Shalim (Šalām, Shalem, Salem, and Salim) is a god in the Canaanite religion pantheon, mentioned in inscriptions found in Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. William F. Albright identified Shalim as the god of dusk and Shahar as god of the dawn. In the Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Shalim is also identified as the deity representing Venus or the "Evening Star" and Shahar the "Morning Star". His name derives from the triconsonantal Semitic root S-L-M. The city of Jerusalem was named after him.
|Near Eastern Religions|
A Ugaritic myth known as The Gracious and Most Beautiful Gods, describes Shalim and his brother Shahar as offspring of El through two women he meets at the seashore. They are both nursed by "The Lady", likely Anat (Athirat or Asherah), and have appetites as large as "(one) lip to the earth and (one) lip to the heaven." In other Ugaritic texts, the two are associated with the sun goddess.
Another inscription is a sentence repeated three times in a para-mythological text, "Let me invoke the gracious gods, the voracious gods of ym." Ym in most Semitic languages means "day," and Shalim and Shahar, twin deities of the dusk and dawn, were conceived of as its beginning and end.
Many scholars believe that the name of Shalim is preserved in the name of the city Jerusalem. The god Shalim may have been associated with dusk and the evening star in the etymological senses of a "completion" of the day, "sunset" and "peace".
In popular cultureEdit
Shalim is one of the main characters in books two and three of the ''Court of the Sea Fae'' trilogy by C.N. Crawford. His name is Salem in the series and he fell to Earth and eventually became Lucifer.
- van der Toorn et al., 1999, pp. 755-6
- Golan, 2003, p. 82. "The name of the Canaanite deity of the setting sun Salim, or Salem, [...] The names [of Sahar and Salim] are rendered in modern scholarly texts as Shakhar and Shalim [...]"
- Albright, 1990,p. 187; cf. the Akkadian word for sunset, šalām šamši.
- Jenny Kien (2000). Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism. Universal-Publishers. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-1-58112-763-8. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
Royal names with the s-l-m root, such as Solomon and Abshalom, suggest that Shalim was still worshipped in the 10th century BCE, and that the early house of David participated in this cult.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- van der Toorn et al., 1999, p. 222.
- N. Na'aman, Canaanite Jerusalem and its central hill country neighbours in the second millennium B.C.E., Ugarit-Forschungen Vol. 24 (1992), pp275-291.
- L. Grabbe, Ethnic groups in Jerusalem, in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (Clark International, 2003) pp145-163.
- John Day, Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan, Sheffield Academic Press 2002, p180
- Helmer Ringgren; Heinz-Josef Fabry (2006). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-0-8028-2339-7. Retrieved 19 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Albright, William Foxwell (1968 / 1990). Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths (Reprint ed.). Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-01-0. Check date values in:
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- Golan, Ariel (2003). Prehistoric religion: mythology, symbolism. Ariel Golan (Original from the University of Virginia. ISBN 978-965-90555-0-0.
- van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible DDD (2nd, revised ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802824912.