Weather god

Jupiter, king of gods and weather god in ancient Rome
Mariamman, the Hindu goddess of rain.

A weather god, also frequently known as a storm god, is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain, wind, storms, tornados, and hurricanes. Should they only be in charge of one feature of a storm, they will be called after that attribute, such as a rain god or a lightning/thunder god. This singular attribute might then be emphasized more than the generic, all-encompassing term "storm god", though with thunder/lightning gods, the two terms seem interchangeable. They feature commonly in polytheistic religions.

Storm gods are most often conceived of as wielding thunder and/or lightning (some lightning gods' names actually mean "thunder"[1][2][3], but since you cannot have thunder without lightning, they presumably wielded both). The ancients didn't seem to differentiate between the two, which is presumably why both the words "lightning bolt" and "thunderbolt" exist despite being synonyms. Storm gods are typically male (especially the lightning/thunder ones), powerful and irascible (the irascibility is probably a trait because of the command over thunder/lightning, thus the god's power over this aspect of the natural world influences his personality). Rain and wind deities tend to not be portrayed as wrathful as thunder/lightning deities.

Africa and the Middle EastEdit

Sub-Sahara AfricaEdit

Afroasiatic Middle EastEdit

CanaaniteEdit

  • Ba'al, Canaanite god of fertility, weather, and war.
  • Hadad, the Canaanite and Carthaginian storm, fertility, & war god. Identified as Baʿal's true name at Ugarit.

EgyptianEdit

HebrewEdit

  • Yahweh, Hebrew divine warrior and god of the entire cosmos.

MesopotamianEdit

  • Adad, the Assyrian storm god
  • Marduk, Babylonian god of water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.

Western EurasiaEdit

Balto-SlavicEdit

CelticEdit

  • Taranis, Celtic god of thunder, often depicted with a wheel as well as a thunderbolt[4]

Norse-GermanicEdit

  • Freyr, Norse god of rain and sunshine
  • Thor, Norse god of thunder/lightning, oak trees, protection, strength, and hallowing. Also Thunor and Donar, the Anglo-Saxon and Continental Germanic versions, respectively, of him. All descend from Common Germanic *Thunraz, the reflex of the PIE thunder god for this language branch of the Indo-Europeans.[5]

Greco-RomanEdit

  • Aeolus (son of Hippotes), keeper of the winds in the Odyssey
  • Anemoi, collective name for the gods of the winds in Greek mythology, their number varies from 4 to more
  • Jupiter, the Roman thunder/lightning and sky god and king of the gods
  • Tempestas, Roman goddess of storms or sudden weather. Commonly referred to in the plural, Tempestates.
  • Zeus, Greek thunder/lightning and sky god and king of the gods

Western AsiaEdit

Anatolian-CaucasianEdit

Hindu-VedicEdit

Persian ZorostarianEdit

  • Vayu-Vata, Iranian duo of gods, the first is the god of wind, much like the Hindu Vayu.

UralicEdit

Asia-Pacific / OceaniaEdit

Far East AsiaEdit

Native AmericasEdit

Central America and the CaribbeanEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Scheffer, Johannes (1674). The History of Lapland. Oxford
  2. ^ Eesti Keele Instituut (Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia); Eesti Rahvaluule Arhiiv (1 January 2004). Folklore: electronic journal of folklore. The Institute. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
  3. ^ Orel (2003:429)
  4. ^ Paul-Marie Duval. 2002. Les Dieux de la Gaule. Paris, Éditions Payot.
  5. ^ Orel (2003:429)

Further readingEdit

  • Holtom, D. C. "The Storm God Theme in Japanese Mythology." Sociologus, Neue Folge / New Series, 6, no. 1 (1956): 44-56. www.jstor.org/stable/43643852.