Wisdom, sapience, or sagacity is the ability to contemplate and act productively using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.[1] Wisdom is associated with attributes such as unbiased judgment, compassion, experiential self-knowledge, self-transcendence, and non-attachment,[2] and virtues such as ethics and benevolence.[3][4]

Luca Giordano: The Dream of Solomon: God promises Solomon wisdom
Solomon's Wisdom, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld

Wisdom has been defined in many different ways,[2][5][3] and there are several distinct approaches to assessing the characteristics attributed to wisdom.[6][7]

Definitions edit

 
Early mention of wisdom in Beowulf

The Oxford English Dictionary defines wisdom as "Capacity of judging rightly in matters relating to life and conduct; soundness of judgment in the choice of means and ends; sometimes, less strictly, sound sense, esp. in practical affairs: opp. to folly;" also "Knowledge (esp. of a high or abstruse kind); enlightenment, learning, erudition."[8] Charles Haddon Spurgeon defined wisdom as "the right use of knowledge".[9] Robert I. Sutton and Andrew Hargadon defined the "attitude of wisdom" as "acting with knowledge while doubting what one knows".[citation needed]

In social and psychological sciences, several distinct approaches to wisdom exist,[3] along with techniques of operationalization[2] and measurement[7] of wisdom as a psychological construct. Wisdom is the capacity to have foreknowledge of something, to know the consequences (positive and negative) of the available courses of action, and take the best of the available options.[10]

Mythological perspectives edit

History edit

The ancient Greeks considered wisdom to be an important virtue, personified as the goddesses Metis and Athena. Metis was the first wife of Zeus, who, according to Hesiod's Theogony, had devoured her pregnant; Zeus earned the title of Mêtieta ("The Wise Counselor") after that, as Metis was the embodiment of wisdom, and he gave birth to Athena, who is said to have sprung from his head.[11][12] Athena was portrayed as strong, fair, merciful, and chaste.[13]

Apollo was also considered a god of wisdom, designated as the conductor of the Muses (Musagetes),[14] who were personifications of the sciences and of the inspired and poetic arts. According to Plato in his Cratylus, the name of Apollo could also mean "ballon" (archer) and "omopoulon" (unifier of poles [divine and earthly]), since this god was responsible for divine and true inspirations, thus considered an archer who was always right in healing and oracles: "he is an ever-darting archer".[15] Apollo prophesied through the priestesses (Pythia) in the Temple of Apollo (Delphi), where the aphorism "know thyself" (gnōthi seauton)[a] was inscribed (one of the Delphic maxims).[16] He was contrasted with Hermes, who was related to the sciences and technical wisdom, and, in the first centuries after Christ, was associated with Thoth in an Egyptian syncretism, under the name Hermes Trimegistus.[17] Greek tradition recorded the earliest introducers of wisdom in the Seven Sages of Greece.[18]

To Socrates and Plato, philosophy was literally the love of wisdom (philo-sophia). This permeates Plato's dialogues; in The Republic the leaders of his proposed utopia are philosopher kings who understand the Form of the Good and possess the courage to act accordingly. Aristotle, in Metaphysics, defined wisdom as understanding why things are a certain way (causality), which is deeper than merely knowing things are a certain way.[b] He was the first to make the distinction between phronesis and sophia.[5]

According to Plato and Xenophon, the Pythia of the Delphic Oracle answered the question "who is the wisest man in Greece?" by stating Socrates was the wisest.[19] According to Plato's Apology, Socrates decided to investigate the people who might be considered wiser than him, concluding they lacked true knowledge:

This became immortalized in the phrase "I know that I know nothing" an aphorism suggesting that it is wise to recognize one's own ignorance[20] and to value epistemic humility.[21]

The ancient Romans also valued wisdom, which was personified as Minerva or Pallas. She also represents skillful knowledge and the virtues, especially chastity. Her symbol was the owl, which is still a popular representation of wisdom, because it can see in darkness. She was said to have been born from Jupiter's forehead.[22]

Buddhist traditions provide comprehensive guidance on how to develop wisdom.[23][24] In the Inuit tradition, developing[ambiguous] wisdom was one of the aims of teaching. An Inuit Elder said that a person became wise when they could see what needed to be done and do it successfully without being told what to do.

In many cultures, the name for third molars, which are the last teeth to grow, is etymologically linked with wisdom, as in the English wisdom tooth. This nickname originated from the classical tradition—the Hippocratic writings used the term sóphronistér (in Greek, related to the meaning of moderation or teaching a lesson), and in Latin dens sapientiae (wisdom tooth).[25]

Educational perspectives edit

 
Wisdom Defending Youth against Love by Meynier, c. 1810
 
Truth and Wisdom assist History in writing by Jacob de Wit, 1754

Public schools in the U.S. sometimes nod at "character education" which would include training in wisdom.[26]

Nicholas Maxwell, a philosopher in the United Kingdom, believes academia ought to alter its focus from the acquisition of knowledge to seeking and promoting wisdom.[27] This he defines as the capacity to realize what is of value in life, for oneself and others.[28] He teaches that new knowledge and technological know-how increase our power to act. Without wisdom though, Maxwell claims this new knowledge may cause human harm as well as human good. He argues that the pursuit of knowledge is indeed valuable and good, but that it should be considered a part of the broader task of improving wisdom.[29]

Psychological perspectives edit

Psychologists have begun to gather data on commonly held beliefs or folk theories about wisdom.[30] Initial analyses indicate that although "there is an overlap of the implicit theory of wisdom with intelligence, perceptiveness, spirituality, and shrewdness, it is evident that wisdom is an expertise in dealing with difficult questions of life and adaptation to the complex requirements."[31]

The field of psychology has also developed explicit theories and empirical research on the psychological processes underlying wisdom.[32][3] Opinions on the psychological definition of wisdom vary,[3] but there is some consensus that critical to wisdom are certain meta-cognitive processes that afford life reflection and judgment about critical life matters.[33][2] These processes include recognizing the limits of one's own knowledge, acknowledging uncertainty and change, attention to context and the bigger picture, and integrating different perspectives of a situation.[34] Cognitive scientists suggest that wisdom requires coordinating such reasoning processes for insight into managing one's life.[35] Reasoning of this sort is both theoretically and empirically distinct from general (fluid or crystallized) intelligence.[36] Researchers have shown empirically that wise reasoning is distinct from IQ.[37]

Baltes and colleagues defined wisdom as "the ability to deal with the contradictions of a specific situation and to assess the consequences of an action for themselves and for others. It is achieved when in a concrete situation, a balance between intrapersonal, interpersonal and institutional interests can be prepared".[38] Balance appears to be a critical criterion of wisdom. Empirical research provides some support for this idea, showing that wisdom-related reasoning is associated with achieving balance between intrapersonal and interpersonal interests when facing personal life challenges, and when setting goals for managing interpersonal conflicts.[7][39]

Some researchers of positive psychology have defined wisdom as the coordination of "knowledge and experience" and "its deliberate use to improve well being."[40] Under this definition, wisdom is further refined as having the following facets:[41]

This theoretical model has not been tested empirically, with an exception of a broad link between wisdom-related reasoning and well-being[clarification needed].[42][43]

Grossmann and colleagues summarized prior psychological literature to conclude that wisdom involves certain cognitive processes that afford unbiased, sound judgment in the face of ill-defined life situations:

  1. intellectual humility, or recognition of limits of own knowledge
  2. appreciation of perspectives broader than the issue at hand
  3. sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations
  4. compromise or integration of different perspectives[44][45]

Grossmann found that habitually speaking and thinking of oneself in the third person increases these characteristics, which means that such a habit makes a person wiser.[46] Grossmann says contextual factors—such as culture, experiences, and social situations—influence the understanding, development, and propensity of wisdom, with implications for training and educational practice.[2][44] These contextual factors are the focus of continuing research. For instance, Grossmann and Kross identified a phenomenon they called "the Solomon's paradox": that people reflect more wisely on other people's problems than on their own. (It is named after King Solomon, who had legendary sagacity when making judgments about other people's dilemmas but lacked insight when it came to important decisions in his own life.)[47]

Researchers also explore the role of emotions in wisdom.[48] Most agree that emotions and emotion regulation are key to effectively managing the kinds of complex and arousing situations that most call for wisdom. Much empirical research has focused on the cognitive or meta-cognitive aspects of wisdom, assuming that an ability to reason through difficult situations is paramount. So although emotions likely play a role in how wisdom plays out in real events (and in reflecting on past events), empirical studies were late to develop on how emotions affect a person's ability to deal wisely with complex events. One study found a positive relationship between diversity of emotional experience and wise reasoning, irrespective of emotional intensity.[49]

Measuring wisdom edit

A researcher will measure wisdom differently depending on their theoretical position about the nature of wisdom. For example, some view wisdom as a stable personality trait, others as a context-bound process.[50] Those wedded to the former approach often use single-shot questionnaires, which are prone to biased[clarification needed] responses,[7][51] something that is antithetical to the wisdom construct[52] and fails to study wisdom in the contexts where it is most relevant: complex life challenges. In contrast, researchers who prefer the latter approach measure wisdom-related features of cognition, motivation, and emotion in the context of a specific situation.[53][50] Such state-level measures provide less-biased responses as well as greater power in explaining meaningful psychological processes.[7] Also, a focus on the situation allows wisdom researchers to develop a fuller understanding of the role of context in producing wisdom.[50] For example, studies have shown evidence of cross-cultural[54] and within-cultural variability,[55] and systematic variability in reasoning wisely across contexts[7][47] and in daily life.[43]

Many, but not all, studies find that adults' self-ratings of perspective and wisdom do not depend on age.[41][56][57] This conflicts with the popular notion that wisdom increases with age.[56] The answer to whether age and wisdom correlate depends on how one defines wisdom and one's experimental technique. The answer to this question also depends on the domain studied, and the role of experience in that domain, with some contexts favoring older adults, others favoring younger adults, and some not differentiating age groups.[50] Rigorous longitudinal work is needed to answer this question, while most studies rely on cross-sectional observations.[10]

The Jeste-Thomas Wisdom Index[58] is based on a 28-question survey (SD-WISE-28) created by researchers at the University of California San Diego to determine how wise a person is. In 2021 Dr. Dilip V. Jeste and his colleagues created a 7-question survey (SD-WISE-7) testing seven components: acceptance of diverse perspectives, decisiveness, emotional regulation, prosocial behaviors, self-reflection, social advising, and (to a lesser degree) spirituality.[59]

Sapience edit

Sapience ("sophia" in Greek) is "transcendent wisdom", "ultimate reality", or the ultimate truth of things.[5][4][60] This more cosmic, "big picture" definition is often how wisdom ("true wisdom" or "Wisdom" with a capital W) is considered in a religious context.[5][4] It transcends mere practical wisdom and may include deep understanding of self, interconnectedness, conditioned origination, and phenomenological insight.[23][5][4] A person with this type of wisdom can act with appropriate judgment, a broad understanding of situations, and greater appreciation/compassion towards other living beings.[23]

The word sapience is derived from the Latin sapientia, meaning "wisdom".[61] The corresponding verb sapere has the original meaning of "to taste", hence "to perceive, to discern" and "to know"; its present participle sapiens was chosen by Carl Linnaeus for the Latin binomial for the human species, Homo sapiens.

Religious perspectives edit

Ancient Near East edit

In Mesopotamian religion and mythology, Enki, also known as Ea, was the god of wisdom and intelligence. Divine wisdom allowed the provident designation of functions[clarification needed] and the ordering of the cosmos, and it[ambiguous] was achieved by humans by following mes (in Sumerian: order, rite, righteousness) which maintain balance.[62] In addition to hymns to Enki or Ea dating from the third millennium BCE, there is among the clay tablets of Abu Salabikh from 2600 BCE (the oldest dated texts), a "Hymn to Shamash" which includes the following:[63]

Wide is the courtyard of Shamash night chamber, (just as wide is the womb of) a wise pregnant woman! Sin, his warrior, wise one, heard of the offerings and came down to his fiesta. He is the father of the nation and the father of intelligence

The concept of Logos—manifest word of the divine thought—was also present in the philosophy and hymns of Egypt and Ancient Greece.[64] It was important in the thinking of Heraclitus, and in the Abrahamic traditions. It seems to have been derived from Mesopotamian culture.[65]

Sia was the personification of perception and thoughtfulness in the mythology of Ancient Egypt. Thoth, married to Maat (in ancient Egyptian: order, righteousness, truth), was regarded as the being who introduced wisdom to the nation.[66][64]

Zoroastrianism edit

In the Avesta Gathas, hymns traditionally attributed to Zoroaster, Ahura Mazda means "Lord" (Ahura) and "Wisdom" (Mazda), and is the central deity who embodies goodness, being also called "Good Thought" (Vohu Manah).[67] In Zoroastrianism, the order of the universe and morals is called asha (in Avestan, truth, righteousness), which is determined by this omniscient Thought and also considered a deity emanating from Ahura (Amesha Spenta). It is related to another ahura deity, Spenta Mainyu (active Mentality).[68] It says in Yazna 31:[69]

To him shall the best befall, who, as one that knows, speaks to me Right's truthful word of Welfare and of Immortality; even the Dominion of Mazda which Good Thought shall increase for him. About which he in the beginning thus thought, "let the blessed realms be filled with Light", he it is that by his wisdom created Right.

Hebrew Bible and Judaism edit

The word "wisdom" (חכם) is mentioned 222 times in the Hebrew Bible. It was regarded as one of the highest virtues among the Israelites along with kindness (חסד) and justice (צדק). The books of Proverbs and Psalms each urge readers to obtain and to increase in wisdom.[citation needed]

 
Image from "Book of Wisdom" of Francysk Skaryna 1518

In the Hebrew Bible, wisdom is exemplified by Solomon, who asks God for wisdom in 2 Chronicles 1:10. Much of the Book of Proverbs, which is filled with wise sayings, is attributed to Solomon. In Proverbs 9:10, the fear of the Lord is called the beginning of wisdom. Another proverb says that wisdom is gained from God, "For the Lord gives wisdom; from His mouth come knowledge and understanding".[70] In Proverbs 1:20, there is also reference to wisdom personified in female form, "Wisdom calls aloud in the streets, she raises her voice in the marketplaces." In Proverbs 8:22–31, this personified wisdom is described as being present with God before creation began and even as taking part in creation itself.

King Solomon continues his teachings of wisdom in the book of Ecclesiastes. Solomon discusses his exploration of the meaning of life and fulfillment, as he speaks of life's pleasures, work, and materialism, yet concludes that it is all meaningless. "'Meaningless! Meaningless!" says the Teacher [Solomon]. 'Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless'...For with much wisdom comes much sorrow, the more knowledge, the more grief"[71] Solomon concludes that all life's pleasures and riches, and even [human]wisdom, mean nothing if there is no relationship with God.[72]

The Talmud teaches that a wise person can foresee the future. Nolad is a Hebrew word for "future," but also the Hebrew word for "birth", so one rabbinic interpretation of the teaching is that a wise person is one who can foresee the consequences of his/her choices (i.e. can "see the future" that he/she "gives birth" to).[73]

Hellenistic religion and Gnosticism edit

Christian theology edit

In Christian theology, "wisdom" (From Hebrew: חכמה transliteration: chokmâh pronounced: khok-maw', Greek: Sophia, Latin: Sapientia) describes an aspect of God, or the theological concept regarding the wisdom of God.[citation needed]

 
David and Abigail, Abigail was a "wise woman" who helped David. 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld.

Christian thought opposes secular wisdom and Godly wisdom. Paul the Apostle states that worldly wisdom thinks the claims of Christ to be foolishness. However, to those who are "on the path to salvation" Christ represents the wisdom of God.[74] Wisdom is considered one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit.[75] 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 gives an alternate list of nine virtues, among which is wisdom.

The Epistle of James is a New Testament analogue of the book of Proverbs, in that it also discusses wisdom. It reiterates the message from Proverbs that wisdom comes from God by stating, "If any of you lacks wisdom, you should ask God, who gives generously to all without finding fault, and it will be given to you".[76] James also explains how wisdom helps one acquire other forms of virtue: "But the wisdom that comes from heaven is first of all pure; then peace-loving, considerate, submissive, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial and sincere."[77] James focuses on using this God-given wisdom to perform acts of service to the less fortunate.

Apart from Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and James, other main books of wisdom in the Bible are Job, Psalms, and 1 and 2 Corinthians, which give lessons on gaining and using wisdom through difficult situations.

Indian religions edit

In the Indian traditions, wisdom can be called prajña or vijñana.

Developing wisdom is of central importance in Buddhist traditions, where the ultimate aim is often presented as "seeing things as they are" or as gaining a "penetrative understanding of all phenomena", which in turn is described as ultimately leading to the "complete freedom from suffering".[23][24] In Buddhism, developing wisdom is accomplished through an understanding of what are known as the Four Noble Truths and by following the Noble Eightfold Path.[23][24] This path lists mindfulness as one of eight required components for cultivating wisdom.[23]

Buddhist scriptures teach that a wise people conduct themselves well.[78] A wise person does actions that are unpleasant to do but give good results, and does not do actions that are pleasant to do but give bad results.[79] Wisdom is the antidote to the self-chosen poison of ignorance. The Buddha has much to say on the subject of wisdom including:

  • He who arbitrates a case by force does not thereby become just (established in Dhamma). But the wise man is he who carefully discriminates between right and wrong.[80]
  • He who leads others by nonviolence, righteously and equitably, is indeed a guardian of justice, wise and righteous.[81]
  • One is not wise merely because he talks much. But he who is calm, free from hatred and fear, is verily called a wise man.[82]
  • By quietude alone one does not become a sage (muni) if he is foolish and ignorant. But he who, as if holding a pair of scales, takes the good and shuns the evil, is a wise man; he is indeed a muni by that very reason. He who understands both good and evil as they really are, is called a true sage.[83]

To recover the original supreme wisdom of self-nature (Buddha-nature or Tathagata) concealed by the self-imposed three dusty poisons (the kleshas: greed, anger, ignorance), Buddha taught to his students the threefold training by turning greed into generosity and discipline, anger into kindness and meditation, ignorance into wisdom. As the Sixth Patriarch of Chán Buddhism, Huineng, said in his Platform Sutra, "Mind without dispute is self-nature discipline, mind without disturbance is self-nature meditation, mind without ignorance is self-nature wisdom."

In Mahayana and esoteric Buddhist lineages, Mañjuśrī is considered an embodiment of Buddha wisdom.

In Hinduism, wisdom is considered a state of mind and soul with which a person achieves liberation. The god of wisdom is Ganesha and the goddess of knowledge is Saraswati.[citation needed]

The Sanskrit verse to attain knowledge is:[84]

असतो मा सद्गमय
तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय
मृत्योर्मा अमृतं गमय
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः

Asatō mā sadgamaya
tamasō mā jyōtirgamaya
mr̥tyōrmā amr̥taṁ gamaya
Om śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ

Lead me from the unreal to the real.
Lead me from darkness to light.
Lead me from death to immortality.
May there be peace, peace, and peace.

Wisdom in Hinduism is knowing oneself as the truth, as the basis for the entire Creation: ultimate self-awareness as the one who witnesses the entire creation in all its facets and forms. Further it means realization that an individual may, through right conduct and right living, come to realize their true relationship with the creation and the Paramatma.[citation needed]

Islam edit

The Islamic term for wisdom is hikmah. Prophets of Islam are believed by Muslims to possess great wisdom. The term occurs a number of times in the Quran, notably in Sura 2:269, Sura 22:46, and Sura 6:151.

The Sufi philosopher Ibn Arabi considers al-Hakim ("The Wise") as one of the names of the Creator.[85] Wisdom and truth, considered divine attributes, were valued in Islamic sciences and philosophy. The first Arab philosopher, Al-Kindi says at the beginning of his book:[86]

We must not be ashamed to admire the truth or to acquire it, from wherever it comes. Even if it should come from far-flung nations and foreign peoples, there is for the student of truth nothing more important than the truth, nor is the truth demeaned or diminished by the one who states or conveys it; no one is demeaned by the truth, rather all are ennobled by it.

— Al-Kindi, On First Philosophy

Chinese religion edit

The Buddhist term Prajñā was translated into Chinese as 智慧 (pinyin zhìhuì, characters "knowledge" and "bright, intelligent").

According to the Doctrine of the Mean, Confucius said:

Love of learning is akin to wisdom. To practice with vigor is akin to humanity. To know to be shameful is akin to courage (zhi, ren, yong... three of Mengzi's sprouts of virtue).[citation needed][dubious ]

Compare this with the Confucian classic Great Learning, which begins with: "The Way of learning to be great consists in manifesting the clear character, loving the people, and abiding in the highest good." This is comprable to the Roman virtue prudence, especially if one interprets "clear character" as "clear conscience". (From Chan's Sources of Chinese Philosophy).[citation needed]

In Taoism, wisdom is adherence to the three treasures: charity, simplicity, and humility.[citation needed] "He who knows other men is discerning [智]; he who knows himself is intelligent [明]." (知人者智,自知者明。Tao Te Ching 33).[87]

In Chinese Buddhism, the idea of wisdom is closely linked to its Indian equivalent as it appears for instance in certain conceptual continuities that exist between Asanga, Vasubandhu and Xuanzang.[further explanation needed][88]

Others edit

In Norse mythology, the god Odin is known for his wisdom, often as acquired through various hardships and ordeals involving pain and self-sacrifice. In one instance he plucked out an eye and offered it to Mímir, guardian of the well of knowledge and wisdom, in return for a drink from the well.[89] In another famous account, Odin hanged himself for nine nights from Yggdrasil, the World Tree that unites all the realms of existence, suffering from hunger and thirst and finally wounding himself with a spear until he gained the knowledge of runes for use in casting powerful magic.[90] He was also able to acquire the mead of poetry from the giants, a drink of which could grant the power of a scholar or poet, for the benefit of gods and mortals alike.[89]

In Baháʼí Faith scripture, "The essence of wisdom is the fear of God, the dread of His scourge and punishment, and the apprehension of His justice and decree."[91] Wisdom is seen as a light that casts away darkness, and "its dictates must be observed under all circumstances".[92] One may obtain knowledge and wisdom through God, his Word, and his Divine Manifestation; the source of all learning is the knowledge of God.[93]

Pop culture edit

In the Star Wars universe, wisdom is valued. George Lucas incorporated spirituality and morals, recurrent in mythological and philosophical themes, into the films; one of his inspirations was Joseph Campbell's The Hero of a Thousand Faces.[94] The character Master Yoda from the films evokes the trope of the wise sage or "Oriental Monk",[95] and he is frequently quoted, analogously to Chinese thinkers or Eastern sages in general.[96][97] Psychologist D. W. Kreger's book The Tao of Yoda adapts the wisdom of the Tao Te Ching in relation to Yoda's thinking.[97] Knowledge is canonically considered one of the pillars of the films' Jedi knights, something expanded upon in the non-canon book The Jedi Path,[98] and wisdom can serve as a tenet for Jediism. The Jedi Code states: "Ignorance, yet knowledge."[99] In a psychology populational study published by Grossmann and team in 2019, respondents considered Yoda to be wiser than Spock, a fictional character from the Star Trek series, due to Spock's blind spot for emotion, which was positively associated with wise reasoning in people:[100] "Yoda embraces his emotions and aims to achieve a balance between them. Yoda is known to be emotionally expressive, to share a good joke with others, but also to recognize sorrow and his past mistakes".[101]

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • Liguori, Alphonus (1882). "Sermon V.—Sunday within the Octave of the Nativity: In what true wisdom consists" . Sermons for all the Sundays in the year. Dublin.
  • Sternberg, R. and Gluck, J. (2021). Wisdom: The Psychology of Wise Thoughts, Words, and Deeds (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Tsai, Cheng-hung (2023). Wisdom: A Skill Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Notes edit

  1. ^ Critias states the meaning of "know thyself" in Plato's Charmides (165a)
  2. ^ Note that two thousand years after Aristotle, Isaac Newton was forced to admit that "I have not yet been able to discover the cause of these properties of gravity"

References edit

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  3. ^ a b c d e Staudinger, U.M.; Glück, J. (2011). "Psychological wisdom research: Commonalities and differences in a growing field". Annual Review of Psychology. 62: 215–241. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131659. PMID 20822439.
  4. ^ a b c d Walsh, Roger (June 2015). "What Is wisdom? Cross-cultural and cross-Disciplinary Syntheses". Review of General Psychology. 19 (3): 178–293. doi:10.1037/gpr0000045. S2CID 146383832.
  5. ^ a b c d e Trowbridge, R.H. (May 2011). "Waiting for Sophia: 30 years of Conceptualizing Wisdom in Empirical Psychology". Research in Human Development. 8 (2): 111–117. doi:10.1080/15427609.2011.568872. S2CID 145371442.
  6. ^ Glück, J. (October 2018). "Measuring Wisdom: Existing Approaches, Continuing Challenges, and New Developments". The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 73 (8): 1393–1403. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbx140. PMC 6178965. PMID 29281060.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Brienza, J.P.; Kung, F.Y.H.; Santos, H.; Bobocel, D.R.; Grossmann, I. (2017). "Wisdom, Bias, and Balance: Toward a Process-Sensitive Measurement of Wisdom-Related Cognition". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 115 (6): 1093–1126. doi:10.1037/pspp0000171. PMID 28933874. S2CID 29052539.
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  9. ^ Spurgeon, Charles Haddon (1871), The Fourfold Treasure, №991, Wisdom is, I suppose, the right use of knowledge. To know is not to be wise. Many men know a great deal, and are all the greater fools for it. There is no fool so great a fool as a knowing fool. But to know how to use knowledge is to have wisdom.
  10. ^ a b Meacham, J. A. (1990). "The loss of wisdom". In Sternberg, R. J. (ed.). Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 181, 211.
  11. ^ "METIS—Greek Titan Goddess of Wise Counsel". Theoi Project. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  12. ^ Hesiod. Theogony.
  13. ^ Turnbill, Liz (12 August 2011). "Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom and craftsmanship". Goddess Gift.
  14. ^ "MOUSAI—Greek Goddesses of Music, Poetry & the Arts". Theoi Project. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  15. ^ Plato. Cratylus. 405e-406a.
  16. ^ Scott, Michael. Delphi: A History of the Center of the Ancient World. Princeton University Press.
  17. ^ Preus, Anthony (30 March 1998). "Thoth and Apollo. Greek Myths of the Origin of Philosophy". Méthexis. 11 (1): 113–125. doi:10.1163/24680974-90000303. ISSN 0327-0289.
  18. ^ Griffiths, Alan H. (29 January 2024). "Seven Sages". In Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther (eds.). Oxford Classical Dictionary (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 1357.
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  20. ^ Fine, Gail (2008). "Does Socrates Claim to Know that He Knows Nothing?". Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. 35: 49–88. doi:10.1093/oso/9780199557790.003.0003. ISBN 978-0-19-955779-0.
  21. ^ Ryan, Sharon (2013), "Wisdom", in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2018 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 17 August 2019
  22. ^ "Myths about Roman Goddess Minerva". Roman-colosseum.info. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Karunamuni, N.; Weerasekera, R. (2019). "Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom". Current Psychology. 38 (3): 627–646. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7. S2CID 149024504.
  24. ^ a b c Bodhi, Bhikkhu. "The Noble Eightfold Path". Access to Insight. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
  25. ^ Šimon, František (15 December 2015). "The history of Latin teeth names". Acta medico-historica Adriatica. 13 (2): 365–384. ISSN 1334-4366. PMID 27604204.
  26. ^ "Character education: our shared responsibility". U.S. Department of Education. 31 May 2005.
  27. ^ Maxwell, Nicholas (2007). From Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the Humanities. Pentire Press.
  28. ^ "Friends of Wisdom". University College London. 21 February 2019. an association of people sympathetic to the idea that academic inquiry should help humanity acquire more wisdom by rational means
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