Maitrī (Sanskrit; Pali: mettā) means benevolence, loving-kindness, friendliness, amity, good will, and active interest in others. It is the first of the four sublime states (Brahmaviharas) and one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of Buddhism.
(MLCTS: mjɪʔ tà)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
The cultivation of benevolence (mettā bhāvanā) is a popular form of Buddhist meditation.: 318–319 It is a part of the four immeasurables in Brahmavihara (divine abidings) meditation.: 278–279 Metta as "compassion meditation" is often practiced in Asia by broadcast chanting, wherein monks chant for the laity.: 318–319
The compassion and universal loving-kindness concept of metta is discussed in the Metta Sutta of Buddhism, and is also found in the ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism and Jainism as metta or maitri.
Etymology and meaning edit
Mettā is a Pali word, from maitrī which was itself derived from mitra which, states Monier-Williams, means "friend". The term is found in this sense in the Vedic literature, such as the Shatapatha Brahmana and various early Upanishads, and Vedanga literature such as Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī 5.4.36. The term appears in Buddhist texts as an important concept and practice.
Buswell and Lopez, as well as Harvey, translate mettā as "loving-kindness".: 327 In Buddhist belief, this is a Brahmavihara (divine abode) or an immeasurable that leads to a meditative state by being a counter to ill-will. It removes clinging to negative states of mind, by cultivating kindness unto all beings.: 327
The "far enemy" of mettā is hate or ill-will, a mind-state in obvious opposition. The "near enemy" (quality which superficially resembles mettā but is in fact more subtly in opposition to it), is attachment (greed): here too one likes experiencing a virtue, but for the wrong reason.
Mettā meditation edit
Mettā meditation, or often "loving-kindness meditation", is the practice concerned with the cultivation of mettā, i.e. benevolence, kindness, and amity. The practice generally consists of silent repetitions of phrases such as "may you be happy" or "may you be free from suffering", for example directed at a person who, depending on tradition, may or may not be internally visualized.
Two different methodological approaches have been discerned in recent review papers: practices that focus on compassion, and practices focusing on loving-kindness. Focusing on compassion means that meditation consists of the wish to relieve a being from suffering, whereas focusing on loving-kindness means wishing a being happiness.
The practice gradually increases in difficulty with respect to the targets that receive the practitioner's compassion or loving-kindness. At first the practitioner is targeting "oneself, then loved ones, neutral ones, difficult ones, and finally all beings, with variations across traditions".
A 2015 meta-analysis, synthesizing various high-quality experiments on loving-kindness meditation, found a medium-sized[quantify] improvement to daily positive emotion, with meditation on the loving-kindness aspect of mettā having a greater effect than practices with a focus on compassion. The length of time meditating did not affect the magnitude of positive impact of the practice.
According to Martin Wiltshire, prior to the advent of the Buddha, there existed traditions of Brahmaloka and of meditation with the four virtues of loving-kindness, compassion, empathetic joy, and equanimity.: 248–264 The early Buddhist texts assert that pre-Buddha ancient Indian sages who taught these virtues were earlier incarnations of the Buddha.: 248–264 Post-Buddha, these same virtues are found in the Hindu texts such as verse 1.33 of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali, wherein the word maitri is synonymous with metta.
Loving-kindness (maitri), along with compassion and equanimity, are found in the early Upanishads of Hinduism, while loving-kindness (metta) is found in early Sutras of Jainism along with compassion, empathetic joy and equanimity.: 241–242 The ancient Indian Paccekabuddhas who are mentioned in the early Buddhist Suttas, those who lived before the Buddha, mention all "four immeasurables" and Brahmavihara, and they are claimed in the Suttas to be previous incarnations of the Buddha.: 248–264
According to Ian Harris, the Buddhist scriptures acknowledge that the metta-concept containing four Brahmavihara meditation practices "did not originate within the Buddhist tradition". The Buddha never claimed that the "four immeasurables" and related metta-meditation were his unique ideas, states Harvey Aronson, in [clarification needed] "cessation, quieting, nirvana".
The pre-Buddha Chandogya Upanishad, states Jayatilleke, in section 8.15 teaches metta and ahimsa (doctrine of non-harm, esp. non-violence) to all creatures claiming that this practice leads to Brahmaloka. The shift in Vedic ideas, from rituals to virtues, is particularly discernible in the early Upanishadic thought, and it is unclear as to what extent and how early Upanishadic traditions of Hinduism and Sramanic traditions such as Buddhism and Jainism influenced each other, on ideas such as "four immeasurables", meditation, and Brahmavihara.: 248–264
In the Jain text, the Tattvartha Sutra (Chapter 7, sutra 11), which is accepted by all Jain sub-traditions as authoritative, there is a mention of four right sentiments: Maitri, pramoda, karunya, and madhyastha:
Benevolence towards all living beings, joy at the sight of the virtuous, compassion and sympathy for the afflicted, and tolerance towards the insolent and ill-behaved.
Buddhist texts edit
In the Pāli Canon, the term metta appears in many texts such as the Kakacupama Sutta and Karaniya Metta Sutta. Other canonical materials, such as in the Paṭisambhidāmagga, elaborate on it as a practice. Yet other canonical sources, such as the Abhidhamma, underline the key role of benevolence in the development of wholesome karma for better rebirths.
Karaniya Metta Sutta (Sn 1.8) edit
May all beings be happy and secure, may they be happy-minded.
Whatever living beings there are—feeble or strong, long, stout or medium,
short, small or large, seen or unseen (ghosts, gods and hell-beings),
those dwelling far or near, those who are born or those who await rebirth
may all beings, without exception be happy-minded.
Let none deceive another nor despise any person whatever in any place;
in anger or ill-will let them not wish any suffering to each other.
Just as a mother would protect her only child at the risk of her own life,
even so, let him cultivate a boundless heart towards all beings.
Let her thoughts of boundless lovingkindness pervade the whole world:
above, below and across, without obstruction, without any hatred, without any enmity.
This they say is divine abiding here.
She will surely not come again to any womb (rebirth in the sense-desire realm).— Metta Sutta, Khp 8-9, Translated by Peter Harvey: 279
Metta or lovingkindness here, states Harvey, is a heartfelt aspiration for the happiness of all beings. It is different from "lack of ill-will", and more an antidote to fear and hatred. It is the precept to conquer anger by kindness, conquer the liar by truth, conquer the stingy by giving, and conquer evil by good, says Harvey.: 279
Vatthūpama Sutta edit
In over a dozen discourses, the following description (in English and Pāli) is provided for radiating loving-kindness in six directions:
One abides, having suffused with a mind of benevolence
So mettāsahagatena cetasā
In the canon, this basic formula is expanded upon in a variety of ways. For instance, a couple of discourses provide the following description of how to gain rebirth in the heavenly realm of Brahmā (brahmānaṃ sahavyatāya maggo) :
- "What... is the path to the company of Brahmā? Here a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with benevolence, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with benevolence, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility, and without ill will. When the deliverance of mind by benevolence is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there.
- "Just as a vigorous trumpeter could make himself (or herself) heard without difficulty in the four quarters, so too, when the deliverance of mind by benevolence is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there. This is the path to the company of Brahmā."
Patisambhidamagga Mettakatha (Ps. 2.4) edit
May all beings be free from
enmity, affliction and anxiety,
and live contentedly.
In the Khuddaka Nikāya's Paṭisambhidāmagga, traditionally ascribed to Sariputta, is a section entitled Mettākathā (Ps. 2.4, "Story on Loving-Kindness"). In this instruction, a general formula (below, in English and Pāli), essentially identical to the aforementioned Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta verse (especially evident in the Pāli), is provided for radiating benevolence:
In addition, this instruction categorizes twenty-two ways in which "the mind-deliverance of benevolence" (mettācetovimutti) can be radiated with
- five ways of "unspecified pervasion" (anodhiso pharaṇā)
- all beings (sabbe sattā), all breathing things (sabbe pāṇā bhāvapariyāpannā), all creatures (sabbe bhūtā bhāvapariyāpannā), all persons (sabbe puggalā bhāvapariyāpannā), all with a personality (sabbe attabhāvapariyāpannā)
- seven ways of "specified pervasion" (anodhiso pharaṇā)
- all women (sabbā itthiyo), all men (sabbe purisā), all Noble Ones (sabbe ariyā), all non-Noble Ones (sabbe anariyā), all deities (sabbe devā), all humans (sabbe manussā), all born in lower realms (sabbe vinipātikā),
- ten ways of "directional pervasion" (disā-pharaṇā)
- of the eastern direction (puratthimāya disāya), of the western direction (pacchimāya disāya), of the northern direction (uttarā disāya), of the southern direction (dakkhīṇāya disāya), of the eastern intermediate direction (puratthimāya anudisāya), of the western intermediate direction (pacchimāya anudisāya), of the northern intermediate direction (uttarā anudisāya), of the southern intermediate direction (dakkhīṇāya anudisāya), of the downward direction (heṭṭhimāya disāya), of the upward direction (uparimāya disāya).
Moreover, the directional pervasions can then be applied to each of the unspecific and specific pervasions. For instance, after radiating benevolence to all beings in the east (Sabbe puratthimāya disāya sattā...), one radiates it to all beings in the west and then north and then south, etc.; then, one radiates it to all breathing things in this fashion (Sabbe puratthimāya disāya pāṇā...), then all creatures, persons, and so forth until such is extended for all those born in the lower realms.
The Pali canon says that there are a number of benefits from the practicing of metta meditation, including:
- One sleeps easily, wakes easily, dreams no evil dreams. One is dear to human beings, dear to non-human beings. The devas protect one. Neither fire, poison, nor weapons can touch one. One's mind gains concentration quickly. One's complexion is bright. One dies unconfused and—if penetrating no higher—is headed for [rebirth in] the Brahma worlds.
The canon also upholds fully ripened metta development as a foremost antidote to ill will:
- "No other thing do I know, O monks, on account of which unarisen ill will does not arise and arisen ill will is abandoned so much as on account of this: the liberation of the heart by benevolence. For one who attends properly to the liberation of the heart by benevolence, unarisen ill will does not arise and arisen ill will is abandoned."
- "Monks, whatever grounds there are for making merit productive of a future birth, all these do not equal a sixteenth part of the liberation of mind by benevolence. The liberation of mind by benevolence surpasses them and shines forth, bright and brilliant."
Mettā meditation is regularly recommended to the Buddha's followers in the Pali canon. The canon generally advises radiating metta in each of the six directions, to whatever beings there may be.[repetition] A different set of practical instructions, still widely used today, is found in the 5th century CE Visuddhimagga; this is also the main source for the "near and far enemies" given above. In addition, variations on this traditional practice have been popularized by modern teachers and applied in modern research settings.
Maitrī and mettā edit
Mettā is found in pre-Buddhist Vedic Sanskrit texts as Maitrī, Maitra, and Mitra, which are derived from the ancient root Mid (love). These Vedic words appear in the Samhita, Aranyaka, Brahmana, and Upanishad layers of texts in the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda.
Speaking the truth I desire this:
May I enjoy her lovingkindness as do ye,
May not one of you supplant another,
She hath enjoyed my lovingkindness, the all-knower.
Similarly, the term appears in hymn 55 of Book 19 of the Atharvaveda, and various Upanishads. A major early Upanishad of Hinduism, named Maitri Upanishad, discusses universal kindness and amity. The Maitri Upanishad, states Martin Wiltshire, provides the philosophical underpinning, by asserting, "what one thinks, that one becomes, this is the eternal mystery". This idea, adds Wiltshire, reflects the assumption in the ancient thought that one influences one's own environment and situation, causality is equitable, and "good volitional acts conduce pleasant situations, while bad volitional acts conduce unpleasant situations".: 94–95 The Maitri Upanishad teaches, states Juan Mascaró, that peace begins in one's own mind, in one's longing for truth, in looking within, and that "a quietness of mind overcomes good and evil works, and in quietness the soul is one: then one feels the joy of eternity."
Mettā meditation research edit
Some pilot research studies on the effect of mettā meditation indicate an increase in positive emotions for practitioners. In particular, an immediate impact on positive emotions after practice as well as a long-term effect could be shown, though these effects might not hold true for everybody. In one proof-of-concept study, uncontrolled in sample selection and benchmarking, the researchers report therapeutic potential for psychological problems like depression or social anxiety, when combined with other reliable treatments.
Therapeutic potential edit
The application of mettā meditation for the treatment of psychological and other healthcare-related problems is a topic of research. Hofmann et al. discuss the potential use for therapy and report insufficient data, with some promising studies so far. Those studies could show a positive impact on problems such as schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety. According to Hofmann et al., there needs to be more rigorous research, especially with the application of Buddhist approaches to loving-kindness and compassion meditation.
In an eight-week pilot study in 2005, loving-kindness meditation led to reduced pain and anger in people with chronic lower back pain. Compassion meditation, a Science Daily article states, may reduce inflammatory and behavioral responses to stress that have been linked to depression and a number of medical illnesses.
Caution and reviews edit
Bishop, in a 2002 review, suggests caution on claims of benefits, and states, "what has been published has been rife with methodological problems. At present, we know very little about the effectiveness of this [mindfulness-lovingkindness-compassion meditation] approach; however, there is some evidence that suggests that it may hold some promise."
In a 2014 review of multiple studies, Galante et al. reach a similar conclusion, stating "results were inconclusive for some outcomes, in particular against active controls; the methodological quality of the reports was low to moderate; results suffered from imprecision due to wide CIs (confidence intervals) deriving from small studies" and that "the kindness meditation methods show evidence of individual and community benefits through its effects on their well-being and social interaction".
See also edit
- Anapanasati Sutta
- Bhāvanā (contemplation)
- Brahmavihara (Karuṇā, Mudita)
- Kayagatasati Sutta
- Pāramī (perfection)
- Satipatthana Sutta, also called the Four Satipatthanas
- Similar concepts in other cultures:
- In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Translated by Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Somerville, Mass.: Wisdom Publications. 2005. pp. 90, 131, 134. ISBN 0-86171-491-1.
- Gethin, Rupert (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 26, 30, passim. ISBN 0-19-289223-1. [spelled as two words: "loving kindness"]
- Harvey, Peter (2007). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 247–48. ISBN 978-0-521-31333-9. [spelled without a hyphen: "lovingkindness"]
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu, ed. (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Translated by Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu. Boston: Wisdom Publications. pp. 120, 374, 474, passim. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Salzberg, Sharon (1995). Lovingkindness: The Revolutionary Art of Happiness. Boston: Shambhala Publications. pp. passim. ISBN 1-57062-176-4. [without a hyphen]
- The Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Dīgha Nikāya. Translated by Walshe, Maurice. Somerville, Mass.: Wisdom Publications. 1995. p. 194. ISBN 0-86171-103-3.
- Warder, A. K. (2004) . Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 63, 94. ISBN 81-208-1741-9.
- Rhys Davids, T.W.; Stede, William, eds. (1921–25). "Mettā". The Pali Text Society's Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. p. 540. Retrieved 2008-04-29.
- Gombrich, Richard (2002) . Theravada Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07585-8.
- Harvey, Peter (2012). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4.
- Dunne, Finley P. (2013). The World Religions Speak on "The Relevance of Religion in the Modern World". Springer. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-94-017-5892-5.
- Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P. K.; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K. (2015). "The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review". Frontiers in Psychology. 6: 1693. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01693. PMC 4630307. PMID 26579061.
- Hofmann, Stefan G.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich (2015-06-02). "Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015: 269126. doi:10.1155/2015/269126. ISSN 1741-427X. PMC 4468348. PMID 26136807.
- Galante, Julieta; Galante, Ignacio; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Gallacher, John (2014). "Effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 82 (6): 1101–1114. doi:10.1037/a0037249. ISSN 1939-2117. PMID 24979314.
- Bishop, S.R. (2002). "What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction?". Psychosom Med. 64 (1): 71–83. doi:10.1097/00006842-200201000-00010. PMID 11818588. S2CID 9853003.
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1956) . "Mitra, Maitrī". A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 816 & 834.
- Rhys Davids, Thomas William; Stede, William (1952) . Pali-English Dictionary. Vol. VI. London: The Pali Text Society. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-81-208-1144-7.
- Buswell, Robert E. Jr.; Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (2013). "pāramitā". The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 624. ISBN 978-1-4008-4805-8.
- Wiltshire, Martin G. (1990). Ascetic Figures Before and in Early Buddhism: The Emergence of Gautama as the Buddha. Religion and Reason. Vol. 30. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-009896-9.
- Patanjali. "Yogasutra". SanskritDocuments.Org. १.३३.
मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणां सुखदुःखपुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातश्चित्तप्रसादनम्
- Harris, Ian (2001). Harvey, Peter (ed.). Buddhism. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4411-4726-4.
- Aronson, Harvey B. (1980). Love and Sympathy in Theravāda Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 71. ISBN 978-81-208-1403-5.
- Jayatilleke, K. N. (1963). Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. pp. 478–479. ISBN 978-1-134-54287-1.
- In addition to AN 10.176, other discourses that contain [clarification needed] include:
- Discourse for the Brahmans of Sala (Sāleyyaka Sutta, MN 41) (Ñanamoli & Khantipalo, 1993)
- Discourse for the Brahmins of Verañja (Verañjaka Sutta, MN 42, which is substantially a reiteration of MN 41 in a different locale)
- Sutta on the To Be Cultivated and Not to Be Cultivated (Sevitabbāsevitabba Sutta, MN 114) (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, p. 917)
- First Discourse on Hell and Heaven (Paṭhama-niraya-sagga Sutta, AN 10.211)
- Second Discourse on Hell and Heaven (Dutiya-niraya-sagga Sutta, AN 10.212)
- First Discourse on Intentional Actions (Paṭhama-sañcetanika Sutta, AN 10.217)
- Second Discourse on Intentional Actions (Dutiya-sañcetanika Sutta, AN 10.218)
- the Paṭisambhidāmagga (see below)
- the paracanonical Milinda Pañha.
- See for instance, in the Digha Nikāya alone:
- The Great Splendor Discourse (Mahāsudassana Sutta, DN 17), v. 2.4 (Walshe, 1995, p. 287)
- The Great Steward Discourse (Mahāgovinda Sutta, DN 19), v. 59 (Walshe, 1995, p. 312)
- The Great Lion's Roar to the Udumbarikans Discourse (Udumbarika-Sīhanāda Sutta, DN 19), v. 17 (Walshe, 1995, pp. 390-391)
- The Lion's Roar on the Turning of the Wheel Discourse (Cakkavatti-Sīhanāda Sutta, DN 79), v. 28 (Walshe, 1995, p. 405).
- "Vatthupama Sutta: The Simile of the Cloth". Translated by Nyanaponika, Thera. 1998. MN VII.12, PTS M i 36.
- "Majjhima Nikaya: Sutta Pitaka". Bodhgaya News. book 1, BJT p. 88. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2009-08-07..
- See, for instance
- the Discourse to Subha (Subha Sutta, MN 99) (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 816–17)
- The Threefold Knowledge Discourse (Tevijja Sutta, DN 13), vv. 76–77 (Walshe, 1995, p. 194)
- MN 99 (Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi, 2001, pp. 816-17). In that translation, this text was presented as one paragraph. Here, it is divided into two, thus following the Pāli text presentation, to enhance readability. Given this text's length, relatively uncomplicated translation and lesser known status (e.g., compared with the Karaniya Metta Sutta), the associated Pāli text is not represented in this main article but here:
- Katamo ca..., brahmānaṃ sahavyatāya maggo: idha..., bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā viharati. Tathā dutiyaṃ, tathā tatiyaṃ, tathā catutthiṃ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṃ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṃ lokaṃ mettā sahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjhena pharitvā viharati. Evaṃ bhāvitāya kho..., mettāya cetovimuttiyā yaṃ pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ, na taṃ tatrāvasissati. Na taṃ tatrāvatiṭṭhati.
- Seyyathāpi..., balavā saṅkhadhamo appakasireneva catuddisā viññāpeyya. Evameva kho..., evaṃ bhavitāya mettāya ceto vimuttiyā, yaṃ pamāṇakataṃ kammaṃ na taṃ tatrāvasissati. Na taṃ tatrāvatiṭṭhati. Ayampi kho..., brahmāṇaṃ sahavyatāya maggo.
- Cited in Buddhaghosa & Ñāṇamoli (1999), p. 302, Vsm.IX,50. See also Ñanamoli (1987), section 11, "Methodical Practice: from the Patisambhidamagga," where this sentence is translated as: "May all beings be freed from enmity, distress and anxiety, and may they guide themselves to bliss."
- In this section of this article, the primary English-language sources are:
- Buddhaghosa, Bhadantacariya (1999). The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. Translated by Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu. Seattle, Wash.: BPS Pariyatti Editions. pp. 301–304 (Vsm.IX.49–58). ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
- Ñanamoli, Thera, ed. (1994) . "Methodical Practice: from the Patisambhidamagga". The Practice of Loving-Kindness (Metta): As Taught by the Buddha in the Pali Canon. The Wheel. Vol. 7. Translated by Ñanamoli, Thera. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
- "Metta (Mettanisamsa) Sutta: Discourse on Advantages of Loving-kindness". Access to Insight. Translated by Piyadassi, Thera. 13 June 2010.
- "Metta (Mettanisamsa) Sutta: Good Will". Translated by Thanissaro, Bhikkhu. 1997. AN 11.16.
- See also AN 8.1 (similarly entitled, Mettānisaṃsa Sutta [SLTP] and Mettā Suttaṃ [CSCD]) which omits the last three of four benefits mentioned in AN 11.16 (that is, it omits "One's mind gains concentration quickly. One's complexion is bright. One dies unconfused...").
- Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An anthology of Suttas from the Aṅguttara Nikāya. Translated by Nyanaponika, Thera; Bodhi, Bhikkhu. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. 1999. AN 1.ii.7. ISBN 0-7425-0405-0.
- Bhikkhu, Thanissaro (2001). "Itivuttaka: The Group of Ones". accesstoinsight.
- For example:
- Bloomfield, Maurice (1906). A Vedic Concordance. Harvard Oriental Series. Vol. 10. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. pp. 713–717.
- The Veda of the Black Yajus School entitled Taittiriya Sanhita. Vol. 2: Kandas IV–VII. Translated by Keith, Arthur Berriedale. Harvard University Press. 1914. p. 335 (iv,3,12,i:k).
- Ralph Griffith (1896). The Hymns of the Atharvaveda. E. J. Lazarus. pp. 312–313.
- Radhakrishnan, S. (1992). Rabindranath Tagore: A Centenary. Sahitya Akademi. p. 387. ISBN 978-81-7201-332-5.
- Mascaró, Juan (1965). The Upanishads. Penguin. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-0-14-044163-5.
- Gupta, Kalyan Sen (2016). The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-317-02143-8.
- Snow, Nancy (2012). Chatterjee, Deen K. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Global Justice. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 2155. ISBN 978-1-4020-9160-5.
- Chapple, Christopher Key (2015). Yoga in Jainism. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-317-57217-6.
- Carson, J. W. (2005). "Loving-Kindness Meditation for Chronic Low Back Pain: Results From a Pilot Trial". Journal of Holistic Nursing. 23 (3): 287–304. doi:10.1177/0898010105277651. PMID 16049118. S2CID 22556878.
- "Compassion Meditation May Improve Physical And Emotional Responses To Psychological Stress". ScienceDaily. 2008. Retrieved 2016-06-07.
- Burch, Vidyamala (2016). "Meditation and the management of pain". The Psychology of Meditation. Oxford University Press. pp. 153–176. doi:10.1093/med:psych/9780199688906.003.0007. ISBN 978-0-19-968890-6.
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- Brahmavihara Dhamma by Mahasi Sayadaw
- An essay on metta by Acharya Buddharakkhita
- The Four Sublime States and the Practice of Loving Kindness by Ñāṇamoli Bhikkhu & Nyanaponika Thera
- Abundant, Exalted, Immeasurable by Ajahn Pasanno
- I'm Right, You're Wrong by Ajahn Amaro
- The Metta Sutta
- Dharma Dictionary - RangjungYesheWiki - Byams Pa / Maitri
- Facets of Metta Archived 2019-12-01 at the Wayback Machine by Sharon Salzberg
- Curbing Anger, Spreading Love by Visuddhacara
- Matthieu Ricard talks about his lifelong practice of Compassion Meditation