Qigong (/ˈˈɡɒŋ/),[1][a] is a system of coordinated body-posture and movement, breathing, and meditation[2] said to be useful for the purposes of health, spirituality, and martial arts training.[3] With roots in Chinese medicine, philosophy, and martial arts, qigong is traditionally viewed by the Chinese and throughout Asia as a practice to cultivate and balance the mythical life-force qi.[4]

Meister Lam in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese氣功
Simplified Chinese气功
Vietnamese name
Vietnamesekhí công
Chữ Hán氣功
Korean name
Japanese name

Qigong practice typically involves moving meditation, coordinating slow-flowing movement, deep rhythmic breathing, and a calm meditative state of mind. People practice qigong throughout China and worldwide for recreation, exercise, relaxation, preventive medicine, self-healing, alternative medicine, meditation, self-cultivation, and training for martial arts.[2]



Qigong (Pinyin), ch'i kung (Wade-Giles), and chi gung (Yale) are romanizations of two Chinese words "" and "gōng" (). Qi primarily means air, gas or breath but is often translated as a metaphysical concept of 'vital energy',[4] referring to a supposed energy circulating through the body; though a more general definition is universal energy, including heat, light, and electromagnetic energy;[5] and definitions often involve breath, air, gas, or the relationship between matter, energy, and spirit.[6] Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts. Gong (or kung) is often translated as cultivation or work, and definitions include practice, skill, mastery, merit, achievement, service, result, or accomplishment, and is often used to mean gongfu (kung fu) in the traditional sense of achievement through great effort.[7] The two words are combined to describe systems to cultivate and balance life energy, especially for health and wellbeing.[4]

The term qigong as currently used was promoted in the late 1940s through the 1950s to refer to a broad range of Chinese self-cultivation exercises, and to emphasize health and scientific approaches, while de-emphasizing spiritual practices, mysticism, and elite lineages.[8][9][10]

History and origins


Roots and traditions

The physical exercise chart; a painting on silk depicting the practice of daoyin; unearthed in 1973 in Hunan Province, China, from the 2nd-century BC Western Han burial site of Mawangdui Han tombs site, Tomb Number 3.

With roots in ancient Chinese culture dating back more than 2,000 years, a wide variety of qigong forms have developed within different segments of Chinese society:[11] in traditional Chinese medicine for preventive and curative functions;[12] in Confucianism to promote longevity and improve moral character;[4] in Taoism and Buddhism as part of meditative practice;[13] and in Chinese martial arts to enhance self defending abilities.[9][14] Contemporary qigong blends diverse and sometimes disparate traditions, in particular the Taoist meditative practice of "internal alchemy" (neidan), the ancient meditative practices of "circulating qi" (xingqi) and "standing meditation" (zhan zhuang), and the slow gymnastic breathing exercise of "guiding and pulling" (daoyin). Traditionally, qigong was taught by master to students through training and oral transmission, with an emphasis on meditative practice by scholars and gymnastic or dynamic practice by the working masses.[15]

From 1949 to 1999: the qigong boom


Starting in the late 1940s and the 1950s, the mainland Chinese government tried to integrate disparate qigong approaches into one coherent system, with the intention of establishing a firm scientific basis for qigong practice. In 1949, Liu Guizhen established the name "qigong" to refer to the system of life-preserving practices that he and his associates developed, based on daoyin and other philosophical traditions.[16] This attempt is considered by some sinologists as the start of the modern or scientific interpretation of qigong.[17][18][19] During the Great Leap Forward (1958–1963) and the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), qigong, along with other traditional Chinese medicine, was under tight control with limited access among the general public, but was encouraged in state-run rehabilitation centers and spread to universities and hospitals. After the Cultural Revolution, qigong, along with tai chi, was popularized as daily morning exercise practiced en masse throughout China.

Popularity of qigong grew rapidly through the 1990s, during Chairman Deng Xiaoping and Jiang Zemin eras after Mao Zedong's death in 1976, with estimates of between 60 and 200 million practitioners throughout China. In 1985, the state-run China Qigong Science and Research Society was established to regulate the nation's qigong denominations and activities of Qigong Masters.[8]: 59 [10]: 42, 44 

With the backing of prominent figures including several senior ranking party officials and most notably the atomic scientist Qian Xuesen,[10]: 63–64  research into the paranormal aspects of Qigong gained traction within the Chinese scientific community during the 1980s.[8]: 67–68  Qian advocated for the creation of "somatic science" (人体科学, renti kexue) which would address supernatural powers in its research of latent human body potentials that can be cultivated via Qigong practice.[8]: 65, 107 

Along with popularity and state sanction came controversy and problems: claims of extraordinary abilities bordering on the supernatural, pseudoscience explanations to build credibility,[20] a mental condition labeled qigong deviation,[19] formation of cults, and exaggeration of claims by masters for personal benefit.[8][21]

Control and crackdown


In 1999, in response to widespread revival of old traditions of spirituality, morality, and mysticism, and perceived challenges to State control, the Chinese government took measures to enforce control of public qigong practice, including shutting down qigong clinics and hospitals, and banning groups such as Zhong Gong and Falun Gong.[10]: 161–174 [22] Since the 1999 crackdown, qigong research and practice have only been officially supported in the context of health and traditional Chinese medicine. The Chinese Health Qigong Association, established in 2000, strictly regulates public qigong practice, with limitation of public gatherings, requirement of state approved training and certification of instructors, and restriction of practice to state-approved forms.[23][24]





Qigong comprises a diverse set of practices that coordinate body (調身), breath (調息), and mind (調心) based on Chinese philosophy.[25][26] Practices include moving and still meditation, massage, chanting, sound meditation, and non-contact treatments, performed in a broad array of body postures. Qigong is commonly classified into two foundational categories: 1) dynamic or active qigong (dong gong), with slow flowing movement; and 2) meditative or passive qigong (jing gong), with still positions and inner movement of the breath.[27]: 21770–21772  From a therapeutic perspective, qigong can be classified into two systems: 1) internal qigong, which focuses on self-care and self-cultivation, and; 2) external qigong, which involves treatment by a therapist who directs or transmits qi.[27]: 21777–21781 

As moving meditation, qigong practice typically coordinates slow stylized movement, deep diaphragmatic breathing, and calm mental focus, with visualization of guiding qi through the body. While implementation details vary, generally qigong forms can be characterized as a mix of four types of practice: dynamic, static, meditative, and activities requiring external aids.

  • Dynamic practice
involves fluid movement, usually carefully choreographed, coordinated with breath and awareness. Examples include the slow stylized movements of tai chi, baguazhang, and xingyiquan.[28] Other examples include graceful movement that mimics the motion of animals in Five Animals (Wu Qin Xi qigong),[29][self-published source?] White Crane,[30] and Wild Goose (Dayan) Qigong.[31][32] As a form of gentle exercise, qigong is composed of movements that are typically repeated, strengthening and stretching the body, increasing fluid movement (blood, synovial, and lymph), enhancing balance and proprioception, and improving the awareness of how the body moves through space.[33]
  • Static practice
involves holding postures for sustained periods of time.[34] In some cases this bears resemblance to the practice of Yoga and its continuation in the Buddhist tradition.[35] For example Yiquan, a Chinese martial art derived from xingyiquan, emphasizes static stance training.[36] In another example, the healing form Eight Pieces of Brocade (Baduanjin qigong) is based on a series of static postures.[37]
  • Meditative practice
utilizes breath awareness, visualization, mantra, chanting, sound, and focus on philosophical concepts such as qi circulation, aesthetics, or moral values.[38] In traditional Chinese medicine and Daoist practice, the meditative focus is commonly on cultivating qi in dantian energy centers and balancing qi flow in meridian and other pathways. In various Buddhist traditions, the aim is to still the mind, either through outward focus, for example on a place, or through inward focus on the breath, a mantra, a koan, emptiness, or the idea of the eternal. In the Confucius scholar tradition, meditation is focused on humanity and virtue, with the aim of self-enlightenment.[11]
  • Use of external agents
Many systems of qigong practice include the use of external agents such as ingestion of herbs, massage, physical manipulation, or interaction with other living organisms.[13] For example, specialized food and drinks are used in some medical and Daoist forms, whereas massage and body manipulation are sometimes used in martial arts forms. In some medical systems a qigong master uses non-contact treatment, purportedly guiding qi through his or her own body into the body of another person.[39]



There are numerous qigong forms. 75 ancient forms that can be found in ancient literature and also 56 common or contemporary forms have been described in a qigong compendium.[40]: 203–433  The list is by no means exhaustive. Many contemporary forms were developed by people who had recovered from their illness after qigong practice.



Whether viewed from the perspective of exercise, health, philosophy, or martial arts training, several main principles emerge concerning the practice of qigong:[4][33][41][42]

  • Intentional movement: careful, flowing balanced style
  • Rhythmic breathing: slow, deep, coordinated with fluid movement
  • Awareness: calm, focused meditative state
  • Visualization: of qi flow, philosophical tenets, aesthetics
  • Chanting/Sound: use of sound as a focal point

Additional principles:

  • Softness: soft gaze, expressionless face
  • Solid Stance: firm footing, erect spine
  • Relaxation: relaxed muscles, slightly bent joints
  • Balance and Counterbalance: motion over the center of gravity

Advanced goals:

  • Equanimity: more fluid, more relaxed
  • Tranquility: empty mind, high awareness
  • Stillness: smaller and smaller movements, eventually to complete stillness

The most advanced practice is generally considered to be with little or no motion.

Traditional and classical theory

Qigong practitioners in Brazil

Over time, five distinct traditions or schools of qigong developed in China, each with its own theories and characteristics: Chinese medical qigong, Daoist qigong, Buddhist qigong, Confucian qigong, and "martial" qigong.[43]: 30–80  All of these qigong traditions include practices intended to cultivate and balance qi.[11][44][45][46]

Traditional Chinese medicine


The theories of ancient Chinese qigong include the yin and yang and Five Elements Theory, the Three Treasures Theory, Zang-Xiang Theory, Meridians, and the qi-Blood Theory, which have been synthesized as part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).[43]: 45–57  TCM aims to identify and correct underlying disharmony, addressing deficiency and excess by utilizing the complementary and opposing forces of yin and yang, to create a balanced flow of qi. Qi is believed to be cultivated and stored in three main dantian energy centers and to travel through the body along twelve main meridians, with numerous smaller branches and tributaries. The main meridians correspond to twelve main organs. Qi is balanced in terms of yin and yang in the context of the traditional system of Five Elements.[11][12] It is understood that illness and disease emerge when qi becomes diminished, unbalanced, or stagnant. Health is believed to be returned and maintained by rebuilding qi, eliminating qi blockages, and correcting qi imbalances. These TCM concepts do not translate readily to modern science and medicine but are adopted by TCM practitioners throughout East Asia in treating patients.[47]



In Daoism, various practices now known as Daoist qigong are claimed to provide a way to achieve longevity and spiritual realization,[48] as well as a closer connection with the natural world.[49] For instance, the Ming dynasty compendium Chifeng sui, written by a Daoist ascetic, lists various qigong-based "longevity methods".



Meditative practices are part of a spiritual path that leads to enlightenment or Buddhahood. They are considered by some as Buddhist qigong. [50]



In Confucianism practices now known as Confucian qigong provide a means to become a Junzi (君子) through awareness of morality.[51][52]

Contemporary qigong


In contemporary China, the emphasis of qigong practice has shifted away from traditional philosophy, spiritual attainment, and folklore, and increasingly to health benefits, traditional medicine and martial arts applications, and a scientific perspective.[8][10] Qigong is now practiced by millions worldwide, primarily for its health benefits, though many practitioners have also adopted traditional philosophical, medical, or martial arts perspectives, and even use the long history of qigong as evidence of its effectiveness.[11][41]

Contemporary Chinese medical qigong


Qigong has been recognized as a "standard medical technique" in China since 1989, and is sometimes included in the medical curriculum of major universities in China.[53]: 34  The 2013 English translation of the official Chinese medical gigong textbook used in China[43]: iv, 385  defines CMQ as "the skill of body-mind exercise that integrates body, breath, and mind adjustments into one" and emphasizes that qigong is based on "adjustment" (tiao , also translated as "regulation", "tuning", or "alignment") of body, breath, and mind.[43]: 16–18  As such, qigong is viewed by practitioners as being more than common physical exercise, because qigong combines postural, breathing, and mental training in one to produce a particular psychophysiological state of being.[43]: 15  While CMQ is still based on traditional and classical theory, modern practitioners also emphasize the importance of a strong scientific basis.[43]: 81–89  According to the 2013 CMQ textbook, physiological effects of qigong are numerous, and include improvement of respiratory and cardiovascular function, and possibly neurophysiological function.[43]: 89–102 

Integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine


Integrative medicine (IM) refers to "the blending of conventional and complementary medicines and therapies with the aim of using the most appropriate of either or both modalities to care for the patient as a whole",[54]: 455–456  whereas complementary is using a non-mainstream approach together with conventional medicine, while alternative is using a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine.[55] Qigong is used by integrative medicine practitioners to complement conventional medical treatment, based on complementary and alternative medicine interpretations of the effectiveness and safety of qigong.[27]: 22278–22306 

Practitioners, uses and cautions


People practice qigong for many different reasons, including for recreation, exercise and relaxation, preventive medicine and self-healing, meditation and self-cultivation, and training for martial arts. Practitioners range from athletes to people with disabilities. Because it is low impact and can be done lying, sitting, or standing, qigong is accessible for people with disabilities, seniors, and people recovering from injuries.[4]

Meditation and self-cultivation


Qigong is practiced for meditation and self-cultivation as part of various philosophical and spiritual traditions. As meditation, qigong is a means to still the mind and enter a state of consciousness that brings serenity, clarity, and bliss.[13] Many practitioners find qigong, with its gentle focused movement, to be more accessible than seated meditation.[41]

Qigong for self-cultivation can be classified in terms of traditional Chinese philosophy: Daoist, Buddhist, and Confucian.

Martial arts applications


The practice of qigong is an important component in both internal and external style Chinese martial arts.[13] Focus on qi is considered to be a source of power as well as the foundation of the internal style of martial arts (neijia). Tai chi, xingyiquan, and baguazhang are representative of the types of Chinese martial arts that rely on the concept of qi as the foundation.[56] Extraordinary feats of martial arts prowess, such as the ability to withstand heavy strikes (Iron Shirt, 鐵衫)[57][page needed] and the ability to break hard objects (Iron Palm, 鐵掌; alt. 鐵絲掌, 鐵沙掌, or 鐵砂掌)[58][page needed][59][page needed] are abilities attributed to qigong training.

Tai chi and qigong


Tai chi is a widely practiced Chinese internal martial style based on the theory of taiji, closely associated with qigong, and typically involving more complex choreographed movement coordinated with breath, done slowly for health and training, or quickly for self-defense. Many scholars consider tai chi to be a type of qigong, traced back to an origin in the seventeenth century. In modern practice, qigong typically focuses more on health and meditation rather than martial applications, and plays an important role in training for tai chi, in particular used to build strength, develop breath control, and increase vitality ("life energy").[28][60]

Therapeutic use


Qigong has shown therapeutic benefits in various health conditions. Research suggests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Qigong has been found to improve lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life. [61] Qigong exercise shows therapeutic efficacy in alleviating fibromyalgia symptoms including pain, sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and fibromyalgia impact, as per a pilot randomized clinical trial.[62] Moreover, studies have indicated Qigong-based exercises may be effective for alleviating depression symptoms in individuals with major depressive disorder and future well-designed, randomized controlled trials with large sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings. [63]

Safety and cost


Qigong is generally viewed as safe.[64] No adverse effects have been observed in clinical trials, such that qigong is considered safe for use across diverse populations. Cost for self-care is minimal, and cost efficiencies are high for group delivered care.[65] Typically the cautions associated with qigong are the same as those associated with any physical activity, including risk of muscle strains or sprains, advisability of stretching to prevent injury, general safety for use alongside conventional medical treatments, and consulting with a physician when combining with conventional treatment.[2][66]

Clinical research




Although there is ongoing clinical research examining the potential health effects of qigong, there is little financial or medical incentive to support high-quality research, and still only a limited number of studies meet accepted medical and scientific standards of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).[2][65] Clinical research concerning qigong has been conducted for a wide range of medical conditions, including bone density, cardiopulmonary effects, physical function, falls and related risk factors, quality of life, immune function, inflammation,[65] hypertension,[67] pain,[68] and cancer treatment.[2][69]

Conventional medicine


Especially since the 1990s, conventional or mainstream Western medicine often strives to heed the model of evidence-based medicine, EBM, which demotes medical theory, clinical experience, and physiological data to prioritize the results of controlled, and especially randomized, clinical trials of the treatment itself.[70][71] Although some clinical trials support qigong's effectiveness in treating conditions diagnosed in Western medicine, the quality of these studies is mostly low and, overall, their results are mixed.[72]

Systematic reviews


A 2009 systematic review on the effect of qigong exercises on reducing pain concluded that "the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management."[68]

A 2010 systematic review of the effect of qigong exercises on cancer treatment concluded "the effectiveness of qigong in cancer care is not yet supported by the evidence from rigorous clinical trials."[69] A separate systematic review that looked at the effects of qigong exercises on various physiological or psychological outcomes found that the available studies were poorly designed, with a high risk of bias in the results. Therefore, the authors concluded, "Due to limited number of RCTs in the field and methodological problems and high risk of bias in the included studies, it is still too early to reach a conclusion about the efficacy and the effectiveness of qigong exercise as a form of health practice adopted by the cancer patients during their curative, palliative, and rehabilitative phases of the cancer journey."[73]

A 2011 overview of systematic reviews of controlled clinical trials, Lee et al. concluded that "the effectiveness of qigong is based mostly on poor quality research" and "therefore, it would be unwise to draw firm conclusions at this stage."[72] Although a 2010 comprehensive literature review found 77 peer-reviewed RCTs,[65] Lee et al.'s overview of systematic reviews as to particular health conditions found problems like sample size, lack of proper control groups, with lack of blinding associated with high risk of bias.[72]

A 2015 systematic review of the effect of qigong exercises on cardiovascular diseases and hypertension found no conclusive evidence for effect.[67] Also in 2015, a systemic review into the effects on hypertension suggested that it may be effective, but that the evidence was not conclusive because of the poor quality of the trials it included, and advised more rigorous research in the future.[74] Another 2015 systematic review of qigong on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease concluded that some trials showed favorable effects, but concludes, "Most of the trials included in this review are likely to be at high risk of bias, so we have very low confidence in the validity of the results.[67]

Mental health


Many claims have been made that qigong can benefit or ameliorate mental health conditions,[65] including improved mood, decreased stress reaction, and decreased anxiety and depression. Most medical studies have only examined psychological factors as secondary goals, although various studies have shown decreases in cortisol levels, a chemical hormone produced by the body in response to stress.[65]



Basic and clinical research in China during the 1980s was mostly descriptive, and few results were reported in peer-reviewed English-language journals.[27]: 22060–22063  Qigong became known outside China in the 1990s, and clinical randomized controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of qigong on health and mental conditions began to be published worldwide, along with systematic reviews.[27]: 21792–21798 



Most existing clinical trials have small sample sizes and many have inadequate controls. Of particular concern is the impracticality of double blinding using appropriate sham treatments, and the difficulty of placebo control, such that benefits often cannot be distinguished from the placebo effect.[27]: 22278–22306 [75] Also of concern is the choice of which qigong form to use and how to standardize the treatment or amount with respect to the skill of the practitioner leading or administering treatment, the tradition of individualization of treatments, and the treatment length, intensity, and frequency.[27]: 6869–6920, 22361–22370 [76]

See also



  1. ^ Also written as chi kung, chi 'ung, or chi gung, from the Chinese (simplified Chinese: 气功; traditional Chinese: 氣功; pinyin: qìgōng; Wade–Giles: ch‘i kung; lit. 'life-energy cultivation')


  1. ^ "Qigong". Collins English Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Tai chi and qi gong: In depth". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. October 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  3. ^ Plaugher, Noel (2015). Standing Qigong for health and martial arts, Zhan Zhuang. Ebooks Corporation. ISBN 978-0-85701-204-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cohen, K. S. (1999). The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing. Random House of Canada. ISBN 978-0-345-42109-8.
  5. ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1987). Chi Kung: health & martial arts. Yang's Martial Arts Association. ISBN 978-0-940871-00-7.
  6. ^ Ho, Peng Yoke (Oct 2000). Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-41445-4.
  7. ^ MDBG dictionary entry for Gong
  8. ^ a b c d e f Palmer, David A. (2007). Qigong fever: body, science, and utopia in China. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14066-9.
  9. ^ a b YeYoung, Bing. "Origins of Qi Gong". YeYoung Culture Studies: Sacramento, CA (http://literati-tradition.com). Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  10. ^ a b c d e Ownby, David (2008). Falun Gong and the future of China. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532905-6.
  11. ^ a b c d e Yang, Jwing-Ming. (1989). The root of Chinese Chi kung: the secrets of Chi kung training. Yang's Martial Arts Association. ISBN 978-0-940871-07-6.
  12. ^ a b Holland, Alex (2000). Voices of Qi: An Introductory Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-326-9.
  13. ^ a b c d Liang, Shou-Yu; Wu, Wen-Ching; Breiter-Wu, Denise (1997). Qigong Empowerment: A Guide to Medical, Taoist, Buddhist, and Wushu Energy Cultivation. Way of the Dragon Pub. ISBN 978-1-889659-02-2.
  14. ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1998). Qigong for health and martial arts: exercises and meditation. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-57-5.
  15. ^ Miura, Kunio (1989). "The Revival of Qi". In Livia Kohl (ed.). Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques. Center For Chinese Studies: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. ISBN 978-0-89264-085-0.
  16. ^ Voigt, John (Autumn 2013). "The Man Who Invented "Qigong"" (PDF). Qi: The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health & Fitness. 23 (3): 28–33. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2014.
  17. ^ Otehode, Utiraruto (2009). "The Creation and Reemergence of Qigong in China". In Ashiwa, Yoshiko; Wank, David L. (eds.). Making religion, making the state: the politics of religion in modern China. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. pp. 241–265. ISBN 978-0-8047-5842-0.
  18. ^ Despeux, C. (1997). "Le qigong, une expression de la modernité Chinoise". In J. Gernet; M. Kalinowski (eds.). En suivant la Voie Royale: Mélanges en homage à Léon Vandermeersch. École Française d'Extrême-Orient. pp. 267–281.
  19. ^ a b Chen, Nancy N. (2003). Breathing Spaces: Qigong, Psychiatry, and Healing in China. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12804-9.
  20. ^ Lin, Zixin (2000). Qigong: Chinese medicine or pseudoscience. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-232-6.
  21. ^ Wanjek, Christopher (2003). Bad medicine: misconceptions and misuses revealed, from distance healing to vitamin O. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 182–187. ISBN 978-0-471-43499-3.
  22. ^ Penny, Benjamin (1993). "Qigong, Daoism and Science: some contexts for the qigong boom". In Lee, M.; Syrokomla-Stefanowska, A.D. (eds.). Modernisation of the Chinese Past. Sydney: Wild Peony. pp. 166–179. ISBN 978-0-86758-658-9.
  23. ^ Karchmer, Eric (2002). "Magic, Science and Qigong in Contemporary China". In Blum, Susan Debra; Jensen, Lionel M (eds.). China off center: mapping the margins of the middle kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 311–22. ISBN 978-0-8248-2577-5.
  24. ^ Scheid, Volker (2002). Chinese medicine in contemporary China: plurality and synthesis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-2872-8.
  25. ^ Yang, Bai Long 杨柏龙 (2006). 气功标准教程 [A Standard Guide on Qigong]. Beijing Sport University Press 北京体育大学出版社. ISBN 978-7-81100-540-0.
  26. ^ Lam Kam-Chuen, Master; Lam, Kam Chuen (1991). The way of energy: mastering the Chinese art of internal strength with chi kung exercise. New York: Simon Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-73645-3.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Micozzi, Marc S. (2010). Fundamentals of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences, Kindle Edition.
  28. ^ a b Yang, Jwing-Ming (1998). The Essence of Taiji Qigong, Second Edition : The Internal Foundation of Taijiquan (Martial Arts-Qigong). YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-63-6.
  29. ^ Fick, Franklin (2005). Five Animal Frolics Qi Gong: Crane and Bear Exercises. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4116-2776-5.
  30. ^ Clark, Angus (2003). Secrets of Qigong (Secrets of). Evergreen. ISBN 978-3-8228-0967-9.
  31. ^ Zhang, Hong-Chao (2000). Wild Goose Qigong: Natural Movement for Healthy Living. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-78-0.
  32. ^ Connor, Danny; Tse, Michael (1992). Qigong: Chinese movement meditation for health. York Beach, Me.: S. Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-758-2.
  33. ^ a b Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (2008). The Chi Revolution: Harnessing the Healing Power of Your Life Force. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-193-5.
  34. ^ Diepersloot, Jan (2000). The Tao of Yiquan: The Method of Awareness in the Martial Arts. Center For Healing & The Arts. ISBN 978-0-9649976-1-5.
  35. ^ Dumoulin, Heinrich; Heisig, James W.; McRae, John M.; Knitter, Paul F. (2005). Zen Buddhism: a history. Bloomington, Ind.: World Wisdom. ISBN 978-0-941532-89-1.
  36. ^ Dong, Paul; Raffill, Thomas (2005-12-10). Empty Force: The Power of Chi for Self-Defense and Energy Healing. Blue Snake Books/Frog, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-58394-134-8.
  37. ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming; Jwing-Ming, Yang (1997). Eight Simple Qigong Exercises for Health: The Eight Pieces of Brocade. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-52-0.
  38. ^ Lu, Kuan Yü (1969). The secrets of Chinese meditation: self-cultivation by mind control as taught in the Ch'an, Mahāyāna and Taoist schools in China. S. Weiser.
  39. ^ Xu, Xiangcai (2000). Qigong for Treating Common Ailments. YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-70-4.
  40. ^ Ma Ji Ren 馬濟人 (1992). 實用中醫氣功學 [Practical Qigong for Traditional Chinese Medicine]. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers 上海科学枝术出版社. p. 466. ISBN 978-7-5323-2720-1.
  41. ^ a b c Garripoli, Garri (1999). Qigong: Essence of the Healing Dance. HCI. ISBN 978-1-55874-674-9.
  42. ^ Patterson, Jeff (2014-03-12). "Use of Sound in Qigong". portlandtaichiacademy.com. Portland Tai Chi Academy. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g Liu, Tian Jun; Qiang, Xiao Mei, eds. (2013). Chinese Medical Qigong, Third Edition. Singing Dragon. ISBN 978-1-84819-096-2.
  44. ^ Frantzis, Bruce Kumar (1995). Opening the Energy Gates of Your Body (The Tao of Energy Enhancement). North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-164-7.
  45. ^ Liu, JeeLoo (2006-05-05). An Introduction to Chinese Philosophy: From Ancient Philosophy to Chinese Buddhism. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2949-7.
  46. ^ Li, Chenyang (1999). The Tao encounters the West: explorations in comparative philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-4135-0.
  47. ^ Cheung, Felix (2011). "TCM: Made in China". Nature. 480 (7378): S82–S83. Bibcode:2011Natur.480S..82C. doi:10.1038/480S82a. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 22190085. S2CID 600909.
  48. ^ Luk, C.; Chen Chao, Pi; Lu, Kʻuan Yü (1984). Taoist yoga: alchemy and immortality: a translation, with introduction and notes, of The secrets of cultivating nature and eternal life (Hsin ming fa chueh ming chih). York Beach, Me.: Samuel Weiser. ISBN 978-0-87728-067-5.
  49. ^ Réquéna, Yves (1996). Chi Kung: The Chinese Art of Mastering Energy. Healing Arts Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-89281-639-2.
  50. ^ Bucknell, Roderick S.; Stuart-Fox, Martin (1993). The twilight language: explorations in Buddhist meditation and symbolism. London: Curzon Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-0234-3.
  51. ^ Hook, Mary, Van; Hugen, Beryl; Aguilar, Marian Angela (2001). Spirituality within religious traditions in social work practice. Australia: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0-534-58419-1.
  52. ^ Richey, Jeffrey Edward (2008). Teaching Confucianism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-531160-0.
  53. ^ Douglas Wengell; Nathen Gabriel (2008). Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine. The Hunter Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-9776552-4-3.
  54. ^ Kotsirilos, Vicki; Luis Vitetta; Avni Sali (2011). A Guide to Evidence-based Integrative and Complementary Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. Kindle Edition.
  55. ^ "Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. November 8, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
  56. ^ Li, Lu; Yun, Zhang (2006). The Combat Techniques of Tai Ji, Xing Yi, and Ba Gua : Principles and Practices of Internal Martial Arts. Frog, Ltd./Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-145-4.
  57. ^ Chia, Mantak (2006). Iron Shirt Chi Kung. Destiny Books. ISBN 978-1-59477-104-0.
  58. ^ Lee, Ying-Arng. (1973). Iron Palm in 100 days. Wehman Bros. Inc.
  59. ^ Chao, H.C. (1981). Complete iron palm training for self defense. Unitrade Company.
  60. ^ YeYoung, Bing. "Introduction to Taichi and Qigong". YeYoung Culture Studies: Sacramento, CA. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
  61. ^ Tong, Hongxuan; Liu, Yihua; Zhu, Yutian; Zhang, Boli; Hu, Jingqing (2019). "The therapeutic effects of qigong in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the stable stage: a meta-analysis". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 19 (1): 239. doi:10.1186/s12906-019-2639-9. PMC 6727520. PMID 31484521.
  62. ^ Sarmento, Caio V.M.; Moon, Sanghee; Pfeifer, Taylor; Smirnova, Irina V.; Colgrove, Yvonne; Lai, Sue Min; Liu, Wen (2020). "The therapeutic efficacy of Qigong exercise on the main symptoms of fibromyalgia: a pilot randomized clinical trial". Integrative Medicine Research. 9 (4). doi:10.1016/j.imr.2020.100416. PMC 7235941. PMID 32455108.
  63. ^ Guo, Lijuan; Kong, Zhaowei; Zhang, Yanjie (2019). "Qigong-Based Therapy for Treating Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (5): 826. doi:10.3390/ijerph16050826. PMC 6427394. PMID 30866431.
  64. ^ "Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012-01-06. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  65. ^ a b c d e f Jahnke, R.; Larkey, L.; Rogers, C.; Etnier, J; Lin, F. (2010). "A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi". American Journal of Health Promotion. 24 (6): e1–e25. doi:10.4278/ajhp.081013-LIT-248. PMC 3085832. PMID 20594090.
  66. ^ "Web MD: Are tai chi and qi gong safe?". Retrieved 14 March 2014.
  67. ^ a b c Hartley, L; Lee, MS; Kwong, JS; Flowers, N; Todkill, D; Ernst, E; Rees, K (2015). "Qigong for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 (6): CD010390. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010390.pub2. PMC 6956616. PMID 26068956.
  68. ^ a b Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E (November 2009). "Internal qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review". J Pain. 10 (11): 1121–1127.e14. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2009.03.009. PMID 19559656.
  69. ^ a b Lee MS, Chen KW, Sancier KM, Ernst E (2007). "Qigong for cancer treatment: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials". Acta Oncol. 46 (6): 717–22. doi:10.1080/02841860701261584. PMID 17653892.
  70. ^ Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS (January 1996). "Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't". BMJ. 312 (7023): 71–2. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7023.71. PMC 2349778. PMID 8555924.
  71. ^ * Tenny S & Varacallo M, "Evidence based medicine (EBM)" @ NIH.gov (Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing, 2020).
  72. ^ a b c Lee MS, Oh B, Ernst E (2011). "Qigong for healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews". JRSM Short Rep. 2 (2): 1–5. doi:10.1258/shorts.2010.010091. PMC 3046559. PMID 21369525.
  73. ^ Chan CL, Wang CW, Ho RT, et al. (June 2012). "A systematic review of the effectiveness of qigong exercise in supportive cancer care". Support Care Cancer. 20 (6): 1121–33. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1378-3. PMC 3342492. PMID 22258414.
  74. ^ Xiong, X; Wang, P; Li, X; Zhang, Y (2015). "Qigong for Hypertension: A Systematic Review". Medicine. 94 (1): e352. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000000352. PMC 4602820. PMID 25569652.
  75. ^ "Clinical trials and CAM" (PDF). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. August 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  76. ^ Antonishen, Kevin (2015). "Exercise mode heterogeneity among reported studies of the qigong practice baduanjin". Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 19 (2): 278–283. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.05.013. PMID 25892384.
  •   The dictionary definition of qigong at Wiktionary
  •   Media related to Qigong at Wikimedia Commons