 295.
- Astour 2002, p. 164.
- Bonacossi 2013, p. 422.
- Peyronel 2008, p. 177.
- Nigro 2007, p. 130.
- Michalowski 2003, p. 465.
- Matthiae 2013, p. 50.
- Matthiae 2008, p. 37.
- Mogliazza & Polcaro 2010, p. 431.
- Suriano 2010, p. 60.
- Matthiae 2013, p. 53.
- Laneri 2016, p. 56.
- Matthiae 1997, p. 270.
- Matthiae 1997, p. 269.
- Matthiae 1989, p. 303.
- Matthiae 1984, p. 24.
- Nigro 2009, p. 161.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 28.
- Grajetzki 2013, p. 173.
- Fortin 1999, p. 173.
- Matthiae 2010, p. 217.
- Finer 1997, p. 172.
- Hamblin 2006, p. 267.
- Biga 2013, p. 265.
- Cooper 2006, p. 91.
- Pongratz-Leisten 2015, p. 199.
- Liverani 2013, p. 122.
- Stieglitz 2002, p. 215.
- Biga 2013, p. 260.
- Biga 2013, p. 266.
- Biga 2007, p. 256.
- Biga 2014, p. 94.
- D'Andrea & Ascalone 2013, p. 215.
- Stieglitz 2002, p. 218.
- Frayne 2008, p. 44.
- Stieglitz 2002, p. 222.
- Stieglitz 2002, p. 221.
- Frayne 2008, p. 3-16.
- Pettinato 1981, p. 27.
- Aruz, Graff & Rakic 2013, p. 10.
- Matthiae 2010, p. 218.
- Kohl 1991, p. 230.
- Rendsburg 1997, p. 183.
- Bernal 2006, p. 591.
- Faber 2013, p. 7.
- Stiebing Jr 2016, p. 63.
- Gordon 2013, p. 101.
- Dolansky 2013, p. 66.
- Pettinato 1981, p. 147.
- Shea 1981, p. 60.
- Podany 2010, p. 34.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 75.
- Kuz'mina 2007, p. 134.
- Peyronel & Vacca 2013, p. 436.
- Liverani 2013, p. 127.
- Tonietti 2010, p. 73.
- Tonietti 2010, p. 76.
- Eidem, Finkel & Bonechi 2001, p. 101.
- Lönnqvist 2008, p. 205.
- Armstrong 1996, p. 191.
- Kuhrt 1995, p. 75.
- Archi 2002, p. 31.
- Matthiae 2003, p. 393.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 168.
- Liverani 2013, p. 124.
- Liverani 2013, p. 129.
- Marchesi 2013, p. 274.
- Akkermans & Schwartz 2003, p. 271.
- Liverani 2013, p. 126.
- Dahood 1978, p. 83.
- Pettinato 1991, p. 155.
- Aruz 2003, p. 241.
- McNulty & Brice 1996, p. 246.
- Stieglitz 2002a, p. 209.
- Stieglitz 2002a, p. 210.
- Stieglitz 2002a, p. 212.
- Frayne 2008, p. 41-44.
- Biga 2014, p. 100.
- Westenholz 1999, p. 155.
- Fleming 2000, p. 208.
- Archi 2002, p. 28.
- Archi 2002, p. 27.
- Stieglitz 1990, p. 81.
- Astour 1992, p. 10.
- Singer 2000, p. 223.
- Archi 1994, p. 250.
- Matthiae 2013b, p. 102.
- Feliu 2003, p. 8.
- Archi 2002, p. 30.
- Chavalas 2003, p. 41.
- McBee Roberts 2002, p. 13.
- Fortin 1999, p. 54.
- DeVries 2006, p. 67.
- Kipfer 2000, p. 334683.
- Pitard 2001, p. 32.
- Pettinato 1981, p. 59.
- Zettler 2006, p. 134.
- Franks 2013, p. 2.
- Biga 2009, p. 30.
- Michalowski 2003, p. 453.
- Wellisch 1981, p. 488–500.
- Stanley 2007, p. 141.
- Porter 2012, p. 199.
- Liverani 2009, p. 228.
- Moore & Lewis 2009, p. 34.
- McBee Roberts 2002, p. 12.
- Matthiae 2013c, p. ix.
- Chivers 2013, p. 1.
- Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; Schwartz, Glenn M. (2003). The Archaeology of Syria: From Complex Hunter-Gatherers to Early Urban Societies (c.16,000-300 BC). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79666-8.
- Archi, Alfonso (1994). "Studies in the Pantheon of Ebla". Orientalia. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. 63 (3). OCLC 557711946.
- Archi, Alfonso (2002). "Formation of the West Hurrian Pantheon: The Case Of Ishara". In Yener, K. Aslihan; Hoffner, Harry A.; Dhesi, Simrit. Recent Developments in Hittite Archaeology and History. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-053-8.
- Archi, Alfonso (2011). "In Search of Armi". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 63. ISSN 2325-6737.
- Archi, Alfonso (2015). Ebla and Its Archives: Texts, History, and Society. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-1-61451-788-7.
- Armstrong, James A. (1996). "Ebla". In Fagan, Brian M. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9.
- Aruz, Joan (2003). "Art and Interconnections in the Third Millennium B.C.". In Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1.
- Aruz, Joan; Graff, Sarah B.; Rakic, Yelena, eds. (2013). Cultures in Contact: From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-475-0.
- Astour, Michael C. (1969). "The Partition of the Confederacy of Mukiš-Nuḫiašše-Nii by Šuppiluliuma: A Study in Political Geography of the Amarna Age". Orientalia. 38. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. OCLC 557711946.
- Astour, Michael C. (1981). "Ugarit and the Great Powers". In Young, Gordon Douglas. Ugarit in Retrospect. Fifty years of Ugarit and Ugaritic: Proceedings of the symposium of the same title held at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, February 26, 1979, under the auspices of the Middle West Branch of the American Oriental Society and the Mid-West Region of the Society of Biblical Literature. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-07-2.
- Astour, Michael C. (1992). "An outline of the history of Ebla (part 1)". In Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 3. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-77-5.
- Astour, Michael C. (2002). "A Reconstruction of the History of Ebla (Part 2)". In Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 4. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6.
- Aubet, Maria Eugenia (2001). The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Translated by Turton, Mary (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79543-2.
- Bachvarova, Mary R. (2009). "Manly Deeds: Hittite Admonitory History and Eastern Mediterranean Didactic Epic". In Konstan, David; Raaflaub, Kurt A. Epic and History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4443-1564-6.
- Baffi, Francesca; Peyronel, Luca (2013). "Trends in Village Life. The Early Bronze Age Phases at Tell Tuqan". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Bernal, Martin (2006). Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. 3 (The Linguistic Evidence). Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-6441-8.
- Biga, Maria Giovanna (2007). Bartoloni, Gilda, ed. "Buried among the Living at Ebla". Scienze dell'antichità. Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza". 14. OCLC 605398099.
- Biga, Maria Giovanna (2009). "Discovering History Through the Ebla Tablets". In Servadio, Gaia. Ancient Syrian Writings: Syrian Preclassical and Classical Texts. General Secretariat of Damascus Arab Capital of Culture. OCLC 751116608.
- Biga, Maria Giovanna (2013). "Defining the Chora of Ebla : A Textual Perspective". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Biga, Maria Giovanna (2014). "Inherited Space – Third Millennium Political and Cultural Landscape". In Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva; Brisch, Nicole; Eidem, Jesper. Constituent, Confederate, and Conquered Space: The Emergence of the Mittani State. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-026641-2.
- Bretschneider, Joachim; Van Vyve, Anne-Sophie; Leuven, Greta Jans (2009). "War of the lords, The Battle of Chronology: Trying to Recognize Historical Iconography in the 3rd Millennium Glyptic Art in seals of Ishqi-Mari and from Beydar". Ugarit-Forschungen. Ugarit-Verlag. 41. ISBN 978-3-86835-042-5.
- Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-15908-6.
- Bryce, Trevor (2014). Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-100292-2.
- Chavalas, Mark W. (2003). "Assyriology and Biblical Studies: A Century and a Half of Tension". In Chavalas, Mark W.; Younger. Jr, K. Lawson. Mesopotamia and the Bible. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement. 341. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-567-08231-2.
- Chivers, Christopher John (2013) [April 6, 2013]. "Grave Robbers and War Steal Syria's History". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times.
- Cooper, Lisa (2006). Early Urbanism on the Syrian Euphrates. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-26107-9.
- Cooper, Lisa (2010). "States of Hegemony: Early Forms of Political Control in Syria during the Third Millennium BC". In Bolger, Diane; Maguire, Louise C. The Development of Pre-State Communities in the Ancient Near East: Studies in Honour of Edgar Peltenburg. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-837-9.
- Bonacossi, Daniele Morandi (2013). "Northern Levant (Syria) During the Middle Bronze Age". In Steiner, Margreet L.; Killebrew, Ann E. The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-166255-3.
- Crawford, Harriet (2015). Ur: The City of the Moon God. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4725-3169-8.
- D'Andrea, Marta; Ascalone, Enrico (2013). "Assembling the Evidence. Excavated Sites Dating from the Early Bronze Age in and around the Chora of Ebla". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Dahood, Mitchell (1978). "Ebla, Ugarit and the Old Testament". In Emerton, John Adney; Holladay, William L.; Lemaire, André; Murphy, Roland Edmund; Nielsen, Eduard; Smend, Rudolf; Soggin, Jan Alberto. Congress Volume [International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament]. Göttingen 1977. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum. 29. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-05835-4.
- DeVries, LaMoine F. (2006). Cities of the Biblical World: An Introduction to the Archaeology, Geography, and History of Biblical Sites. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55635-120-4.
- Dolansky, Shawna (2013). "Syria-Canaan". In Spaeth, Barbette Stanley. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Mediterranean Religions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-11396-0.
- Dolce, Rita (2008). "Ebla before the Achievement of Palace G Culture: An Evaluation of the Early Syrian Archaic Period". In Kühne, Hartmut; Czichon, Rainer Maria; Kreppner, Florian Janoscha. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 29 March - 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin. 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05757-8.
- Dolce, Rita (2010). "Ebla and Its Origins – a Proposal". In Matthiae, Paolo; Pinnock, Frances; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Nicolò; Romano, Licia. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: Near Eastern archaeology in the past, present and future: heritage and identity, ethnoarchaeological and interdisciplinary approach, results and perspectives; visual expression and craft production in the definition of social relations and status. 1. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06175-9.
- Eidem, Jesper; Finkel, Irving; Bonechi, Marco (2001). "The Third-millennium Inscriptions". In Oates, David; Oates, Joan; McDonald, Helen. Excavations at Tell Brak. 2: Nagar in the third millennium BC. British School of Archaeology in Iraq. ISBN 978-0-9519420-9-3.
- Faber, Alice (2013). "Genetic Subgrouping of the Semitic Languages". In Hetzron, Robert. The Semitic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-11580-6.
- Feldman, Marian H. (2007). "Frescoes, Exotica, and the Reinvention of the Northern Levantine Kingdoms during the Second Millenium B.C.E". In Heinz, Marlies; Feldman, Marian H. Representations of Political Power: Case Histories from Times of Change and Dissolving Order in the Ancient Near East. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-135-1.
- Feliu, Lluís (2003). The God Dagan in Bronze Age Syria. Translated by Watson, Wilfred GE. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-13158-3.
- Finer, Samuel Edward (1997). Ancient monarchies and empires. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820664-4.
- Fleming, Daniel E. (2000). Time at Emar: The Cultic Calendar and the Rituals from the Diviner's Archive. Mesopotamian Civilizations. 11. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-044-6.
- Fortin, Michel (1999). Syria, land of civilizations. Musée de la civilisation, Québec. ISBN 978-2-7619-1521-2.
- Franks, Patricia C. (2013). Records and Information Management. American Library Association. ISBN 978-1-55570-910-5.
- Frayne, Douglas (1990). Old Babylonian Period (2003–1595 BC). The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia Early Periods. 4. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-5873-7.
- Frayne, Douglas (2008). Pre-Sargonic Period: Early Periods (2700–2350 BC). The Royal inscriptions of Mesopotamia Early Periods. 1. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-9047-9.
- Gilchrist, Paul R. (1995) . "Government". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W.; Harrison, Everett F.; Harrison, Roland K.; LaSor, William Sanford. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 2 (revised ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3782-0.
- Goetze, Albrecht (1953). "Four Ur Dynasty Tablets Mentioning Foreigners". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 7 (3). ISSN 0022-0256.
- Gordon, Cyrus H. (2013). "Amorite and Eblaite". In Hetzron, Robert. The Semitic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-11580-6.
- Grajetzki, Wolfram (2013). Tomb Treasures of the Late Middle Kingdom: The Archaeology of Female Burials. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0919-8.
- Gurney, Oliver Robert (2003). "The Upper Land, matum elitum". In Beckman, Gary M.; Beal, Richard Henry; McMahon, John Gregory. Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner, Jr: On the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-079-8.
- Hamblin, William J. (2006). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-52062-6.
- Harmanşah, Ömür (2007). "Upright Stones and Building Narratives: Formation of a Shared Architectural Practice In the Ancient Near East". In Cheng, Jack; Feldman, Marian H. Ancient Near Eastern Art in Context. Brill. p. 75. ISBN 90-04-15702-6.
- Hooks, Stephen M. (1990). "Ebla". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey; Drinkard Jr, Joel F.; Harrelson, Walter; McKnight, Edgar V.; Armour, Rollin Stely; Rowell, Edd; Wilson, Richard F. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7.
- Horowitz, Wayne (1998). Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-99-7.
- Kipfer, Barbara Ann (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-306-46158-3.
- Klengel, Horst (1992). Syria, 3000 to 300 B.C.: a handbook of political history. Akademie Verlag. ISBN 978-3-05-001820-1.
- Kohl, Philip L. (1991). "The Use and Abuse of World Systems Theory: The Case of the "Pristine" West Asian State". In Lamberg-Karlovsky, Clifford Charles. Archaeological Thought in America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-40643-7.
- Kuz'mina, Elena E. (2007). Mallory, James Patrick, ed. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. Translated by Pitina, Svetlana; Prudovsky, P. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-16054-5.
- Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, C. 3000-330 BC. Routledge History of the Ancient World. 1. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-01353-6.
- Laneri, Nicola (2016). "Embodying the Memory of the Royal Ancestors in Western Syria during the Third and Second Millennia BC: The Case of Ebla and Qatna". In Nadali, Davide. Envisioning the Past Through Memories: How Memory Shaped Ancient Near Eastern Societies. Cultural Memory and History in Antiquity. 3. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4742-2398-0.
- Leick, Gwendolyn (2009). Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia (2nd edition). Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras. 26. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6324-8.
- Liverani, Mario (2009). "Imperialism". In Pollock, Susan; Bernbeck, Reinhard. Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-3723-2.
- Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-75084-9.
- Lönnqvist, Mina A. (2008). "Were Nomadic Amorites on the Move? Migration, Invasion and Gradual Infiltration as Mechanisms for Cultural Transitions". In Kühne, Hartmut; Czichon, Rainer Maria; Kreppner, Florian Janoscha. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 29 March - 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin. 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05757-8.
- Marchesi, Gianni (2013). "Of Plants and Trees. Crops and Vegetable Resources at Ebla". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Matthiae, Paolo (1984). "New Discoveries at Ebla: The Excavation of the Western Palace and the Royal. Necropolis of the Amorite Period". The Biblical Archaeologist. American Schools of Oriental Research. 47. ISSN 2325-534X.
- Matthiae, Paolo (1989). "Jugs of the North-Syrian - Cilician and Levantine painted wares from the Middle Bronze II royal tombs at Ebla". In Emre, Kutlu; Hrouda, Barthel; Mellink, Machteld; Özgüç, Nimet. Anatolia and the ancient Near East: studies in honor of Tahsin Özgüç. Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi. OCLC 33983890.
- Matthiae, Paolo (1997). "Where Were the Early Syrian Kings of Ebla Buried?". Altorientalische Forschungen. Walter de Gruyter. 24 (2). doi:10.1524/aofo.19188.8.131.528. ISSN 0232-8461.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2003). "Ishtar of Ebla and Hadad of Aleppo: Notes on terminology, politics, and religion of Old Syrian Ebla". In Marrassini, Paolo. Semitic and Assyriological Studies: Presented to Pelio Fronzaroli by Pupils and Colleagues. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-04749-4.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2006). "The Archaic Palace at Ebla: A Royal Building between Early Bronze Age IVB and Middle Bronze Age I". In Gitin, Seymour; Wright, J. Edward; Dessel, J. P. Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-117-7.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2008). "Ebla". In Aruz, Joan; Benzel, Kim; Evans, Jean M. Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-295-4.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2010). Ebla: la città del trono : archeologia e storia. Piccola biblioteca Einaudi: Arte, architettura, teatro, cinema, música (in Italian). 492. Einaudi. ISBN 978-88-06-20258-3.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2013). "The Royal Palace. Functions of the Quarters and the Government of the Chora". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2013a). "A Long Journey. Fifty Years of Research on the Bronze Age at Tell Mardikh/Ebla". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2013b). "Ebla: Recent Excavation Results and the Continuity of Syrian Art". In Aruz, Joan; Graff, Sarah B.; Rakic, Yelena. Cultures in Contact: From Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-475-0.
- Matthiae, Paolo (2013c). "Introduction". In Pinnock, Francis. Studies on the Archaeology of Ebla 1980–2010. Harrassowitz. ISBN 978-3-447-06937-3.
- Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò (2013). "Representing the Chora of Ebla". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- McBee Roberts, Jimmy Jack (2002). The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Collected Essays. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-066-8.
- McNulty, Mary F.; Brice, Elizabeth (1996). "Ebla". In Berney, Kathryn Ann; Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Hudson, Christopher; La Boda, Sharon. Middle East and Africa. 4: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-25993-9.
- Micale, Maria Gabriella; Mantellini, Simone; Peyronel, Luca (2013). "Exploiting Diversity. The Archaeological Landscape of the Eblaite Chora". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Michalowski, Piotr (1995). "The Men from Mari". In van Lerberghe, Karel; Schoors, Antoon. Immigration and Emigration Within the Ancient Near East: Festschrift E. Lipiński. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta. 65. Peeters Publishers & Department of Oriental Studies, Leuven. ISBN 978-90-6831-727-5.
- Michalowski, Piotr (2003). "The Earliest Scholastic Tradition". In Aruz, Joan; Wallenfels, Ronald. Art of the First Cities: The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-1-58839-043-1.
- Mogliazza, Silvia; Polcaro, Andrea (2010). "Death and Cult of Dead in Middle Bronze. Age II Ebla: an Archaeological and Anthropological Study on Shaft Tomb P. 8680, Near Southern Palace (Area FF)". In Matthiae, Paolo; Pinnock, Frances; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Nicolò; Romano, Licia. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: Near Eastern archaeology in the past, present and future: heritage and identity, ethnoarchaeological and interdisciplinary approach, results and perspectives; visual expression and craft production in the definition of social relations and status. 3. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06217-6.
- Moore, Karl; Lewis, David Charles (2009). The Origins of Globalization. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-97008-6.
- Nadali, Davide (2007). "Monuments of War, War of Monuments: Some Considerations on Commemorating War in the Third Millennium BC". Orientalia. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. 76 (4). OCLC 557711946.
- Naveh, Joseph (1982). Early History of the Alphabet: An Introduction to West Semitic Epigraphy and Palaeography. Magnes Press, Hebrew University. ISBN 978-965-223-436-0.
- Neff, Stephen C. (2014). Justice Among Nations. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-72654-3.
- Nigro, Lorenzo (2009). Doumet-Serhal, Claude, ed. "The Eighteenth Century BC Princes of Byblos and Ebla and the Chronology of the Middle Bronze Age". BAAL: Bulletin d'Archéologie et d'Architecture Libanaises
Interconnections in the Eastern Mediterranean: Lebanon in the Bronze and Iron Ages : Proceedings of the International Symposium Beirut 2008. Beyrouth: Ministère de la Culture, Direction Générale des Antiquités. Hors-Série VI. ISSN 1683-0083.
- Ökse, Tuba (2011). "The Early Bronze Age in Southeastern Anatolia". In Steadman, Sharon R.; McMahon, Gregory. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000-323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2.
- Otto, Adelheid; Biga, Maria Giovanna (2010). "The Identification of Tall Bazi with Armi". In Matthiae, Paolo; Pinnock, Frances; Nigro, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Nicolò; Romano, Licia. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East: Near Eastern archaeology in the past, present and future: heritage and identity, ethnoarchaeological and interdisciplinary approach, results and perspectives; visual expression and craft production in the definition of social relations and status. 1. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06175-9.
- Pettinato, Giovanni (1981). The archives of Ebla: an empire inscribed in clay. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-13152-0.
- Pettinato, Giovanni (1991). Ebla, a new look at history. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-4150-7.
- Peyronel, Luca (2008). "Domestic Quarters, Refuse Pits, and Working Areas. Reconstructing Human Landscape and Environment at Tell Mardikh-Ebla during the Old Syrian Period (c. 2000–1600 BC)". In Kühne, Hartmut; Czichon, Rainer Maria; Kreppner, Florian Janoscha. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, 29 March - 3 April 2004, Freie Universität Berlin. 1. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05703-5.
- Peyronel, Luca; Vacca, Agnese (2013). "Natural Resources, Technology and Manufacture Processes at Ebla. A Preliminary Assessment". In Matthiae, Paolo; Marchetti, Nicolò. Ebla and its Landscape: Early State Formation in the Ancient Near East. Left Coast Press. ISBN 978-1-61132-228-6.
- Pinnock, Frances (2000). "Some Thoughts About the Transmission of Iconographies between North Syria and Cappadocia, End of Third-Beginning of the Second Millennium BC". In Matthiae, Paolo. Proceedings of the First International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Rome, May 18th-23rd 1998. 2. Università degli studi di Roma "La Sapienza." Dipartimento di scienze storiche, archeologiche ed antropologiche dell'antichità. ISBN 978-88-88233-00-0.
- Pinnock, Frances (2007). "Byblos and Ebla in the Third Millennium BC. Two Urban Patterns in Comparison". In Nigro, Lorenzo. Byblos and Jericho in the Early Bronze I: Social Dynamics and Cultural Interactions: Proceedings of the International Workshop Held in Rome on March 6th 2007 by Rome "La Sapienza" University. Rome "La Sapienza" Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan (ROSAPAT). 4. Rome "La Sapienza" University. ISSN 1826-9206.
- Pinnock, Frances (2013). "Ebla". In Crawford, Harriet. The Sumerian World. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-21912-2.
- Pitard, Wayne T. (2001) . "Before Israel: Syria-Palestine in the Bronze Age". In Coogan, Michael David. The Oxford History of the Biblical World (revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2.
- Podany, Amanda H. (2010). Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979875-9.
- Pongratz-Leisten, Beate (2015). Religion and Ideology in Assyria. Studies in Ancient Near Eastern Records. 6. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-1-61451-426-8.
- Porter, Anne (2012). Mobile Pastoralism and the Formation of Near Eastern Civilizations: Weaving Together Society. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76443-8.
- Rendsburg, Gary A. (1997). "Eblaites". In Meyers, Eric M. The Oxford encyclopedia of archaeology in the Near East. 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-511216-0.
- Ristvet, Lauren (2014). Ritual, Performance, and Politics in the Ancient Near East. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-19503-1.
- Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-0-14-193825-7.
- Shaw, Ian (1999). "Ebla". In Shaw, Ian; Jameson, Robert. A Dictionary of Archaeology. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-75196-1.
- Shea, William H. (1981). "The Calendars of Ebla. Part II. The New Calendar". Andrews University Seminary Studies. Andrews University Press. 19 (1). ISSN 0003-2980.
- Singer, Itamar (2000). "Semitic Dagan and Indo-European *dl'eg'om: Related Words?". In Arbeitman, Yoël L. The Asia Minor Connexion: Studies on the Pre-Greek Languages in Memory of Charles Carter. Orbis Supplementa. 13. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-0798-0.
- Stanley, Bruce E. (2007). "Ebla". In Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5.
- Stiebing Jr, William H. (2016) . Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-315-51116-0.
- Stieglitz, Robert R. (1990). "Ebla and the gods of Canaan". In Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 2. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-49-2.
- Stieglitz, Robert R. (2002). "The Deified Kings of Ebla". In Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 4. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6.
- Stieglitz, Robert R. (2002a). "Divine Pairs in the Ebla Pantheon". In Gordon, Cyrus Herzl; Rendsburg, Gary. Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language. 4. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6.
- Suriano, Matthew J. (2010). The Politics of Dead Kings: Dynastic Ancestors in the Book of Kings and Ancient Israel. Forschungen zum Alten Testament. 48. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 978-3-16-150473-0. ISSN 1611-4914.
- Teissier, Beatrice (1984). Ancient Near Eastern Cylinder Seals from the Marcopolic Collection. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04927-7.
- Thuesen, Ingolf (2000). "The City-State in Ancient Western Syria". In Hansen, Mogens Herman. A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation. 21. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. ISBN 978-87-7876-177-4.
- Tonietti, Maria Vittoria (2010). "Musicians in the Ebla Texts". In Pruzsinszky, Regine; Shehata, Dahlia. Musiker und Tradierung: Studien Zur Rolle Von Musikern Bei Der Verschriftlichung und Tradierung Von Literarischen Werken. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-643-50131-8.
- Tubb, Jonathan N. (1998). Peoples Of The Past: Canaanites. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3108-5.
- Van De Mieroop, Marc (2002). "Foreign Contacts and the Rise of an Elite in Early Dynastic Babylonia". In Ehrenberg, Erica. Leaving No Stones Unturned: Essays on the Ancient Near East and Egypt in Honor of Donald P. Hansen. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-055-2.
- Weiss, Harvey (1985). "Tell Leilan And Shubat Enlil". In Weiss, Harvey. Ebla to Damascus: Art and Archaeology of Ancient Syria : an Exhibition from the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums of the Syrian Arab Republic. Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. ISBN 978-0-86528-029-8.
- Wellisch, Hans H. (1981). "Ebla: The World's Oldest Library". The Journal of Library History. University of Texas Press. 16 (3). ISSN 0275-3650.
- Westenholz, Joan Goodnick (1999). "Emar – the City and its God". In van Lerberghe, Karel; Voet, Gabriela. Languages and Cultures in Contact: At the Crossroads of Civilizations in the Syro-Mesopotamian realm. Proceedings of the 42th RAI. Orientalia Lovaniensia analecta. 92. Peeters Publishers & Department of Oriental Studies, Leuven. ISBN 978-90-429-0719-5.
- Wright, David P. (2004). "Syria and Canaan". In Johnston, Sarah Iles. Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01517-3.
- Zettler, Richard L. (2006). "Reconstructing the World of Ancient Mesopotamia: Divided Beginnings and Holistic History". In Yoffee, Norman; Crowell, Bradley L. Excavating Asian History: Interdisciplinary Studies in Archaeology and History. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 978-0-8165-2418-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ebla.|
- Ebla (Tell Mardikh) Suggestion to have Ebla (Tell Mardikh) recognized as a UNESCO world heritage site
- Ebla - Tell Mardikh with photos and plans of the digs (in Italian)
- Two Weights from Temple N at Tell Mardikh-Ebla, by E. Ascalone and L. Peyronel (pdf)
- The Urban Landscape of Old Syrian Ebla. F. Pinnock (pdf)