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Guided meditation is a process by which one or more participants meditate in response to the guidance provided by a trained practitioner or teacher,[1] either in person or via a written text, sound recording, video, or audiovisual media[2] comprising music or verbal instruction, or a combination of both.[3][4]

The term "guided meditation" is most commonly used in clinical practice, scholarly research, and scientific investigation to signify an aggregate of integrated techniques. The most common and frequently used combination or synthesis comprises meditation music and receptive music therapy, guided imagery, relaxation, some form of meditative practice and mindfulness, and journaling. [5][6][7]

Investigators, clinicians, and research authors frequently analyze and discuss the effects and efficacy of this intervention as a whole, with the result that it is often difficult to attribute positive or negative outcomes to any of the specific techniques that contribute to guided meditation. Furthermore, the term "guided meditation" is frequently used interchangeably with the terms "guided imagery" and sometimes with "creative visualization" in popular psychology and self-help literature, and to a lesser extent in scholarly and scientific publications. Consequently, understanding the nature, scope, application, and limitations of guided meditation requires it to be considered in context and relationship to the multiple techniques that are integral to its practice, allowing for variations in terminology.[8][9][10][11]

BenefitsEdit

Guided meditation as an aggregate or synthesis of techniques including meditation music and receptive music therapy, guided imagery, relaxation, meditative praxis, and self-reflective diary-keeping or journaling has been shown to be effective in precipitating therapeutic, rehabilitative, and educational benefits when employed as an adjunct to primary clinical and instructional strategies, including as a means to lower levels of stress,[12] minimize the frequency, duration, and intensity of asthmatic episodes,[13] control and manage pain,[14] develop coping skills,[15] improve ability to carry out demanding tasks in exacting situations,[16] decrease the incidence of insomnia,[17] abate feelings of anger,[18] reduce occurrences of negative or irrational thinking,[19] assuage anxiety,[20] raise levels of optimism,[21] enhance physical and mental aptitude,[22] and increase general feeling of well-being and self-reported quality of life.[23][24]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. D347. Retrieved 31 July 2015.
  2. ^ Sources:
    • Stein, T. R., Olivo, E. L., Grand, S. H., Namerow, P. B., Costa, J., and Oz, M. C., A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp213-222.
    • Morris, C., The use of self-service technologies in stress management: A pilot project. Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers. Saint Catherine University, St. Paul, MN, 2012.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
  3. ^ Rose J. P. and Weis, J., Sound meditation in oncological rehabilitation: a pilot study of a receptive music therapy group using the monochord. Forschende Komplementarmedizin, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2006, pp335-343.
  4. ^ Grocke, D., and Wigram, T., Receptive methods in music therapy: Techniques and clinical applications for music therapy clinicians, educators, and students. London, England: Jessica Kingsley, 2007.
  5. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind–body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131–147.
  6. ^ Newham, P., Guided Meditation: Principles and Practice. London; Tigers Eye, 2005.
  7. ^ Newham, P., Music and Meditation: The Therapeutics of Sound. London: Tigers Eye: 2014.
  8. ^ Astin, J.A., Shapiro, S.L., Eisenberg, D. M., and Forys, M.A., Mind–body medicine: State of the science, implications for practice. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, Vol. 16:, 2003, pp131–147.
  9. ^ Post-White J. 2002. Clinical indication for use of imagery in oncology practice. In Voice Massage, Scripts for Guided Imagery, Edwards D.M (Ed.). Oncology Nursing Society: Pittsburgh, PA.
  10. ^ Wallace KG. 1997. Analysis of recent literature concerning relaxation and imagery interventions for cancer pain. Cancer Nursing 20: 79–87.
  11. ^ Luebert K, Dahme B, Hasenbring M. 2001. The effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing treatment- related symptoms and improving emotional adjustment in acute non-surgical cancer treatment: A meta-analytical review. Psycho-Oncology, Vol. 10: pp490–502.
  12. ^ Sources:
    • Unger, C. A., Busse, D., & Yim, I. S., The effect of guided relaxation on cortisol and affect: Stress reactivity as a moderator. Journal of Health Psychology, 2015, 1359105315595118.
    • Weigensberg M.J., Lane C.J., Winners O., Wright T., Nguyen-Rodriguez S., Goran M.I., Spruijt-Metz, D. Acute effects of stress-reduction Interactive Guided Imagery (SM) on salivary cortisol in overweight Latino adolescents. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2003, pp297-303.
    • Varvogli, L., and Darviri, C., Stress Management Techniques: evidence-based procedures that reduce stress and promote health. Health Science Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2011 pp74-89.
    • Carter, E., Pre-packaged guided imagery for stress reduction: Initial results. Counselling, Psychotherapy and Health, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2006, pp27-39.
    • Wynd C. A., Relaxation imagery used for stress reduction in the prevention of smoking relapse. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2006, pp294-302.
    • Lin, M. F., Hsu, M. C., Chang, H. J., Hsu, Y. Y., Chou, M. H., and Crawford, P., Pivotal moments and changes in the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music for patients with depression. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 19, Nos. 7‐8, 2010, pp1139-1148.
    • Roffe, L., Schmidt, K., and Ernst, E., A systematic review of guided imagery as an adjuvant cancer therapy. Psycho-oncology, Vol. 14, No. 8, 2005, pp607-617.
    • Holden-Lund C., Effects of relaxation with guided imagery on surgical stress and wound healing. Research in Nursing and Health, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2007, pp235-244.
    • Stein, T. R., Olivo, E. L., Grand, S. H., Namerow, P. B., Costa, J., and Oz, M. C., A pilot study to assess the effects of a guided imagery audiotape intervention on psychological outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2010, pp213-222.
    • Sahler O.J., Hunter, B.C., Liesveld J.L., The effect of using music therapy with relaxation imagery in the management of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation: a pilot feasibility study. Alternative Therapies, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2003, pp70- 74.
    • Kent, D., "Zenventures: Unwind your Imagination with Guided Meditation". Masters Thesis. Buffalo State University, New York, 2014.
  13. ^ Epstein G.N., Halper J.P., Barrett E.A., Birdsall, C., McGee, M., Baron K.P., Lowenstein S., A pilot study of mind-body changes in adults with asthma who practice mental imagery. AlternativeTherapies. Volume 10, July/August 2004, pp66-71.
  14. ^ Sources:
    • Menzies V., Taylor A.G., Bourguignon C., Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2006, pp23-30.
    • Kwekkeboom, K. L., Kneip, J., and Pearson, L., A pilot study to predict success with guided imagery for cancer pain. Pain Management Nursing, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2003, pp112-123.
    • Antall G.F., Kresevic D. The use of guided imagery to manage pain in an elderly orthopaedic population. Orthopaedic Nursing, Vol. 23, No. 5, September/October 2004, pp335-340
  15. ^ Sources:
    • Manyande, A., Berg, S., Gettins, D., Stanford, S. C., Mazhero, S., Marks, D. F., and Salmon, P., Preoperative rehearsal of active coping imagery influences subjective and hormonal responses to abdominal surgery. Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 2, 1995, pp177-182.
    • Hockenberry, M. H., Guided imagery as a coping measure for children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1989, pp29-29.
  16. ^ Sources:
    • Esplen, M. J. and Hodnett, E., A Pilot Study Investigating Student Musicians' Experiences of Guided Imagery as a Technique to Manage Performance Anxiety. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999, pp127-132.
    • Feltz, D. L., and Riessinger, C. A., Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on self-efficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1990, pp132-143.
    • Sanders, C. W., Sadoski, M., Bramson, R., Wiprud, R., and Van Walsum, K., Comparing the effects of physical practice and mental imagery rehearsal on learning basic surgical skills by medical students. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, Vol. 191, No. 5, 2004, pp1811-1814.
  17. ^ Sources:
    • Ong, J. C., Manber, R., Segal, Z., Xia, Y., Shapiro, S., and Wyatt, J. K., A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for chronic insomnia. Sleep, Vol. 37, No. 9, 2014, p1553.
    • Singh, A., and Modi, R., Meditation and positive mental health. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2012, p273.
    • Molen, Y., Santos, G., Carvalho, L., Prado, L., and Prado, G., Pre-sleep worry decrease by adding reading and guided imagery to insomnia treatment. Sleep Medicine, Vol. 14, 2013, e210-e211.
  18. ^ Awalt, R. M., Reilly, P. M., and Shopshire, M. S., The angry patient: an intervention for managing anger in substance abuse treatment. Journal of psychoactive drugs, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1997, 353-358.
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    • Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A., Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: Developing a novel computerised intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, Vol. 26, 2012, pp145–157.
    • Teasdale, J. D., Emotion and two kinds of meaning: Cognitive therapy and applied cognitive science. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1993, pp339-354.
    • Birnbaum, L., & Birnbaum, A., In search of inner wisdom: guided mindfulness meditation in the context of suicide. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 4, 2004, pp216-227.
  20. ^ McCaffrey, R., and Taylor, N., Effective anxiety treatment prior to diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005, pp70-73.
  21. ^ Sources:
    • Birnbaum, L., & Birnbaum, A., In search of inner wisdom: guided mindfulness meditation in the context of suicide. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 4, 2004, pp216-227.
    • Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J., & Finkel, S. M., Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 95, No. 5, 2008, p1045.
    • Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., ... & Fredrickson, B. L. How positive emotions build physical health perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological science, Vol. 24, No. 7, 2013, 1123-1132.
  22. ^ Sources:
    • Bond, K., Karkhaneh, M., Tjosvold, L., Vandermeer, B., Liang, Y., Bialy, L., and Klassen, T. P., Meditation practices for health: state of the research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007.
    • Young, A. S., Chinman, M., Forquer, S. L., Knight, E. L., Vogel, H., Miller, A., and Mintz, J., Use of a consumer-led intervention to improve provider competencies. Psychiatric Services, Vol. 56, No. 8, August 2005, pp967-975.
  23. ^ Hanh, Thich Nhat. The blooming of a lotus: Guided meditation for achieving the miracle of mindfulness. Beacon Press, 2009.
  24. ^ LeónPizarro C., Gich I., Barthe E., Rovirosa A., Farrús B., Casas F., Verger E., Biete A., Craven Bartle J., Sierra J., Arcusa A., A randomized trial of the effect of training in relaxation and guided imagery techniques in improving psychological and quality-of-life indices for gynecologic and breast brachytherapy patients. Psycho-oncology, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2007, pp971-979.