Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment,[1][2][3] which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training.[2][4][5] The term "mindfulness" is a translation of the Pali term sati,[6] which is a significant element of Buddhist traditions.[7][8] In Buddhist teachings, mindfulness is utilized to develop self-knowledge and wisdom that gradually lead to what is described as enlightenment or the complete freedom from suffering.[7] The recent popularity of mindfulness in the West is generally considered to have been initiated by Jon Kabat-Zinn.[9][10]

Large population-based research studies have indicated that the practice of mindfulness is strongly correlated with greater well-being and perceived health.[11][12] Studies have also shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety,[13][3] and that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry.[13][14]

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions.[10] For example, mindfulness practice is being employed to reduce depression symptoms,[15][16][17] to reduce stress,[16][18][19] anxiety,[15][16][19] and in the treatment of drug addiction.[20][21][22] The practice of mindfulness also appears to provide numerous therapeutic benefits to people with psychosis,[23][24] and may also be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental health problems.[25]

Clinical studies have documented both physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children.[3][26][27] Programs based on Kabat-Zinn's and similar models have been widely adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans' centers, and other environments, and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for healthy aging, weight management, athletic performance, for children with special needs, and as an intervention during the perinatal period. The necessity for more high-quality research in this field has also been identified – such as the need for more randomized controlled studies, for providing more methodological details in reported studies and for the use of larger sample sizes.[3][28]

Contents

MeditationEdit

Mindfulness meditation involves the process of developing the skill of bringing one’s attention to whatever is happening in the present moment.[2][7][29] There are several meditation exercises designed to develop mindfulness meditation. One method is to sit on a straight-backed chair or sit cross-legged on the floor or a cushion, close one’s eyes and bring attention to either the sensations of breathing in the proximity of one’s nostrils or to the movements of the abdomen when breathing in and out.[web 1][30][1] In this meditation practice, one does not try to control one’s breathing, but attempts to simply be aware of one’s natural breathing process/rhythm.[2] When engaged in this practice, the mind will often run off to other thoughts and associations, and if this happens, one passively notices that the mind has wandered, and in an accepting, non-judgmental way, returns to focusing on breathing.

Other meditation exercises to develop mindfulness include body-scan meditation where attention is directed at various areas of the body and noting body sensations that happen in the present moment.[2][1] Engaging in yoga practices, while attending to movements and body sensations, as well as walking meditation are other methods of developing mindfulness.[2][1] One could also focus on sounds, sensations, thoughts, feelings and actions that happen in the present.[2][29] In this regard, a famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin,[31] in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.[32][note 1]

Meditators are recommended to start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.[2][33]

Translations and definitionsEdit

BuddhismEdit

Mindfulness meditation can be defined in many ways and can be used for a variety of different purposes. When defining mindfulness meditation, it is useful to draw upon Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.[7][34][35]

Sati and smṛtiEdit

The Buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. According to Robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion.[36] Smṛti originally meant "to remember," "to recollect," "to bear in mind," as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means "to remember." In the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen.[36] Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishings of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eight-factored path, and the attainment of insight.[37] According to Rupert Gethin,

[sati] should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of dhammas; sati is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the satipaṭṭhānas, presumably what this means is that sati is what causes the practitioner of yoga to "remember" that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults or faultless, relatively inferior or refined, dark or pure."[38][note 2]

Sharf further notes that this has little to do with "bare attention," the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, "since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise."[38]

TranslationEdit

The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids (1843–1922) first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati "Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind".[39] Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as "Correct meditation",[40] Davids explained:

sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' (sato sampajâno); and means that activity of mind and constant presence of mind which is one of the duties most frequently inculcated on the good Buddhist."[41]

Alternate translationsEdit

John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative.[42] Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory".[43][note 3] The terms sati/smriti have been translated as:

  • Attention (Jack Kornfield)
  • Awareness
  • Concentrated attention (Mahasi Sayadaw)
  • Inspection (Herbert Guenther)
  • Mindful attention
  • Mindfulness
  • Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin)
  • Recollection (Erik Pema Kunsang, Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
  • Reflective awareness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu)
  • Remindfulness (James H. Austin)[44]
  • Retention
  • Self-recollection (Jack Kornfield)

PsychologyEdit

A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional overengagement on the other hand.[45] Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop self-knowledge and wisdom.[7]

Trait, state and practiceEdit

According to Brown, Ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques.[46] A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.[47]

According to David S. Black, whereas "mindfulness" originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and "a capacity attainable only by certain people",[48] scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness.[49][note 4] Black mentions three possible domains:[49]

  1. A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait),[49] a person's tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;[50]
  2. A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training),[49] being in a state of present-moment awareness;[50]
  3. A practice (mindfulness meditation practice itself).[note 5]
Trait-like constructsEdit

According to Brown, mindfulness is

A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced."[46]

Several mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:[55]

  • Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
  • Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI)
  • Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
  • Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS)
  • Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ)
  • Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS-R)
  • Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS)
State-like phenomenonEdit

According to Bishop, et alia, mindfulness is, "A kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is."[56]

  • The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS) measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.[55]
  • The State Mindfulness Scale (SMS) is a 21-item survey with an overall state mindfulness scale, and 2 sub-scales (state mindfulness of mind, and state mindfulness of body).[57]

Mindfulness-practiceEdit

Mindfulness as a practice is described as:

  • "Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices"[58]
  • "Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally"[1]
  • "Bringing one’s complete attention to the present experience on a moment-to-moment basis"[1]

According to Steven F. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises.[59] Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment.[59] Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life.[59] Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in dialectical behavior therapy and in acceptance and commitment therapy. [59]

The RAIN ApproachEdit

Ameli described mindfulness practice through RAIN approach:[60]

  • "Recognize the thought or emotion and give full attention to it."
  • "Accept the thought or emotion in its fullness."
  • "Investigate the thought or emotion with curiosity and pay attention to its qualities (whether it is busy, clear, confused, mild, intense,associated imagery and somatic sensations, shifts in the thoughts and emotions, etc.)"
  • "Nonidentify with the thought or emotion, being compassionate with the thoughts and emotions without getting lost in the story they tell."

Two-component modelEdit

In a paper that described a consensus among clinical psychologists on an operational and testable definition, Bishop, Lau, et al. (2004)[56] proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:

The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance.[56]:232

In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) "involves bringing awareness to current experience - observing and attending to the changing fields of "objects" (thoughts, feelings, sensations), from moment to moment - by regulating the focus of attention". Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (i.e. relaxation), but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.[56]:233

The five-aggregate modelEdit

An ancient model of the mind, generally known as the five-aggregate model[34] enables one to understand the moment-to-moment manifestation of subjective conscious experience, and therefore can be a potentially useful theoretical resource to guide mindfulness interventions.

The five aggregates are described as follows:

  1. Material form: includes both the physical body and external matter where material elements are continuously moving to and from the material body.
  2. Feelings: can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral.
  3. Perceptions: represent being aware of attributes of an object (e.g. color, shape, etc.)
  4. Volition: represents bodily, verbal, or psychological behavior.
  5. Sensory consciousness: refers to input from the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touch sensations) or a thought that happen to arise in the mind.

This model describes that sensory consciousness result in the generation of feelings, perception or volition, and that individuals’ previously conditioned attitudes and past associations influence this generation. The five aggregates are described as constantly arising and ceasing in the present moment.[34]

Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdomEdit

The practice of mindfulness can be utilized to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom.[7] In this regard, Buddhist teachings provide detailed instructions on how one can carry out an inquiry into the nature of the mind, and this guidance can help one to make sense of one’s subjective experience. This could include understanding what the “present moment” is, how various thoughts, etc., arise following input from the senses, the conditioned nature of thoughts, and other realizations.[7] In Buddhist teachings, ultimate wisdom refers to gaining deep insight into all phenomena or “seeing things as they are.”[61][7]

Other usagesEdit

The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 (John Palsgrave translates French pensée), as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340), mindfully (1382), and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 1200).[62]

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to "a state of being aware".[web 2] Synonyms for this "state of being aware" are wakefulness,[63][64] attention,[web 3] alertness,[web 4] prudence,[web 4] conscientiousness,[web 4] awareness,[web 2] consciousness,[web 2] observation.[web 2]

Historical developmentEdit

BuddhismEdit

Mindfulness as a modern, Western practice is founded on modern[note 6] vipassana, and the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events", but also "remembering to be aware of something".[67] It leads to insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self.[7] With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a "stream-enterer", the first stage on the path to liberation.[68][61] Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions.[69]

According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths."[70][note 7] According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.[71]

According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is "perhaps the most important" after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. T.W. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.[72]

TranscendentalismEdit

Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:[73]

The collective experience[note 8] of sages, yogis, and Zen masters offers a view of the world which is complementary to the predominantly reductionist and materialistic one currently dominating Western thought and institutions. But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences.[73]

The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church,[74][web 5] which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833) and his Brahmo Samaj.[74] He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity,[74] and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians.[75] This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west.[76] Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention,[77] which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society.[65] It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society.[65][78] Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.[65][65]

Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSREdit

In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill.[79] This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine[80]:230–1 for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. One of MBSR's techniques - the "body scan" - was derived from a meditation practice ("sweeping") of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.[note 9][note 10]

Popularization, "mindfulness movement"Edit

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.[33] Mindfulness may be seen as a mode of being,[81] and can be practiced outside a formal setting.[82] The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness "popularization," and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some criticisms arising.[83]

BuddhismEdit

Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.

Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a 'power' (Pali: bala) which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion (Pali: moha) have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.

Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassanaEdit

Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. "Sati" means mindfulness; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.[note 11]

Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā).[69]

Vipassanā is insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence: the impermanence the unsatisfactoriness and the non-self nature of every conditioned thing that exists.[69] With this insight, the practitioner becomes a so-called Sotāpanna, a "stream-enterer", the first stage on the path to liberation.[68][61][note 12]

In the Theravadin context, Vipassanā is commonly used as one of two poles for the categorization of types of Buddhist practice, the other being samatha (Pāli; Sanskrit: śamatha).[85] According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.

Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices,[86] which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta.

Samprajaña, apramāda and atappaEdit

In Buddhist practice, "mindfulness" also includes samprajaña, meaning "clear comprehension" and apramāda meaning "vigilance".[87][note 13] All three terms are sometimes (confusingly) translated as "mindfulness", but they all have specific shades of meaning.

In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera's views on "right mindfulness" and sampajañña as follows:

He held that in the proper practice of right mindfulness, sati has to be integrated with sampajañña, clear comprehension, and it is only when these two work together that right mindfulness can fulfill its intended purpose.[88][note 14]

Emptiness MeditationEdit

Nagarjuna (c. 150 – c. 250 CE) advanced mindfulness as one of the six powers in achieving calm abiding Samatha, in the Prasangika Madhyamika approach. It's developed when stabilizing with the nine mind states within emptiness meditation. Mindfulness is associated with the 3rd state, re-setting and the 4th state, close setting; as the nine states are brought together. Meditation stability to re-tie the mind to the meditation object continuum upon distraction recognition is the 3rd state, re-setting, which enables analytical meditation. Withdrawing from the mind's object vast array is re-setting mindfulness power to tie the mind closer to the observation object and close setting. [89]

Mindfulness has three features to function as non-forgetfulness when causing non-distraction; they are, 1) objective, a familiar object 2) subjective, non-forgetfulness and 3) functional, causing non-distraction (e.g. stability). Mindfulness powers are important meditation stabilization achievements attained in sutra and tantra practice. Ground and path's all auspicious qualities increase mindfulness and introspection dependence. [90]

"Bare attention"Edit

Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as "bare attention" or "nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness", stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also "remembering", which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.[91][note 15] Robert H. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention".[web 6][note 16] Jay Garfield, quoting Shantideva and other sources, stresses that mindfulness is constituted by the union of two functions, calling to mind and vigilantly retaining in mind. He demonstrates that there is a direct connection between the practice of mindfulness and the cultivation of morality – at least in the context of Buddhism from which modern interpretations of mindfulness are stemming.[92]

Therapy programsEdit

Mindfulness-based stress reductionEdit

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a mindfulness-based program[93] developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful.[2] While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.[2]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapyEdit

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder (MDD).[94] It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression.[95] Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.[96]

Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode.[97] The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.[97] This mindfulness practice allows the participant to notice when automatic processes are occurring and to alter their reaction to be more of a reflection. Research supports the effects of MBCT in people who have been depressed three or more times and demonstrates reduced relapse rates by 50%.[98]

Acceptance and commitment therapyEdit

Acceptance and commitment therapy or (ACT) (typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of clinical behavior analysis (CBA)[99] used in psychotherapy. It is a psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways[100] with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing.[101] It was developed in the late 1980s[102] by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.[103]

Dialectical behavior therapyEdit

Mindfulness is a "core" exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan,[104] in the sense of "the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis." As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:

This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditations.[105]

Mode deactivation therapyEdit

Mode deactivation therapy (MDT) is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques.[106] Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.[107]

Other programsEdit

Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), anxiety and depression (Hofmann et al. 2010), substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.

Morita therapy

The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as "awareness", has been an essential part of its theory and practice.[108]

Adaptation Practice

The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.[citation needed]

Hakomi therapy

Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.[109]

IFS

Internal Family Systems Model (IFS), developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s "spiritual center". The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.[citation needed]

Mindfulness relaxation

Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.[citation needed]

Scientific researchEdit

Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention ever since 1970.[10] According to a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, evidence supports the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders.[26] Other reviews report similar findings.[18][21][110] Further, studies have also shown potential benefits of the practice of mindfulness for a wide array of conditions and outcomes. For example, the practice of mindfulness has been used as a potential tool for weight management,[111][112] to achieve optimal athletic performance,[113] as a beneficial intervention for children with special needs and their parents,[114][115][116] as a viable treatment option for people with insomnia [117][118] an effective intervention for healthy aging,[119][120][121] as a strategy for managing dermatological conditions[122] and as a useful intervention during pregnancy and the perinatal period.[123][124][125] Recent studies have also demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates physical pain through multiple, unique mechanisms.[126]

Research studies have also focused on the effects of mindfulness on the brain using neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests.[3][127][110] Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation.[128] When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity.[129][130] Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures."[131][132] Further, mindfulness meditation may prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.[133] Additionally, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain.[132][134] It has also been suggested that the default mode network of the brain can be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic benefits of meditation.[135] Recent research also suggest that the practice of mindfulness could influence genetic expression leading to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases and favourable changes in biomarkers.[136][137]

Mindfulness-based approaches have been tested for a range of health problems including anxiety disorder, mood disorder, substance abuse disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, ADHD, insomnia, coping with medical conditions, with many populations including children, adolescents, parents, teachers, therapists, and physicians.[citation needed] As a major subject of increasing research interest, 52 papers were published in 2003, rising to 477 by 2012.[33] Nearly 100 randomized controlled trials had been published by early 2014.[138]

Grey matter concentrations in brain regions that regulate emotion, self-referential processing, learning and memory processes have shown changes in density following MBSR.[citation needed] Additionally, MBSR practice has been associated with improvement of the immune system which could explain the correlation between stress reduction and increased quality of life.[citation needed] Part of these changes are a result of the thickening of the prefrontal cortex (executive functioning) and hippocampus (learning and memorisation ability), the shrinking of the amygdala (emotion and stress response) and the strengthening of the connections between brain cells.[139][140][141] Long-term meditators have larger amounts of gyrification (“folding” of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Further, a direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain’s neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes.[139]

Mindfulness meditation might help treat depression in mothers-to-be. High-risk pregnant women who participated in a ten-week mindfulness yoga training saw significant reductions in depressive symptoms. The mothers-to-be also showed more intense bonding to their babies in the womb.[142]

More research suggests mindfulness training improves your focus, attention, and ability to work under stress. Training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing functioning of specific subcomponents of attention and the ability to endogenously orient attention, the development and emergence of receptive attentional skills, which improved exogenous alerting-related process.[143][144][145]

A 2013 statement from the American Heart Association said that, when it comes to lowering blood pressure, that behavioral therapies, transcendental meditation, other meditation techniques, yoga, other relaxation therapies, and biofeedback approaches generally had modest, mixed, or no consistent evidence demonstrating their efficacy. Exercise-based regimens, such as aerobics, had relatively stronger supporting evidence.[146] This is still a much debated topic however, as opponents argue that mindfulness based therapy, through mechanisms like lowering stress responses and enhancing perceived calmness, may lower blood pressure.[147][148]

Nevertheless, MBSR can have a beneficial effect helping with the depression and psychological distress associated with chronic illness.[149] Meditation also may allow you to modulate pain stronger. When participants in research were exposed to pain from heating, the brainsscans of the mindfulness meditation group (by use of functional magnetic resonance imaging) showed their brains notice the pain equally, however it does not get converted to a perceived pain signal. As such they experienced up to 40-50% less pain.[150][151]

Preliminary evidence suggests efficacy of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of substance use disorders; however, further study is required.[152] MBSR might be beneficial for people with fibromyalgia: there is no evidence of long-term benefit but low-quality evidence of a small short-term benefit.[153]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has suggested to have positive results for the improvement of attention regulation, intelligence-related measures, creativity, learning ability, cognitive style, motor skills and perceptional abilities.[154][155][156][157][158][159]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) also suggests to enact comparable neurophysiological effects related to attention and self-regulation as pharmacological treatments for ADHD.[160]

In 2010 a meta-analysis was conducted by Hoffman and colleagues exploring the efficacy of MBSR and similarly structured programs for adults with symptoms of anxiety and depression.[citation needed] The meta-analysis showed that between pre and post testing there was significant medium within-group effect sizes observed on anxiety and depression and also small to medium between-group effect sizes when comparing wait-list, treatment as usual, and active treatment (MBSR), further supporting the literature that states mindfulness-based therapies can be beneficial in treating symptoms of depression and anxiety.[citation needed] A broader meta-analysis conducted in 2004 by Grossman and colleagues found similar effect sizes when testing the physical and mental health outcomes following MBSR treatment.[citation needed]

Many of the above cited review studies however also indicate the necessity for more high-quality research in this field such as conducting intervention studies using larger sample sizes, the use of more randomized controlled studies and the need for providing more methodological details in reported studies.[3][28] There are also a few review studies that have found little difference between mindfulness interventions and control groups, though they did also indicate that their intervention group was treated too shortly for the research to be conclusive.[161][162] These studies also list the need for more robust research investigations. Several issues pertaining to the assessment of mindfulness have also been identified including the current use of self-report questionnaires.[163][3][28]

MovementEdit

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.[33] In this context mindfulness is defined as moment-by-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and surrounding environment, characterized mainly by "acceptance" - attention to thoughts and feelings without judging whether they are right or wrong. Mindfulness focuses the human brain on what is being sensed at each moment, instead of on its normal rumination on the past or on the future.[164]

The mindfulness movement[30] has entered the mainstream, mainly through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn[33] and his Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, launched at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1979. Since that time, clinical studies have documented the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in general, and MBSR in particular. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.[165]

According to Jon Kabat-Zinn the practice of mindfulness may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary.[166] Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins.[167]

Mindfulness has come to be seen as a mode of being,[81] rather than a formal meditation practice, which can be practiced and maintained outside a formal setting.[82]

SchoolsEdit

In 2012 Congressman Tim Ryan of Ohio published A Mindful Nation, and has received a $1 million federal grant to teach mindfulness in schools in his home district.[33]

Mindful Kids Miami, Inc. (MKM) is a tax-exempt, 501 (c)(3), non-profit corporation established in 2011 and dedicated to making age-appropriate mindfulness training available to school children in Miami-Dade County public and private schools. This is primarily accomplished by training educators and other child care providers to incorporate mindfulness practices in the children’s daily activities.

In 2000, The Inner Kids Program, a mindfulness-based program developed for children, was introduced into public and private school curricula in the greater Los Angeles area.[168]

MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn's Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.[169]

The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school's faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.

Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 501(c)3 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.

EducationEdit

Mindfulness practices are becoming more common within educational institutions including Elementary and Secondary schools. This has been referred to as part of a 'contemplative turn' in education that has emerged since the turn of the millennium.[170] The applications of mindfulness in schools are aimed at calming and relaxation of students as well as for students and educators to build compassion and empathy for others.[171] An additional benefit to Mindfulness in education is for the practice to reduce anxiety and stress in students.[172] Based on a broad meta-analytical review, scholars argued that the application of mindfulness practice enhances the goals of education in the 21st century, which include adapting to a rapidly changing world and being a caring and committed citizen. Within educational systems, the application of mindfulness practices shows an improvement of students' attention and focus, emotional regulation, creativity, and problem solving skills.[173] As discussed by Ergas and Todd, the development of this field since the turn of the millennium has brought diverse possibilities as well as complexities, given the origins of mindfulness within Buddhism and the processes of its secularization and measurement based on science.[165]

Renshaw and Cook state, “As scientific interest in the utility of Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) in schools grew steadily, popular interest in mindfulness in schools seemed to grow exponentially”.[174] Despite research on mindfulness being comparatively unexamined, especially with young students, the practice has seen a spike in use within the educational arena. “A relatively recent addition to discourse around preventing school expulsion and failure, mindfulness is gaining popularity for its potential to improve students’ social, emotional, behavioral, and learning-related cognitive control, thereby improving academic outcomes”.[175] Researchers and educators are interested in how mindfulness can provide optimal conditions for a students’ personal development and academic success. Current research on mindfulness in education is limited but can provide insight to the potential benefits for students, and areas of improvement for future studies.[citation needed]

Mindfulness in the classroom is being touted as a promising new intervention tool for young students. According to Choudhury and Moses, “Although still marginal and in some cases controversial, secular programs of mindfulness have been implemented with ambitious goals of improving attentional focus of pupils, social-emotional learning in “at-risk” children and youth, not least, to intervene in problems of poverty and incarceration”.[176] Emerging research is concerned with studying teachers and programs using mindfulness practices with students, and is discovering tension arising from the moral reframing of eastern practices in western school settings. As cited by Renshaw and Cook, “Unlike most other approaches to contemporary school-based intervention, which are squarely grounded in behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and ecological systems theories, MBIs have their origins in Eastern religious traditions”.[174] Some school administrators are concerned about implementing such practices, and parents have been reported to take their children out of mindfulness programs because of their personal religious beliefs. Yet, MBI’s continue to be accepted by the mainstream in both primary and secondary schools because, “Mindfulness practices, particularly in relationship to children who might otherwise be considered broken or unredeemable, fill a critical niche – one that allows its advocates to imagine a world where people can change, become more compassionate, resilient, reflective, and aware; a world with a viable future”.[176] As mindfulness in education continues to develop, ethical consequences will remain a controversial issue because the generic description for the “benefits” and “results” of MBI’s are largely concerned with individual and inward-focused achievement, rather than the original Buddhist ideal of global human connection.

Available research reveals a relationship between mindfulness and attention. Semple, Lee, Rosa, & Miller argue, “Anxiety can impair attention and promote emotionally reactive behaviors that interfere with the development of good study skills, so it seems reasonable that increased mindfulness would be associated with less anxiety”.[177] They conducted a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) that found promise in managing anxiety for elementary school-aged children, and suggests that those who completed the program displayed fewer attention problems. In addition, Flook shows how an eight-week mindfulness awareness program was evaluated in a random and controlled school setting, and measured the effects of awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Their findings concluded, “Participation in the mindfulness awareness program was associated with improvements in behavioral regulation, metacognition, and overall executive functions”.[178] In the study by Flook parents and teachers completed questionnaires which propose that participation in mindfulness programs is associated with improvements in child behavioral regulation. These perspectives are a valuable source of data given that caregivers and educators interact with the children daily and across a variety of settings. According to Eklund, Omalley, and Meyer, “School-based practitioners should find promise in the evidence supporting mindfulness-based practices with children, parents, and educators”.[175] Lastly, a third study by Zenner, Herrnleben-Kurz, and Walach concluded, “Analysis suggest that mindfulness-based interventions for children and youths are able to increase cognitive capacity of attending and learning by nearly one standard deviation and yield”.[173] Application of Mindfulness-Based Interventions continue to increase in popularity and practice.[citation needed]

Mindfulness-Based Interventions are rising across western culture, but its effectiveness in school programs is still being determined. Research contends, “Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness among young people”.[179] Although much of the available studies find a high number of mindfulness acceptability among students and teachers, more research needs to be conducted on its effects on well-being and mental-health for students. A firmly controlled experiment, Johnson, Burke, Brinkman, and Wade evaluated “the impact of an existing and widely available school-based mindfulness program, no improvements were demonstrated on any outcome measured either immediately post intervention or at three-month follow-up”.[180] Many questions remain on which practices best implement effective and reliable mindfulness programs at schools, and further research is needed to identify the optimal methods and measurement tools for mindfulness in education.[citation needed]

BusinessEdit

Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture.[181][182][183] For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning.[181][184] Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment.[184] Since high levels of mindfulness correlate with ethical decision-making and increase personal awareness and emotional regulation, mindfulness training has been suggested as way to promote ethical intentions and behavior for business students.[185]

LawEdit

Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:[186]

  • Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on "Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution."[187]
  • Many law firms offer mindfulness classes.[183]

Prison-programsEdit

Mindfulness has been taught in prisons, reducing hostility and mood disturbance among inmates, and improving their self-esteem.[188] Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.[189][190]

GovernmentEdit

Many government organizations offer mindfulness training.[191] Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.[web 7]

CriticismEdit

Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.[56][192] These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions.[192]:62[193] Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities.[83]

The popularization of mindfulness as a "commodity"[194] has been criticized, being termed "McMindfulness" by some critics.[web 8][web 9][195] According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:[194] "McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover."[194][196][197]

According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the "unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,"[web 8] but reshaped into a "banal, therapeutic, self-help technique" that has the opposite effect of reinforcing those passions.[web 8] While mindfulness is marketed as a means to reduce stress, in a Buddhist context it is part of an all-embracing ethical program to foster "wise action, social harmony, and compassion."[web 8] The privatization of mindfulness neglects the societal and organizational causes of stress and discomfort, instead propagating adaptation to these circumstances.[web 8] According to Bhikkhu Bodhi, "[A]bsent a sharp social critique, Buddhist practices could easily be used to justify and stabilize the status quo, becoming a reinforcement of consumer capitalism."[web 8] The popularity of this new brand of mindfulness has resulted in the commercialization of meditation through self-help books, guided meditation classes, and mindfulness retreats.

Buddhist commentators have criticized the movement as being presented as equivalent to Buddhist practice, while in reality it is very possibly denatured with undesirable consequences, such as being ungrounded in the traditional reflective morality and therefore, astray from traditional Buddhist ethics. Criticisms suggest it to be either de-moralized or re-moralized into clinically based ethics. The conflict is often presented in concern to the teacher's credentials and qualifications, rather than the student's actual practice. Reformed Buddhist-influenced practices are being standardized and manualized in a clearly distinct separation from Buddhism seen as a religion based in monastic temples, as expressed as mindfulness in a new psychology ethic practiced in modern meditation centers.[198]

RisksEdit

In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety panic or "meltdowns" after practicing, which they suggest could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms.[199] However, according to published peer-reviewed academic articles, these negative effects of meditation are rare for mindfulness meditation,[3][200][201] and appear to happen due to a poor understanding of what actually constitutes mindfulness/meditation practices.[7][200]

Related conceptsEdit

Choiceless awarenessEdit

Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in the mid-20th century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti's approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.[citation needed]

Nonviolent communicationEdit

Nonviolent communication (abbreviated NVC, also called compassionate communication or collaborative communication[202][203]) is a communication process developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s.[204] NVC often functions as a conflict resolution process. It focuses on three aspects of communication: self-empathy (defined as a deep and compassionate awareness of one's own inner experience), empathy (defined as listening to another with deep compassion), and honest self-expression (defined as expressing oneself authentically in a way that is likely to inspire compassion in others).[citation needed]

NVC is based on the idea that all human beings have the capacity for compassion and only resort to violence or behavior that harms others when they don't recognize more effective strategies for meeting needs.[205] Habits of thinking and speaking that lead to the use of violence (psychological and physical) are learned through culture. NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that if people can identify their needs, the needs of others, and the feelings that surround these needs, harmony can be achieved.[206]

While NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others, it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, an educational method and a worldview.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ See also Eating One Raisin: A First Taste of Mindfulness for a hand-out file
  2. ^ Quotes from Gethin, Rupert M.L. (1992), The Buddhist Path to Awakening: A Study of the Bodhi-Pakkhiȳa Dhammā. BRILL's Indological Library, 7. Leiden and New York: BRILL
  3. ^ "The word derives from a verb, sarati, meaning “to remember,” and occasionally in Pali sati is still explained in a way that connects it with the idea of memory. But when it is used in relation to meditation practice, we have no word in English that precisely captures what it refers to. An early translator cleverly drew upon the word mindfulness, which is not even in my dictionary. This has served its role admirably, but it does not preserve the connection with memory, sometimes needed to make sense of a passage.[43]
  4. ^ Black: "[S]everal decades of research methodology and scientific discovery have defrayed these myths; mindfulness is now widely considered to be an inherent quality of human consciousness. That is, a capacity of attention and awareness oriented to the present moment that varies in degree within and between individuals, and can be assessed empirically and independent of religious, spiritual, or cultural beliefs.[48]
  5. ^ "Mindfulness meditation" may refer to either the secular, western practice of mindfulness,[51] or to modern Buddhist Vipassana-meditation.[52][53][54]
  6. ^ Vipassana as taught by teachers from the Vipassana movement is a 19th century development, inspired by and reacting against Western modernism.[65][66] See also Buddhist modernism.
  7. ^ Frauwallner, E. (1973), History of Indian Philosophy, trans. V.M. Bedekar, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Two volumes., pp.150 ff
  8. ^ The resort to "experience" as the ground for religious truths is a strategy which goes back to Schleiermacher, as a defense against the growing influence of western rationality on the religious life of Europeans in the 19th century. See Sharf (1995), Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience.[66]
  9. ^ "Historically a Buddhist practice, mindfulness can be considered a universal human capacity proposed to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of meditation requires no particular religious or cultural belief system." - Mindfulness in Medicine by Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn, available at jama.ama-assn.org
  10. ^ "Kabat-Zinn (2000) suggests that mindfulness practice may be beneficial to many people in Western society who might be unwilling to adopt Buddhist traditions or vocabulary. Thus, Western researchers and clinicians who have introduced mindfulness practice into mental health treatment programs usually teach these skills independently of the religious and cultural traditions of their origins (Kabat-Zinn, 1982;Linehan, 1993b)." - Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer
  11. ^ Majjhima Nikaya (MN), sutta number 118. See Thanissaro, 2006. Other discourses which describe the full four tetrads can be found in the Samyutta Nikaya's Anapana-samyutta (Ch. 54), such as SN 54.6 (Thanissaro, 2006a), SN 54.8 (Thanissaro, 2006b) and SN 54.13 (Thanissaro, 1995a). The one-tetrad exposition of anapanasati is found, for instance, in the Kayagata-sati Sutta (MN 119; Thanissaro, 1997), the Maha-satipatthana Sutta (DN 22; Thanissaro, 2000) and the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10; Thanissaro, 1995b).
  12. ^ In Mahayana contexts, it entails insight into what is variously described as sunyata, dharmata, the inseparability of appearance and emptiness (two truths doctrine), clarity and emptiness, or bliss and emptiness.[84]
  13. ^ [I]n Buddhist discourse, there are three terms that together map the field of mindfulness [...] [in their Sanskrit variants] smṛti (Pali: sati), samprajaña (Pali: Sampajañña) and apramāda (Pali: appamada).[87]
  14. ^ According to this correspondence, Ven. Nyanaponika spend his last ten years living with and being cared for by Bodhi. Bodhi refers to Nyanaponika as "my closest kalyāṇamitta in my life as a monk."
  15. ^ Dreyfus concludes his examination by stating: "[T]he identification of mindfulness with bare attention ignores or, at least, underestimates the cognitive implications of mindfulness, its ability to bring together various aspects of experience so as to lead to the clear comprehension of the nature of mental and bodily states. By over-emphasizing the nonjudgmental nature of mindfulness and arguing that our problems stem from conceptuality, contemporary authors are in danger of leading to a one-sided understanding of mindfulness as a form of therapeutically helpful spacious quietness. I think that it is important not to lose sight that mindfulness is not just a therapeutic technique but is a natural capacity that plays a central role in the cognitive process. It is this aspect that seems to be ignored when mindfulness is reduced to a form of nonjudgmental present-centered form of awareness of one’s experiences.[91]
  16. ^ Sharf: "Mahasi’s technique did not require familiarity with Buddhist doctrine (notably abhidhamma), did not require adherence to strict ethical norms (notably monasticism), and promised astonishingly quick results. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" — the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning. This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude."[web 6]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review, by Ruth A. Baer, available at http://www.wisebrain.org/papers/MindfulnessPsyTx.pdf
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kabat-Zinn, J (2013). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. New York: Bantam Dell. ISBN 978-0-345-53972-4. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Creswell J.D. (2017). "Mindfulness Interventions". Annual Review of Psychology. 68. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-042716-051139. 
  4. ^ Lutz, Antoine; Davidson, Richard J; Slagter, Heleen A (2011). "Mental Training as a Tool in the Neuroscientific Study of Brain and Cognitive Plasticity". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 5. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2011.00017. 
  5. ^ Pagnini, Francesco; Philips, Deborah (2015). "Being mindful about mindfulness". The Lancet Psychiatry. 2 (4): 288–9. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00041-3. PMID 26360065. 
  6. ^ "Sati". The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Karunamuni, Nandini; Weerasekera, Rasanjala (2017). "Theoretical Foundations to Guide Mindfulness Meditation: A Path to Wisdom". Current Psychology. doi:10.1007/s12144-017-9631-7. 
  8. ^ Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D; Singh, Nirbhay N (2014). "There is Only One Mindfulness: Why Science and Buddhism Need to Work Together". Mindfulness. 6: 49–56. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0379-y. 
  9. ^ In the Dukkha magnet zone: An interview with Jon Kabat-Zinn, by Barbara Grahm. Tricycle. http://tricycle.org/magazine/dukkha-magnet-zone/
  10. ^ a b c Harrington, Anne; Dunne, John D (2015). "When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives". American Psychologist. 70 (7): 621–31. doi:10.1037/a0039460. PMID 26436312. 
  11. ^ Bränström, Richard; Duncan, Larissa G; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie (2011). "The association between dispositional mindfulness, psychological well-being, and perceived health in a Swedish population-based sample". British Journal of Health Psychology. 16 (2): 300–16. doi:10.1348/135910710X501683. PMC 3762484 . PMID 21489058. 
  12. ^ Baer, Ruth A; Smith, Gregory T; Lykins, Emily; Button, Daniel; Krietemeyer, Jennifer; Sauer, Shannon; Walsh, Erin; Duggan, Danielle; Williams, J. Mark G (2008). "Construct Validity of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire in Meditating and Nonmeditating Samples". Assessment. 15 (3): 329–42. doi:10.1177/1073191107313003. PMID 18310597. 
  13. ^ a b Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark (2013). "Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: A systematic review". Clinical Psychology Review. 33 (8): 996–1009. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004. PMID 24036088. 
  14. ^ Gu, Jenny; Strauss, Clara; Bond, Rod; Cavanagh, Kate (2015). "How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 37: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006. PMID 25689576. 
  15. ^ a b Strauss, Clara; Cavanagh, Kate; Oliver, Annie; Pettman, Danelle (2014). "Mindfulness-Based Interventions for People Diagnosed with a Current Episode of an Anxiety or Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials". PLoS ONE. 9 (4): e96110. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...996110S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096110. PMC 3999148 . PMID 24763812. 
  16. ^ a b c Khoury, Bassam; Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E; Fournier, Claude (2015). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction for healthy individuals: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 78 (6): 519–28. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.03.009. PMID 25818837. 
  17. ^ Jain, Felipe A; Walsh, Roger N; Eisendrath, Stuart J; Christensen, Scott; Rael Cahn, B (2015). "Critical Analysis of the Efficacy of Meditation Therapies for Acute and Subacute Phase Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Systematic Review". Psychosomatics. 56 (2): 140–52. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2014.10.007. PMC 4383597 . PMID 25591492. 
  18. ^ a b Sharma, Manoj; Rush, Sarah E (2014). "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as a Stress Management Intervention for Healthy Individuals". Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 19 (4): 271–86. doi:10.1177/2156587214543143. PMID 25053754. 
  19. ^ a b Hofmann, Stefan G; Sawyer, Alice T; Witt, Ashley A; Oh, Diana (2010). "The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (2): 169–83. doi:10.1037/a0018555. PMC 2848393 . PMID 20350028. 
  20. ^ Chiesa, Alberto; Serretti, Alessandro (2013). "Are Mindfulness-Based Interventions Effective for Substance Use Disorders? A Systematic Review of the Evidence". Substance Use & Misuse. 49 (5): 492–512. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.770027. PMID 23461667. 
  21. ^ a b Garland, Eric L; Froeliger, Brett; Howard, Matthew O (2014). "Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 4: 173. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00173. PMC 3887509 . PMID 24454293. 
  22. ^ Black, David S (2014). "Mindfulness-Based Interventions: An Antidote to Suffering in the Context of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction". Substance Use & Misuse. 49 (5): 487–91. doi:10.3109/10826084.2014.860749. PMID 24611846. 
  23. ^ Aust, J; Bradshaw, T (2017). "Mindfulness interventions for psychosis: A systematic review of the literature". Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 24 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1111/jpm.12357. PMID 27928859. 
  24. ^ Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav (2017). "Mindfulness- and Acceptance-based Interventions for Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Global Advances in Health and Medicine. 5 (1): 30–43. doi:10.7453/gahmj.2015.083. PMC 4756771 . PMID 26937312. 
  25. ^ Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D (2015). "A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy". Translational Behavioral Medicine. 6 (1): 63–72. doi:10.1007/s13142-015-0360-x. PMC 4807201 . PMID 27012254. 
  26. ^ a b Gotink, Rinske A; Chu, Paula; Busschbach, Jan J. V; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L; Hunink, M. G. Myriam (2015). "Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0124344. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1024344G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124344. PMC 4400080 . PMID 25881019. 
  27. ^ Paulus, Martin P (2016). "Neural Basis of Mindfulness Interventions that Moderate the Impact of Stress on the Brain". Neuropsychopharmacology. 41 (1): 373. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.239. PMC 4677133 . PMID 26657952. 
  28. ^ a b c Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J; Robins, Clive J (2011). "Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1041–56. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.04.006. PMC 3679190 . PMID 21802619. 
  29. ^ a b Gunaratana, Bhante (2011). Mindfulness in plain English (PDF). Boston: Wisdom Publications. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  30. ^ a b Wilson 2014.
  31. ^ Ihnen & Flynn 2008, p. 148.
  32. ^ Teasdale & Segal 2007, p. 55-56.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Pickert, K (2014). "The art of being mindful. Finding peace in a stressed-out, digitally dependent culture may just be a matter of thinking differently". Time. 183 (4): 40–6. PMID 24640415. 
  34. ^ a b c Karunamuni, N. D (2015). "The Five-Aggregate Model of the Mind". SAGE Open. 5 (2). doi:10.1177/2158244015583860. 
  35. ^ Brown, Kirk Warren; Ryan, Richard M; Creswell, J. David (2007). "Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects". Psychological Inquiry. 18 (4): 211–37. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298. 
  36. ^ a b Sharf 2014, p. 942.
  37. ^ Sharf 2014, p. 942-943.
  38. ^ a b Sharf 2014, p. 943.
  39. ^ Davids, T W Rhys (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 107. OCLC 13247398. 
  40. ^ Gogerly, D. J. (1845). "On Buddhism". Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1: 7–28. 
  41. ^ Davids, T W Rhys (1881). Buddhist Suttas. Clarendon Press. p. 145. OCLC 13247398. 
  42. ^ "Lecture, Stanford University Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education". The Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-11-20. 
  43. ^ a b TRANSLATOR FOR THE BUDDHA: AN INTERVIEW WITH BHIKKHU BODHI
  44. ^ James H. Austin (2014), Zen-Brain Horizons: Toward a Living Zen, MIT Press, p.83
  45. ^ Hayes, A. M (2004). "Clarifying the Construct of Mindfulness in the Context of Emotion Regulation and the Process of Change in Therapy". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 255–62. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph080. 
  46. ^ a b Brown, Kirk Warren; Ryan, Richard M; Creswell, J. David (2007). "Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects". Psychological Inquiry. 18 (4): 211–37. doi:10.1080/10478400701598298. 
  47. ^ Gehart 2012, p. 7-8.
  48. ^ a b Black 2011, p. 1.
  49. ^ a b c d Black 2011, p. 2.
  50. ^ a b Gehart 2012, p. 7.
  51. ^ Zgierska 2009.
  52. ^ Didonna 2008, p. 27.
  53. ^ Kristeller 2007, p. 393.
  54. ^ Germer 2005, p. 15.
  55. ^ a b Hick 2010, p. 10.
  56. ^ a b c d e Bishop, Scott R; Lau, Mark; Shapiro, Shauna; Carlson, Linda; Anderson, Nicole D; Carmody, James; Segal, Zindel V; Abbey, Susan; Speca, Michael; Velting, Drew; Devins, Gerald (2006). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 230–41. doi:10.1093/clipsy.bph077. 
  57. ^ Tanay, Galia; Bernstein, Amit (2013). "State Mindfulness Scale (SMS): Development and initial validation". Psychological Assessment. 25 (4): 1286–99. doi:10.1037/a0034044. PMID 24059475. 
  58. ^ Marlatt & Kristeller, 1999, p. 68
  59. ^ a b c d Hick 2010, p. 6.
  60. ^ Rezvan Ameli (2014). 25 Lessons in Mindfulness: Now Time for Healthy Living. American Psychological Association. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-1-4338-1323-8. 
  61. ^ a b c Bhikkhu Bodhi. "The Noble Eightfold Path". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  62. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 2002
  63. ^ Kabat-Zin 2011, p. 22-23.
  64. ^ Kabat-Zin 2013, p. 65.
  65. ^ a b c d e McMahan 2008.
  66. ^ a b Sharf & 1995-B.
  67. ^ The 18th Mind and Life Dialogues meeting
  68. ^ a b Sister Ayya Khema. "All of Us". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  69. ^ a b c Anālayo, Bhikku (2003). Satipaṭṭhāna, the direct path to realization. Windhorse Publications. 
  70. ^ Williams 2000, p. 46.
  71. ^ Vetter 1988.
  72. ^ Rhys Davids, T.W. (1959) [1910]. Dialogues of the Buddha, Part II. Oxford, Great Britain: Pali Text Society. pp. 322–346. ISBN 0 86013 034 7. 
  73. ^ a b Kabat-Zinn & year unknown.
  74. ^ a b c Harris 2009, p. 268.
  75. ^ Kipf 1979, p. 3-8.
  76. ^ King 2001.
  77. ^ Wilson 2014, p. 22.
  78. ^ Wilson 2014, p. 17.
  79. ^ "The Stress Reduction Program, founded by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979..." - http://www.umassmed.edu/cfm/stress/index.aspx
  80. ^ "Much of the interest in the clinical applications of mindfulness has been sparked by the introduction of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a manualized treatment program originally developed for the management of chronic pain (Kabat-Zinn, 1982; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, & Burney, 1985; Kabat-Zinn, Lipworth, Burney, & Sellers, 1987)." - Bishop et al, 2004, "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition"
  81. ^ a b Israel, Ira (30 May 2013). "What's the Difference Between Mindfulness, Mindfulness Meditation and Basic Meditation?". The Huffington Post. 
  82. ^ a b Bernhard, Toni (6 Jun 2011). "6 Benefits of Practicing Mindfulness Outside of Meditation". Psychology Today. 
  83. ^ a b Valerio, Adam (2016). "Owning Mindfulness: A Bibliometric Analysis of Mindfulness Literature Trends Within and Outside of Buddhist Contexts". Contemporary Buddhism. 17: 157–83. doi:10.1080/14639947.2016.1162425. 
  84. ^ Defined by Reginald A. Ray. ""Vipashyana," by Reginald A. Ray. ''Buddhadharma: The Practitioner's Quarterly'', Summer 2004". Archive.thebuddhadharma.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  85. ^ "What is Theravada Buddhism?". Access to Insight. Access to Insight. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  86. ^ McMahan.
  87. ^ a b "Mindfulness and the Mind," by Subhuti. Madhyamavani Online
  88. ^ "The Nature of Mindfulness and Its Role in Buddhist Meditation" A Correspondence between B.A. wallace and the Venerable Bikkhu Bodhi, Winter 2006, p.4
  89. ^ Hopkins, Jeffrey (June 15, 1996). Meditation on Emptiness (Rep Sub ed.). Wisdom Publications. pp. 79–83. ASIN 0861711106. ISBN 978-0861711109. 
  90. ^ Hopkins, Jeffrey (June 15, 1996). Meditation on Emptiness (Rep Sub ed.). Wisdom Publications. p. 247. ASIN 0861711106. ISBN 978-0861711109. 
  91. ^ a b "Is Mindfulness Present-Centered and Nonjudgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness" by Georges Dreyfus
  92. ^ "Mindfulness and Ethics: Attention, Virtue and Perfection" by Jay Garfield
  93. ^ "What is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction?". Mindful Living Programs. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  94. ^ Piet, Jacob; Hougaard, Esben (2011). "The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (6): 1032–40. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.002. PMID 21802618. 
  95. ^ Manicavasgar, Vijaya; Parker, Gordon; Perich, Tania (2011). "Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behaviour therapy as a treatment for non-melancholic depression". Journal of Affective Disorders. 130 (1–2): 138–44. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.027. PMID 21093925. 
  96. ^ Hofmann, Stefan G; Sawyer, Alice T; Fang, Angela (2010). "The Empirical Status of the "New Wave" of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 33 (3): 701–10. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.006. PMC 2898899 . PMID 20599141. 
  97. ^ a b Felder, Jennifer N; Dimidjian, Sona; Segal, Zindel (2012). "Collaboration in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 68 (2): 179–86. doi:10.1002/jclp.21832. PMID 23616298. 
  98. ^ Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D (2004). "Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Replication and Exploration of Differential Relapse Prevention Effects". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 72 (1): 31–40. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.72.1.31. PMID 14756612. 
  99. ^ Plumb, J. C; Stewart, I; Dahl, J; Lundgren, T (2009). "In search of meaning: Values in modern clinical behavior analysis". The Behavior analyst. 32 (1): 85–103. PMC 2686995 . PMID 22478515. 
  100. ^ Hayes, Steven. "Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT)". ContextualPsychology.org. 
  101. ^ Zettle, Robert D (2005). "The evolution of a contextual approach to therapy: From comprehensive distancing to ACT". International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 1 (2): 77–89. doi:10.1037/h0100736. 
  102. ^ Murdock, N. L. (2009). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: A case approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Merrill/Pearson
  103. ^ "Getting in on the Act - The Irish Times - Tue, Jun 07, 2011". The Irish Times. 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  104. ^ Linehan 1993, p.19
  105. ^ Linehan 1993, p.20-21
  106. ^ Apsche JA, DiMeo L (2010). Mode Deactivation Therapy for aggression and oppositional behavior in adolescents: An integrative methodology using ACT, DBT, and CBT. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. ISBN 978-1608821075. 
  107. ^ Swart, Joan; Apsche, Jack (2014). "Family mode deactivation therapy (FMDT) mediation analysis". International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 9: 1–13. doi:10.1037/h0101009. 
  108. ^ "Gestalt theory concepts". Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  109. ^ Kurtz, Ron (1990). Body-Centered Psychotherapy, The Hakomi Method. LifeRhythm. 
  110. ^ a b Sequeira, Sonia (2014). "Foreword to Advances in Meditation Research: Neuroscience and Clinical Applications". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1307: v–vi. Bibcode:2014NYASA1307D...5S. doi:10.1111/nyas.12305. PMID 24571183. 
  111. ^ Rogers, Jeffrey M; Ferrari, Madeleine; Mosely, Kylie; Lang, Cathryne P; Brennan, Leah (2017). "Mindfulness-based interventions for adults who are overweight or obese: A meta-analysis of physical and psychological health outcomes". Obesity Reviews. 18 (1): 51–67. doi:10.1111/obr.12461. PMID 27862826. 
  112. ^ Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J (2016). "Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans". Frontiers in Nutrition. 3. doi:10.3389/fnut.2016.00030. 
  113. ^ Colzato, Lorenza S; Kibele, Armin (2017). "How Different Types of Meditation Can Enhance Athletic Performance Depending on the Specific Sport Skills". Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 1 (2): 122–6. doi:10.1007/s41465-017-0018-3. 
  114. ^ Petcharat, Manika; Liehr, Patricia (2017). "Mindfulness training for parents of children with special needs: Guidance for nurses in mental health practice". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 30 (1): 35–46. doi:10.1111/jcap.12169. PMID 28449389. 
  115. ^ Fuchs, Wendy W; Mundschenk, Nancy J; Groark, Brian (2017). "A Promising Practice: School-Based Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Children with Disabilities". Journal of International Special Needs Education. 20 (2): 56–66. doi:10.9782/2159-4341-20.2.56. 
  116. ^ Cachia, Renee L; Anderson, Angelika; Moore, Dennis W (2016). "Mindfulness in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Narrative Analysis". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 3 (2): 165–78. doi:10.1007/s40489-016-0074-0. 
  117. ^ Garland, Sheila N; Zhou, Eric S; Gonzalez, Brian D; Rodriguez, Nicole (2016). "The Quest for Mindful Sleep: A Critical Synthesis of the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Insomnia". Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 2 (3): 142–151. doi:10.1007/s40675-016-0050-3. PMC 5300077 . PMID 28191449. 
  118. ^ Ong, Jason C; Smith, Christine E (2017). "Using Mindfulness for the Treatment of Insomnia". Current Sleep Medicine Reports. 3 (2): 57–65. doi:10.1007/s40675-017-0068-1. 
  119. ^ Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen (2017). "Aging Mindfully to Minimize Cognitive Decline". Journal of Cognitive Enhancement. 1 (2): 108–14. doi:10.1007/s41465-017-0027-2. 
  120. ^ Xu, Jianbin (2017). "A Tripartite Function of Mindfulness in Adjustment to Aging: Acceptance, Integration, and Transcendence". The Gerontologist. doi:10.1093/geront/gnx100. 
  121. ^ Acevedo, Bianca P; Pospos, Sarah; Lavretsky, Helen (2016). "The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging". Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 3 (4): 328–339. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x. PMC 5110576 . PMID 27909646. 
  122. ^ Hutton, Jane (Sep 2016). "How can mindfulness help patients with skin conditions". Dermatological Nursing. 15 (3): 32–35. OCLC 6841989774. 
  123. ^ Isgut, Monica; Smith, Alicia K; Reimann, Eduardo Schuch; Kucuk, Omer; Ryan, Joanne (2017). "The impact of psychological distress during pregnancy on the developing fetus: Biological mechanisms and the potential benefits of mindfulness interventions". Journal of Perinatal Medicine. doi:10.1515/jpm-2016-0189. 
  124. ^ Dhillon, Anjulie; Sparkes, Elizabeth; Duarte, Rui V (2017). "Mindfulness-Based Interventions During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-017-0726-x. 
  125. ^ Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Lee, Laura; Murphy, Gillian; Murphy, Lisa (2016). "The effects of mindfulness interventions on prenatal well-being: A systematic review". Psychology & Health. 31 (12): 1415–1434. doi:10.1080/08870446.2016.1220557. PMID 27539908. 
  126. ^ Zeidan, Fadel; Vago, David R (2016). "Mindfulness meditation-based pain relief: A mechanistic account". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1373 (1): 114–27. Bibcode:2016NYASA1373..114Z. doi:10.1111/nyas.13153. PMC 4941786 . PMID 27398643. 
  127. ^ Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I (2013). "Special issue on mindfulness neuroscience". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 8 (1): 1–3. doi:10.1093/scan/nss104. PMC 3541496 . PMID 22956677. 
  128. ^ Hölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W; Gard, Tim; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Vago, David R; Ott, Ulrich (2011). "How Does Mindfulness Meditation Work? Proposing Mechanisms of Action from a Conceptual and Neural Perspective". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6 (6): 537–59. doi:10.1177/1745691611419671. PMID 26168376. 
  129. ^ Crescentini, Cristiano; Capurso, Viviana (2015). "Mindfulness meditation and explicit and implicit indicators of personality and self-concept changes". Frontiers in Psychology. 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00044. 
  130. ^ Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco (2015). "Improving Personality/Character Traits in Individuals with Alcohol Dependence: The Influence of Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation". Journal of Addictive Diseases. 34 (1): 75–87. doi:10.1080/10550887.2014.991657. PMID 25585050. 
  131. ^ Hölzel, Britta K; Lazar, Sara W; Gard, Tim; Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Vago, David R; Ott, Ulrich (2011). "How Does Mindfulness Meditation Work? Proposing Mechanisms of Action from a Conceptual and Neural Perspective". Perspectives on Psychological Science. 6 (6): 537–59. doi:10.1177/1745691611419671. PMID 26168376. 
  132. ^ a b Gotink, Rinske A; Meijboom, Rozanna; Vernooij, Meike W; Smits, Marion; Hunink, M.G. Myriam (2016). "8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction induces brain changes similar to traditional long-term meditation practice – A systematic review". Brain and Cognition. 108: 32–41. doi:10.1016/j.bandc.2016.07.001. PMID 27429096. 
  133. ^ Larouche, Eddy; Hudon, Carol; Goulet, Sonia (2015). "Potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: An interdisciplinary perspective". Behavioural Brain Research. 276: 199–212. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.058. PMID 24893317. 
  134. ^ Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E (2017). "The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 56 (1): 275–286. doi:10.3233/JAD-160899. PMID 27983555. 
  135. ^ Simon, Rozalyn; Engström, Maria (2015). "The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation". Frontiers in Psychology. 06: 776. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00776. PMC 4460295 . PMID 26106351. 
  136. ^ Buric, Ivana; Farias, Miguel; Jong, Jonathan; Mee, Christopher; Brazil, Inti A (2017). "What is the Molecular Signature of Mind–Body Interventions? A Systematic Review of Gene Expression Changes Induced by Meditation and Related Practices". Frontiers in Immunology. 8. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00670. 
  137. ^ Sanada, Kenji; Alda Díez, Marta; Salas Valero, Montserrat; Pérez-Yus, María C; Demarzo, Marcelo M. P; Montero-Marín, Jesús; García-Toro, Mauro; García-Campayo, Javier (2017). "Effects of mindfulness-based interventions on biomarkers in healthy and cancer populations: A systematic review". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 17. doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1638-y. 
  138. ^ Hurley, Dan (January 14, 2014). "Breathing In vs. Spacing Out". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 9, 2014. 
  139. ^ a b Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Mayer, Emeran A; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L; Gaser, Christian (2012). "The Unique Brain Anatomy of Meditation Practitioners: Alterations in Cortical Gyrification". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 6: 34. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00034. PMC 3289949 . PMID 22393318. Lay summaryUCLA Newsroom (March 14, 2012). 
  140. ^ "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials". Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects. University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. 15 May 2013. 
  141. ^ "Intervention Summary: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)". Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved February 8, 2015. 
  142. ^ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/248807.php[full citation needed]
  143. ^ Lazar, Sara W; Kerr, Catherine E; Wasserman, Rachel H; Gray, Jeremy R; Greve, Douglas N; Treadway, Michael T; McGarvey, Metta; Quinn, Brian T; Dusek, Jeffery A; Benson, Herbert; Rauch, Scott L; Moore, Christopher I; Fischl, Bruce (2005). "Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness". Neuroreport. 16 (17): 1893–7. doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000186598.66243.19. PMC 1361002 . PMID 16272874. 
  144. ^ http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2008914,00.html[full citation needed]
  145. ^ Jha, A. P; Krompinger, J; Baime, M. J (2007). "Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention". Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience. 7 (2): 109–19. doi:10.3758/CABN.7.2.109. PMID 17672382. 
  146. ^ Brook, R. D; Appel, L. J; Rubenfire, M; Ogedegbe, G; Bisognano, J. D; Elliott, W. J; Fuchs, F. D; Hughes, J. W; Lackland, D. T; Staffileno, B. A; Townsend, R. R; Rajagopalan, S (2013). "Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association". Hypertension. 61 (6): 1360–83. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. PMID 23608661. 
  147. ^ http://healthland.time.com/2012/11/14/mind-over-matter-strongest-study-yet-shows-meditation-can-lower-risk-of-heart-attack-and-stroke/[full citation needed]
  148. ^ Schneider, R. H; Grim, C. E; Rainforth, M. V; Kotchen, T; Nidich, S. I; Gaylord-King, C; Salerno, J. W; Kotchen, J. M; Alexander, C. N (2012). "Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized, Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education in Blacks". Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 5 (6): 750–8. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.112.967406. PMID 23149426. 
  149. ^ Bohlmeijer, Ernst; Prenger, Rilana; Taal, Erik; Cuijpers, Pim (2010). "The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 68 (6): 539–44. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005. PMID 20488270. 
  150. ^ Zeidan, F; Martucci, K. T; Kraft, R. A; Gordon, N. S; McHaffie, J. G; Coghill, R. C (2011). "Brain Mechanisms Supporting the Modulation of Pain by Mindfulness Meditation". Journal of Neuroscience. 31 (14): 5540. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5791-10.2011. PMID 21471390. 
  151. ^ https://www.davidlynchfoundation.org/university-of-california-at-irvine.html[full citation needed]
  152. ^ Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Alan (2009). "Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review". Substance Abuse. 30 (4): 266–94. doi:10.1080/08897070903250019. PMC 2800788 . PMID 19904664. 
  153. ^ Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost; Schmidt, Stefan (2013). "A systematic review and meta-analysis of mindfulness-based stress reduction for the fibromyalgia syndrome". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 75 (6): 500–10. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2013.10.010. PMID 24290038. 
  154. ^ Cranson, Robert W; Orme-Johnson, David W; Gackenbach, Jayne; Dillbeck, Michael C; Jones, Christopher H; Alexander, Charles N (1991). "Transcendental meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study". Personality and Individual Differences. 12 (10): 1105–16. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(91)90040-I. 
  155. ^ Aron A.; et al. (1981). "'The Transcendental Meditation program in the college curriculum' A 4-year longitudinal study of effects on cognitive and affective functioning". College Student Journal. 15: 140–146. 
  156. ^ Dillbeck, Michael C (1982). "Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving". Memory & Cognition. 10 (3): 207–15. doi:10.3758/bf03197631. PMID 6750312. 
  157. ^ Dillbeck, Michael C; Assimakis, Panayotis D; Raimondi, Dennis; Orme-Johnson, David W; Rowe, Robin (2016). "Longitudinal Effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program on Cognitive Ability and Cognitive Style". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 62 (3): 731–8. doi:10.2466/pms.1986.62.3.731. 
  158. ^ Fergusson, Lee C; Bonshek, Anna J; Masson, Gildas Le (2006). "Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia". Higher Education Research & Development. 15: 73–82. doi:10.1080/0729436960150106. 
  159. ^ Jedrczak, Andrew; Toomey, Michael; Clements, Geoffrey (1986). "The TM-Sidhi programme, age, and brief tests of perceptual-motor speed and nonverbal intelligence". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 42 (1): 161–4. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198601)42:1<161::aid-jclp2270420127>3.0.co;2-w. PMID 3512605. 
  160. ^ Schoenberg, Poppy L.A; Hepark, Sevket; Kan, Cornelis C; Barendregt, Henk P; Buitelaar, Jan K; Speckens, Anne E.M (2014). "Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Clinical Neurophysiology. 125 (7): 1407–16. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.11.031. PMID 24374088. 
  161. ^ McLean, G; Lawrence, M; Simpson, R; Mercer, S. W (2017). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review". BMC Neurology. 17. doi:10.1186/s12883-017-0876-4. 
  162. ^ Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara (2016). "The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 11 (5): e0155720. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1155720L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155720. PMC 4868288 . PMID 27182732. 
  163. ^ Grossman, Paul (2008). "On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 64 (4): 405–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.02.001. PMID 18374739. 
  164. ^ "What Is Mindfulness?". The Greater Good Science Center. The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2014-04-24. 
  165. ^ a b Ergas, Oren (2013). "Mindfulness in education at the intersection of science, religion, and healing". Critical Studies in Education. 55: 58. doi:10.1080/17508487.2014.858643. 
  166. ^ Kabat-Zinn 2000.
  167. ^ Mindfulness Training as a Clinical Intervention: A Conceptual and Empirical Review by Ruth A. Baer
  168. ^ http://www.susankaisergreenland.com/inner-kids.html
  169. ^ "MindUP™". Retrieved 2015-04-17. 
  170. ^ Ergas, Oren; Todd, Sharon, eds. (2016). Philosophy East/West: Exploring intersections between educational and contemplative practices (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-119-14733-6. [page needed]
  171. ^ j. Davidson, Richard; Dunne, John; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Engle, Adam; Greenberg, Mark; Jennings, Patricia; Jha, Amishi; Jinpa, Thupten; Lantieri, Linda; Meyer, David; Roeser, Robert W; Vago, David (2012). "Contemplative Practices and Mental Training: Prospects for American Education". Child Development Perspectives. 6 (2): 146–53. doi:10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00240.x. PMC 3420012 . PMID 22905038. 
  172. ^ Hobby, Kristen; Jenkins, Elizabeth (2014). "Mindfulness in schools". EarthSong Journal. 2 (7): 26. ISSN 1449-8367. 
  173. ^ a b Zenner, Charlotte; Herrnleben-Kurz, Solveig; Walach, Harald (2014). "Mindfulness-based interventions in schools—a systematic review and meta-analysis". Frontiers in Psychology. 5. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00603. 
  174. ^ a b Renshaw, Tyler L; Cook, Clayton R (2017). "Introduction to the Special Issue: Mindfulness in the Schools-Historical Roots, Current Status, and Future Directions". Psychology in the Schools. 54: 5–12. doi:10.1002/pits.21978. 
  175. ^ a b Eklund, Katie; O'Malley, Meagan; Meyer, Lauren (2017). "Gauging Mindfulness in Children and Youth: School-Based Applications". Psychology in the Schools. 54: 101–14. doi:10.1002/pits.21983. 
  176. ^ a b Choudhury, Suparna; Moses, Joshua M (2016). "Mindful interventions: Youth, poverty, and the developing brain". Theory & Psychology. 26 (5): 591–606. doi:10.1177/0959354316669025. 
  177. ^ Semple, Randye J; Lee, Jennifer; Rosa, Dinelia; Miller, Lisa F (2009). "A Randomized Trial of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children: Promoting Mindful Attention to Enhance Social-Emotional Resiliency in Children". Journal of Child and Family Studies. 19 (2): 218–29. doi:10.1007/s10826-009-9301-y. 
  178. ^ Flook, Lisa; Smalley, Susan L; Kitil, M. Jennifer; Galla, Brian M; Kaiser-Greenland, Susan; Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric; Kasari, Connie (2010). "Effects of Mindful Awareness Practices on Executive Functions in Elementary School Children". Journal of Applied School Psychology. 26 (1): 70–95. doi:10.1080/15377900903379125. 
  179. ^ Kuyken, W; Weare, K; Ukoumunne, O. C; Vicary, R; Motton, N; Burnett, R; Cullen, C; Hennelly, S; Huppert, F (2013). "Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: Non-randomised controlled feasibility study". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 203 (2): 126–31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.113.126649. PMID 23787061. 
  180. ^ Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey (2016). "Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 81: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2016.03.002. PMID 27054828. 
  181. ^ a b Good, Darren J; Lyddy, Christopher J; Glomb, Theresa M; Bono, Joyce E; Brown, Kirk Warren; Duffy, Michelle K; Baer, Ruth A; Brewer, Judson A; Lazar, Sara W (2015). "Contemplating Mindfulness at Work". Journal of Management. 42 (1): 114–42. doi:10.1177/0149206315617003. 
  182. ^ Boyatzis, R. E., & McKee, A. (2005). Resonant Leadership: Renewing yourself and connecting with others through mindfulness, hope, and compassion. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  183. ^ a b Carroll, Michael (2007). The Mindful Leader: Ten Principles for Bringing Out the Best in Ourselves and Others. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 9781590303474. 
  184. ^ a b Schultz, Patricia P; Ryan, Richard M; Niemiec, Christopher P; Legate, Nicole; Williams, Geoffrey C (2014). "Mindfulness, Work Climate, and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Employee Well-being". Mindfulness. 6 (5): 971. doi:10.1007/s12671-014-0338-7. 
  185. ^ Lampe M (2012). "Mindfulness-based business ethics education". Academy of Educational Leadership Journal. 16 (3). 
  186. ^ Meditation classes raise attorneys mindfulness (2009). New Orleans CityBusiness.
  187. ^ Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (2008). Program on Negotiation Webcasts.
  188. ^ Samuelson, Marlene; Carmody, James; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Bratt, Michael A (2016). "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Massachusetts Correctional Facilities". The Prison Journal. 87 (2): 254–68. doi:10.1177/0032885507303753. 
  189. ^ Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Slade, Karen; Griffiths, Mark D (2013). "Mindfulness and other Buddhist-derived interventions in correctional settings: A systematic review". Aggression and Violent Behavior. 18 (3): 365–72. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2013.01.002. 
  190. ^ Dafoe, Terra; Stermac, Lana (2013). "Mindfulness Meditation as an Adjunct Approach to Treatment Within the Correctional System". Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 52 (3): 198–216. doi:10.1080/10509674.2012.752774. 
  191. ^ Rochman, B. (2009, September 6, 2009). Samurai Mind Training for Modern American Warriors. Time.
  192. ^ a b Wallace, B. Alan (2006). The attention revolution: Unlocking the power of the focused mind. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-276-5. 
  193. ^ Chiesa, Alberto (2012). "The Difficulty of Defining Mindfulness: Current Thought and Critical Issues". Mindfulness. 4 (3): 255–68. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0123-4. 
  194. ^ a b c Safran 2014.
  195. ^ Bazzano 2014.
  196. ^ Giesler, Markus; Veresiu, Ela (2014). "Creating the Responsible Consumer: Moralistic Governance Regimes and Consumer Subjectivity". Journal of Consumer Research. 41 (October): 849–67. doi:10.1086/677842. 
  197. ^ Safran, Jeremy D., PhD. "McMindfulness." Psychology Today. N.p., 13 June 2014. Web. 02 Apr. 2015. <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/straight-talk/201406/mcmindfulness>.
  198. ^ Shonin, Edo (August 27, 2015). Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness (Mindfulness in Behavioral Health) (1st ed.). Springer. pp. 90–94. 
  199. ^ Foster, Dawn (2016-01-23). "Is mindfulness making us ill?". theguardian. Guardian News. Retrieved 2016-01-23. 
  200. ^ a b Shonin, Edo; Gordon, William Van; Griffiths, Mark D (2014). "Are there risks associated with using mindfulness in the treatment of psychopathology?". Clinical Practice. 11 (4): 389–92. doi:10.2217/cpr.14.23. 
  201. ^ Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D (2013). "Mindfulness-based interventions: Towards mindful clinical integration". Frontiers in Psychology. 4: 194. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00194. PMC 3629307 . PMID 23616779. 
  202. ^ "The Center for Collaborative Communication". Retrieved Nov 11, 2011. 
  203. ^ Branscomb, Jane (2011). Summative Evaluation of a Workshop in Collaborative Communication (Thesis). Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University. [page needed]
  204. ^ Gates, Bob; Gear, Jane; Wray, Jane (2000). Behavioural Distress: Concepts & Strategies. Bailliere Tindall. 
  205. ^ Inbal Kashtan, Miki Kashtan, Key Assumptions and Intentions of NVC, BayNVC.org
  206. ^ Fullerton, Elaine (February 2009). "The development of "Nonviolent Communication" in an early years setting to support conflict resolution and develop an emotional intelligence related to both self and others". Behaviour4Learning. GTC Scotland. Retrieved Sep 22, 2011. 

SourcesEdit

Published sourcesEdit

  • Bazzano, Manu (2014), After Mindfulness: New Perspectives on Psychology and Meditation, Palgrave Macmillan 
  • Bell, Linda G (2009). "Mindful Psychotherapy". Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health. 11: 126–44. doi:10.1080/19349630902864275. 
  • Bernhard, Jeffrey D; Kristeller, Jean; Kabat-Zinn, Jon (1988). "Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as an adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 19 (3): 572–4. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(88)80329-3. PMID 3049703. 
  • Bishop, Scott R; Lau, Mark; Shapiro, Shauna; Carlson, Linda; Anderson, Nicole D; Carmody, James; Segal, Zindel V; Abbey, Susan; Speca, Michael; Velting, Drew; Devins, Gerald (2006). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 11 (3): 230–41. doi:10.1093/clipsy.bph077. 
  • Black, David S. (2011), A Brief Definition of Mindfulness (PDF) 
  • Boccio, Frank Jude (2004). Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind. ISBN 0-86171-335-4
  • Bowen, S., Chawla, N., Marlatt, G.A. (2010). Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Addictive Behaviors: A Clinician's Guide. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-987-2
  • Brahm, Ajahn (2005). Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-275-5
  • Brantley, Jeffrey (2007). Calming Your Anxious Mind: How Mindfulness & Compassion Can Free You from Anxiety, Fear, & Panic. 2nd ed. New Harbinger. ISBN 978-1-57224-487-0.
  • Deckersbach, T., Hölzel, B., Eisner, L., Lazar, S.W., Nierenberg, A.A. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1406-9
  • Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Gehart, Diane R. (2012), Mindfulness and Acceptance in Couple and Family Therapy, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Germer, Christopher K. (2005), Mindfulness. What Is It? What does It Matter? In: Christopher K. Germer, Ronald D. Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, "Mindfulness and Psychotherapy", Guilford Press 
  • Germer, C.K. (2009). The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-975-6
  • Germer, C.K., Siegel, R., Fulton, P.R., eds. (2013). Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1137-2
  • Germer, Christopher K., Ronald Siegel, Paul R. Fulton (2005), Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press, ISBN 1-59385-139-1 (The use of mindfulness in psychology, and the history of mindfulness)
  • Grossman, Paul; Niemann, Ludger; Schmidt, Stefan; Walach, Harald (2004). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 57 (1): 35–43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. PMID 15256293. 
  • Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  • Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola (2002). Mindfulness in Plain English. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8
  • Hanh, Thich Nhat (1996). The Miracle of Mindfulness: A Manual on Meditation. Beacon Press.
  • Harris, Mark W. (2009), The A to Z of Unitarian Universalism, Scarecrow Press 
  • Hayes, S.C., Follette, V.M., Linehan, M.M., eds. (2011). Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60918-989-1
  • Hick, Steven F. (2010), Cultivating Therapeutic Relationships: The Role of Mindfulness. In: Steven F. Hick, Thomas Bien (eds.), "Mindfulness and the Therapeutic Relationship", Guilford Press 
  • Hofmann, Stefan G; Sawyer, Alice T; Witt, Ashley A; Oh, Diana (2010). "The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 78 (2): 169–83. doi:10.1037/a0018555. PMC 2848393 . PMID 20350028. 
  • Hoopes, Aaron (2007) "Zen Yoga: A Path to Enlightenment through Breathing, Movement and Meditation". Kodansha International.
  • Ihnen, Anne; Flynn, Carolyn (2008), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Mindfulness, Penguin 
  • Kabat-Zinn, Jon (2000). "Participatory medicine". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 14 (4): 239–40. doi:10.1046/j.1468-3083.2000.00062.x. PMID 11204505. 
  • Kabat-Zin, Jon (2011), Mindfulness for Beginners: Reclaiming the Present Moment--and Your Life, Sounds True 
  • Kabat-Zin, Jon (2013), Arriving at Your Own Door: 108 Lessons in Mindfulness, Hachette UK 
  • Kabat-Zin, Jon (n.d.), Wherever You Go There You Are. Mindfulness Meditation (For Everyday Life) (PDF) 
  • Kapleau, Phillip (1989). The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment. Anchor Books.
  • King, Winston L. (1992), Theravada Meditation. The Buddhist Transformation of Yoga, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • King, Richard (2001), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Taylor & Francis e-Library 
  • Kipf, David (1979), The Brahmo Samaj and the shaping of the modern Indian mind, Atlantic Publishers & Distri, ISBN 9780691031255 
  • Koster, Frits (2009), Basisprincipes Vipassana-meditatie. Mindfulness als weg naar bevrijdend inzicht, Asoka 
  • Kristeller, Jean L. (2007), Mindfulness Meditation. In: Paul M. Lehrer, Robert L. Woolfolk, Wesley E. Sime (eds.), "Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition", Guilford Press 
  • Langer, Ellen J. (1989). Mindfulness. Merloyd Lawrence.
  • Linehan, Marsha (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford Press.
  • Marlatt, GA & Kristeller, J; Mindfulness and meditation. WR Miller (Ed.), Integrating spirituality in treatment: Resources for practitioners, American Psychological Association Books, Washington, DC (1999), pp. 67–84
  • Massion, A.O; Teas, J; Hebert, J.R; Wertheimer, M.D; Kabat-Zinn, J (1995). "Meditation, melatonin and breast/prostate cancer: Hypothesis and preliminary data". Medical Hypotheses. 44 (1): 39–46. doi:10.1016/0306-9877(95)90299-6. PMID 7776900. 
  • McCracken, Lance M; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy; Vowles, Kevin E (2007). "The role of mindfulness in a contextual cognitive-behavioral analysis of chronic pain-related suffering and disability". Pain. 131 (1–2): 63–9. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2006.12.013. PMID 17257755. 
  • McCown, Donald; Micozzi, Marc S. (2011), New World Mindfulness: From the Founding Fathers, Emerson, and Thoreau to Your Personal Practice, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co 
  • McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276 
  • Melemis, Steven M. (2008). Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life by Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships. Modern Therapies. ISBN 978-1-897572-17-7
  • Miller, John J; Fletcher, Ken; Kabat-Zinn, Jon (1995). "Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders". General Hospital Psychiatry. 17 (3): 192–200. doi:10.1016/0163-8343(95)00025-M. PMID 7649463. 
  • Nemcova, M. and Hajek, K. (2009). Introduction to Satitherapy – Mindfulness and Abhidhamma Principles in Person-Centered Integrative Psychotherapy. Morrisville, Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4092-5900-8
  • Nyanaponika (1998), Het hart van boeddhistische meditatie (The heart of Buddhist Meditation), Asoka 
  • Ockene, J. K; Ockene, I. S; Kabat-Zinn, J; Greene, H. L; Frid, D (1990). "Teaching risk-factor counseling skills to medical students, house staff, and fellows". American journal of preventive medicine. 6 (2 Suppl): 35–42. PMID 2383411. 
  • Ockene, Judith K; Sorensen, Glorian; Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Ockene, Ira S; Donnelly, Gary (1988). "Benefits and costs of lifestyle change to reduce risk of chronic disease". Preventive Medicine. 17 (2): 224–34. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(88)90065-5. PMID 3047727. 
  • Orsillo, S.M., Roemer, L. (2011). The Mindful Way through Anxiety: Break Free from Chronic Worry and Reclaim Your Life. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-464-8
  • Pollak, S.M., Pedulla, T., Siegel, R.D. (2014). Sitting Together: Essential Skills for Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapy. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1398-7
  • Safran, Jeremy D. (2014), "Straight Talk. Cutting through the spin on psychotherapy and mental health", Psychology Today 
  • Saxe, Gordon A; Hébert, James R; Carmody, James F; Kabat-Zinn, JON; Rosenzweig, Penny H; Jarzobski, David; Reed, George W; Blute, Robert D (2001). "Can Diet in Conjunction with Stress Reduction Affect the Rate of Increase in Prostate Specific Antigen After Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer?". The Journal of Urology. 166 (6): 2202–7. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65535-8. PMID 11696736. 
  • Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D. (2012). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-0750-4
  • Sharf, Robert (1995). "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience". Numen. 42 (3): 228–83. doi:10.1163/1568527952598549. JSTOR 3270219. 
  • Sharf, Robert (2014). "Mindfulness and Mindlessness in Early Chan". Philosophy East and West. 64 (4): 933–64. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0074. 
  • Siegel, Daniel J. (2007). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-70470-9.
  • Siegel, R.D. (2009). The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1
  • Siegel, Ronald D. (2010). The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1
  • Tanay, Galia; Bernstein, Amit (2013). "State Mindfulness Scale (SMS): Development and initial validation". Psychological Assessment. 25 (4): 1286–99. doi:10.1037/a0034044. PMID 24059475. 
  • Teasdale, John D.; Segal, Zindel V. (2007), The Mindful Way Through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness, Guilford Press 
  • Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Segal, Z.V. (2014). The Mindful Way Workbook: An 8-Week Program to Free Yourself from Depression and Emotional Distress. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-0814-3
  • Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL 
  • Weiss, Andrew (2004). Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library
  • Williams, J. Mark G; Duggan, Danielle S; Crane, Catherine; Fennell, Melanie J. V (2006). "Mindfulness-Based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 62 (2): 201–10. doi:10.1002/jclp.20223. PMID 16342287. 
  • Williams, Mark, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal, and Jon Kabat-Zinn (2007). The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6.
  • Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Kabat-Zinn, J. (2007). The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6
  • Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony (2000), Buddhist Thought, Routledge 
  • Wilson, Jeff (2014), Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture, Oxford University Press 
  • Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Alan (2009). "Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review". Substance Abuse. 30 (4): 266–94. doi:10.1080/08897070903250019. PMC 2800788 . PMID 19904664. 

Web-sourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

Practice
Buddhism
  • Nyanaponika, The Heart of Buddhist Meditation: Satipaṭṭhāna : a Handbook of Mental Training Based on the Buddha's Way of Mindfulness, with an Anthology of Relevant Texts Translated from the Pali and Sanskrit 
  • William Hart (2011), The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S. N. Goenka, Pariyatti
Psychology
  • Didonna, Fabrizio (2008), Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness, Springer Science & Business Media 
  • Amanda Ie, Christelle T. Ngnoumen, Ellen J. Langer (2014), The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness (Two Volumes), John Wiley & Sons
Popular
  • Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. Hyperion Books, 2005. ISBN 1-4013-0778-7
History
  • Wilson, Jeff (2014), Mindful America: Meditation and the Mutual Transformation of Buddhism and American Culture, Oxford University Press 
  • McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276 
Critical
  • Sharf, Robert (1995). "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience". Numen. 42 (3): 228–83. doi:10.1163/1568527952598549. JSTOR 3270219. 
  • Carrette, Jeremy R.; King, Richard (2005), Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion, Psychology Press 
  • Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Williams, Mark (2013), Mindfulness - Diverse perspectives on its meanings, origins and applications (Routledge)