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Buddhism in the West

Buddhism in the West (or more narrowly Western Buddhism) broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside of Asia in the Western world. Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years. The first Westerners to become Buddhists were Hellenistic Greeks who settled in Bactria and India during the Hellenistic period. They became influential figures in the Buddhist religion during the reigns of Indo-Greek kings, whose patronage of Buddhism led to the emergence of Greco-Buddhism and Greco-Buddhist art. There was little contact between Western culture and Buddhist cultures during most of the Middle ages, but the early modern rise of global trade and mercantilism, improved navigation technology and the European colonization of Asian Buddhist countries led to increased knowledge of Buddhism among Westerners. This increased contact led to various responses from Buddhists and Westerners throughout the modern era. These include religious proselytism, religious polemics and debates (such as the Sri Lankan Panadura debate), Buddhist modernism, Western convert Buddhists, and the rise of Buddhist studies in Western academia. During the 20th century there was a growth in Western Buddhism due to various factors, such as immigration and increased interest among Westerners. The various schools of Buddhism are now established in all major Western countries, making up a small minority in the United states (1% as of 2017) and Europe (.2% in 2010).[1][2]

Contents

Pre-Modern historyEdit

Greco-BuddhismEdit

 
A coin of Menander I (r.160–135 BC) with a dharmacakra and a palm.
 
Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century Gandhara, British Museum.

The first contact between Western culture and Buddhist culture occurred during the Hellenistic period, when king Ashoka sent missionaries to Hellenistic lands and Greek colonists established cities and kingdoms in Bactria and India where Buddhism was thriving.[3][4] This cultural interaction saw the emergence of Greco-Buddhism and Greco-Buddhist art, especially within the Gandharan civilization which covered a large part of modern-day northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.[5] Greek sculptors in the classical tradition came to teach their skills to Indian sculptors resulting in the distinctive style of Greco-Buddhist art in stone and stucco seen in hundreds of Buddhist monasteries which are still being discovered and excavated in this region.

Greco-Buddhism was an important religion among the Greco-Bactrians and the Indo-Greeks. Indo-Greek kings such as Menander I (165/155 –130 BCE) and Menander II (90–85 BCE) used Buddhist symbolism in their coins. Menander I is a main character of the Indian Buddhist scripture known as Milinda Panha ("The Questions of King Milinda"), which states that he adopted the Buddhist religion.[6] The Buddhist tradition considers Menander as a great benefactor of the Dharma, along with Ashoka.

The Mahavamsa mentions that during Menander's reign, a Greek elder monk named Mahadharmaraksita, led 30,000 Buddhist monks from "the Greek city of Alexandria" (possibly Alexandria on the Caucasus), to Sri Lanka for the dedication of a stupa, showing that Greeks took an active part in Indian Buddhism during this period.[7]

Greco-Buddhist styles continued to be influential during the Kushan empire.

Buddhist gravestones from the Ptolemaic period have also been found in Alexandria in Egypt, decorated with depictions of the Dharma wheel, showing that some Buddhists were living in Hellenistic Egypt.[8]

Buddhism and the Roman worldEdit

Several instances of interaction between Buddhism and the Roman Empire are documented by Classical and early Christian writers. Roman historical accounts describe an embassy sent by the Indian king Pandion (Pandya?), also named Porus, to Augustus around 13 CE. The embassy was travelling with a diplomatic letter in Greek, and one of its members—called Zarmanochegas—was an Indian religious man (sramana) who burned himself alive in Athens to demonstrate his faith. The event created a sensation and was described by Nicolaus of Damascus, who met the embassy at Antioch, and related by Strabo (XV,1,73) and Dio Cassius. These accounts at least indicate that Indian religious men (Sramanas, to which the Buddhists belonged, as opposed to Hindu Brahmanas) were visiting Mediterranean countries. However, the term sramana is a general term for Indian religious man in Jainism, Buddhism, and Ājīvika. It is not clear which religious tradition the man belonged to in this case.

Early 3rd–4th century Christian writers such as Hippolytus and Epiphanius write about a figure called Scythianus, who visited India around 50 CE from where he brought "the doctrine of the Two Principles". According to Cyril of Jerusalem, Scythianus' pupil Terebinthus presented himself as a "Buddha" ("He called himself Buddas") and taught in Palestine, Judaea and Babylon.[3]

Buddhism and ChristianityEdit

The influential early Christian church father Clement of Alexandria (died AD 215) mentioned Buddha (Βούττα):[9]

Among the Indians are those philosophers also who follow the precepts of Boutta, whom they honour as a god on account of his extraordinary sanctity.

The myth of the birth of the Buddha was also known: a fragment of Archelaos of Carrha (278 AD) mentions the Buddha's virgin-birth, and Saint Jerome (4th century) mentions the birth of the Buddha, who he says "was born from the side of a virgin".

The legend of Christian saints Barlaam and Josaphat draws on the life of the Buddha.[10]

In the 13th century, international travelers, such as Giovanni de Piano Carpini and William of Ruysbroeck, sent back reports of Buddhism to the West and noted some similarities with Nestorian Christian communities.[11] The famous travel writer Marco Polo (1254 – 1324) wrote much about Buddhism, its rites and customs, in places such as Khotan, China and Sri Lanka.

Early modern and colonial encountersEdit

When European Christians made more direct contact with Buddhism in the early 16th century, Catholic missionaries such as St. Francis Xavier and Ippolito Desideri sent back detailed accounts of Buddhist doctrine and practices.[11]

With the arrival of Sanskrit studies in European universities in the late 18th century, and the subsequent availability of Buddhist texts, Western Buddhist studies began to take shape.[11]

19th centuryEdit

 
Henry Olcott and Buddhists (Colombo, 1883).

During the 19th century, Buddhism (along with other non-European religions and philosophies) came to the attention of Western intellectuals through the work of Christian missionaries, scholars, and imperial civil servants who wrote about the countries in which they worked. In English, Sir Edwin Arnold's book-length poem The Light of Asia (1879), a life of the Buddha, became a best-seller and has remained continuously in print since it first appeared.

Philosophical interestEdit

These included the German philosopher Schopenhauer, who first read about Buddhism and other Asian religions at an early stage before he devised his philosophical system.[12] The American philosopher Henry David Thoreau translated a Buddhist sutra from French into English.

There are frequent comparisons between Buddhism and the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who praised Buddhism in his 1895 work The Anti-Christ, calling it "a hundred times more realistic than Christianity". Robert Morrison believes that there is "a deep resonance between them" as "both emphasise the centrality of humans in a godless cosmos and neither looks to any external being or power for their respective solutions to the problem of existence".[13]

Popular interestEdit

In the latter half of the 19th century, Buddhism came to the attention of a wider Western public, such as through the writings of Lafcadio Hearn.

The late 19th century also saw the first-known modern western conversions to Buddhism, including leading Theosophists Henry Steel Olcott and Helena Blavatsky in 1880 in Sri Lanka, "beachcombers" such as the Irish ex-hobo U Dhammaloka around 1884 and intellectuals such as Bhikkhu Asoka (H. Gordon Douglas), Ananda Metteyya and Nyanatiloka at the start of the 20th century.

20th centuryEdit

 
Das Buddhistische Haus, a Theravada Buddhist vihara in Berlin, Germany. It is considered the oldest Theravada Buddhist center in Europe.[14]

Immigrant Buddhists and teachersEdit

Immigrant monks soon began teaching to western audiences, as well. The first Buddhists to arrive in the United States were Chinese. Hired as cheap labor for the railroads and other expanding industries, they established temples in their settlements along the rail lines. At about the same time, immigrants from Japan began to arrive as laborers on Hawaiian plantations and central-California farms. In 1899, they established the Buddhist Missions of North America, later renamed the Buddhist Churches of America.

In 1893 Soyen Shaku was one of four priests and two laymen, representing Rinzai Zen, Jodo Shinshu, Nichiren, Tendai, and Shingon,[15] composing the Japanese delegation that participated in the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago organized by John Henry Barrows and Paul Carus.

In 1897, D.T. Suzuki came to the USA to work and study with Paul Carus, professor of philosophy. D.T. Suzuki was the single-most important person in popularizing Zen in the west.[16] His thoughts and works were influenced by western occultism, such as Theosophy and Swedenborgianism.[16][17] By his works Suzuki contributed to the emergence of Buddhist modernism, a syncretistic form of Buddhism which blends Asian Buddhism with western transcendentalism.[16]

Pre-World War II popular interestEdit

The first Buddhist temple in Europe, named Das Buddhistische Haus, was founded by Paul Dahlke in 1924 in Berlin. Dahlke had studied Buddhism in Sri Lanka prior to World War I.[18]

The first English translation of the Tibetan Book of the Dead was published in 1927 and the reprint of 1935 carried a commentary from Carl Jung. The book is said to have attracted many westerners to Tibetan Buddhism.[19] Also published in English in 1927, Alexandra David-Néel's "My Journey to Lhasa" helped popularized the modern perception of Tibet and Tibetan Buddhism at large.[20]

Western spiritual seekers were attracted to what they saw as the exotic and mystical tone of the Asian traditions, and created esoteric societies such as the Theosophical Society of H.P. Blavatsky. The Buddhist Society, London was founded by Theosophist Christmas Humphreys in 1924.[citation needed] At first Western Buddhology was hampered by poor translations (often translations of translations), but soon Western scholars such as Max Müller began to learn Asian languages and translate Asian texts. During the 20th century the German writer Hermann Hesse showed great interest in Eastern religions, writing a book entitled Siddhartha.

1950sEdit

American beat generation writer Jack Kerouac became a well-known literary Buddhist, for his roman à clef The Dharma Bums and other works. Also influential was Alan Watts, who wrote several books on Zen and Buddhism. The steady influx of refugees from Tibet in the 1960s and from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in the 1970s led to renewed interest in Buddhism, and the countercultural movements of the 1960s proved fertile ground for its Westward diffusion.[21] Buddhism supposedly promised a more methodical path to happiness than Christianity and a way out of the perceived spiritual bankruptcy and complexity of Western life.[19]

Emerging mainstream western BuddhismEdit

After the Second World War, a mainstream western Buddhism emerged.

In 1959, a Japanese teacher, Shunryu Suzuki, arrived in San Francisco. At the time of Suzuki's arrival, Zen had become a hot topic amongst some groups in the United States, especially beatniks. Suzuki-roshi's classes were filled with those wanting to learn more about Buddhism, and the presence of a Zen master inspired the students.

In 1965, Philip Kapleau traveled to Rochester, New York with the permission of his teacher, Haku'un Yasutani to form the Rochester Zen Center. At this time, there were few if any American citizens that had trained in Japan with ordained Buddhist teachers. Kapleau had spent 13 years (1952–1965) and over 20 sesshin before being allowed to come back and open his own center. During his time in Japan after World War II, Kapleau wrote his seminal work The Three Pillars of Zen.

In 1965, monks from Sri Lanka established the Washington Buddhist Vihara in Washington, D.C., the first Theravada monastic community in the United States. The Vihara was quite accessible to English-speakers, and Vipassana meditation was part of its activities. However, the direct influence of the Vipassana movement would not reach the U.S. until a group of Americans returned there in the early 1970s after studying with Vipassana masters in Asia.

In the 1970s, interest in Tibetan Buddhism grew dramatically. This was fuelled in part by the 'shangri-la' view of this country and also because Western media agencies are largely sympathetic with the 'Tibetan Cause'. All four of the main Tibetan Buddhist schools became well known. Tibetan lamas such as the Karmapa (Rangjung Rigpe Dorje), Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, Geshe Wangyal, Geshe Lhundub Sopa, Dezhung Rinpoche, Sermey Khensur Lobsang Tharchin, Tarthang Tulku, Lama Yeshe, Thubten Zopa Rinpoche and Geshe Kelsang Gyatso all established teaching centers in the West from the 1970s.

In 1982 Thích Nhất Hạnh founded Plum Village in Dordogne, France which, along with his hundreds of publications, has helped spread interest in Engaged Buddhism and Vietnamese Thiền (Zen).

Perhaps the most widely visible Buddhist teacher in the west is the much-travelled Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, who first visited the United States in 1979. As the exiled political leader of Tibet, he is now a popular cause célèbre in the west. His early life was depicted in glowing terms in Hollywood films such as Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet. He has attracted celebrity religious followers such as Richard Gere and Adam Yauch.

In addition to this a number of Americans who had served in the Korean or Vietnam Wars stayed out in Asia for a period, seeking to understand both the horror they had witnessed and its context. A few of these were eventually ordained as monks in both the Mahayana and Theravadan tradition, and upon returning home became influential meditation teachers establishing such centres as the Insight Meditation Society in America, such as Bill Porter. Another contributing factor in the flowering of Buddhist thought in the West was the popularity of Zen amongst the counter-culture poets and activists of the 1960s, due to the writings of Alan Watts, D.T. Suzuki and Philip Kapleau.

Western Buddhism todayEdit

 
Main Hall of Hsi Lai, a Chinese-American temple in Los Angeles County, California. Completed in 1988, it is one of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere.

Today, Buddhism is practiced by increasing numbers of people in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. Buddhism has become the fastest growing religion in Australia[22][23] and some other Western nations.[24][25]

There is a general distinction between Buddhism brought to the West by Asian immigrants, which may be Mahayana, Theravada or a traditional East Asian mix, and Buddhism as practiced by converts, which is often Zen, Pure Land, Vipassana or Tibetan Buddhism. Some Western Buddhists are actually non-denominational and accept teachings from a variety of different sects, which is far less frequent in Asia.

Tibetan BuddhismEdit

Tibetan Buddhism in the West has remained largely traditional, keeping all the doctrine, ritual, faith, devotion, etc. An example of a large Buddhist group established in the West is the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT). FPMT is a network of Buddhist centers focusing on the Geluk lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. Founded in 1975 by Lamas Thubten Yeshe and Thubten Zopa Rinpoche, who began teaching Buddhism to Western students in Nepal, the FPMT has grown to encompass more than 142 teaching centers in 32 countries. Like many Tibetan Buddhist groups, the FPMT does not have "members" per se, or elections, but is managed by a self-perpetuating board of trustees chosen by its spiritual director (head lama), Lama Zopa Rinpoche.

Insight meditation movementEdit

Zen BuddhismEdit

Buddhist modernismEdit

A feature of Buddhism in the West today is the emergence of other groups which, even though they draw on traditional Buddhism, are in fact an attempt at creating a new style of Buddhist practice.

Controversial lama Chögyam Trungpa, the founder of the Shambhala meditation movement, claimed in his teachings that his intention was to strip the ethnic baggage away from traditional methods of working with the mind and to deliver the essence of those teachings to his western students. Chögyam Trungpa also founded Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado in 1974. Trungpa's movement has also found particular success in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, Shambhala International being based out of Halifax. An associated monastery Gampo Abbey was also built near the community of Pleasant Bay.

Other significant groups with a modernist approach are the Triratna Buddhist Community (formerly the Friends of the Western Buddhist Order), which was founded by Sangharakshita in 1967, and the Diamond Way Organisation of Ole Nydahl, who has founded more than 600 buddhist centers across the world.[26]

Charismatic authorityEdit

A number of groups and individuals have been implicated in scandals. Sandra Bell has analysed the scandals at Vajradhatu and the San Francisco Zen Center and concluded that these kinds of scandals are "... most likely to occur in organisations that are in transition between the pure forms of charismatic authority that brought them into being and more rational, corporate forms of organization".[27]

Robert Sharf also mentions charisma from which institutional power is derived, and the need to balance charismatic authority with institutional authority.[28] Elaborate analyses of these scandals are made by Stuart Lachs, who mentions the uncritical acceptance of religious narratives, such as lineages and dharma transmission, which aid in giving uncritical charismatic powers to teachers and leaders.[29][30][31][32][33]

Popular cultureEdit

Buddhist imagery is increasingly appropriated by modern pop culture and also for commercial use. For example, the Dalai Lama's image was used in a campaign celebrating leadership by Apple Computer. Similarly, Tibetan monasteries have been used as backdrops to perfume advertisements in magazines.[19] Hollywood movies such as Kundun, Little Buddha and Seven Years in Tibet have had considerable commercial success.[34]

Buddhist practitioners in the West are catered for by a minor industry providing such items as charm boxes, meditation cushions, and ritual implements.

TemplesEdit

The largest Buddhist temple in the Southern Hemisphere is the Nan Tien Temple (translated as "Southern Paradise Temple"), situated at Wollongong, Australia, while the largest Buddhist temple in the Western Hemisphere is the Hsi Lai Temple (translated as "Coming West Temple"), in Hacienda Heights, California, USA. Both are operated by the Fo Guang Shan Order, founded in Taiwan, and around 2003 the Grand Master, Venerable Hsing Yun, asked for Nan Tien Temple and Buddhist practice there to be operated by native Australian citizens within about thirty years.[35]

The largest monastery in the USA is the City of 10,000 Buddhas near Ukiah, California.[36] This monastery was founded by Ven. Hsuan Hua who purchased the property. "Dharma Realm Buddhist Association purchased the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in 1974 and established its headquarters there. The City currently comprises approximately 700 acres of land."[37]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cox, Daniel; Jones, Ribert P. (9 June 2017). America’s Changing Religious Identity. 2016 American Values Atlas. Public Religion Research Institute.
  2. ^ Pew Research Center, http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/buddhists/
  3. ^ S.Dhammika, The Edicts of King Ashoka The Fourteen Rock Edicts/13
  4. ^ Doumanis, Nicholas. A History of Greece Palgrave Macmillan, 16 dec. 2009 ISBN 978-1137013675 p 64
  5. ^ Halkias, G. (2014) When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures [1]
  6. ^ The Questions of King Milinda, Translation by T. W. Rhys Davids, 1890
  7. ^ Thomas McEvilley (7 February 2012). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Constable & Robinson. pp. 558–. ISBN 978-1-58115-933-2.
  8. ^ The Greeks in Bactria and India, W.W. Tarn, South Asia Books, ISBN 81-215-0220-9'
  9. ^ Clement of Alexandria Stromata. BkI, Ch XV http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf02.vi.iv.i.xv.html (Accessed 19 Dec 2012)
  10. ^ John Walbridge The Wisdom of the Mystic East: Suhrawardī and Platonic Orientalism Page 129 – 2001 "The form Būdhīsaf is the original, as shown by Sogdian form Pwtysfi and the early New Persian form Bwdysf. ... On the Christian versions see A. S. Geden, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, s.v. "Josaphat, Barlaam and," and M. P. Alfaric, ..."
  11. ^ a b c Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, 2004, page 160
  12. ^ See Urs App, "Schopenhauers Begegnung mit dem Buddhismus." Schopenhauer-Jahrbuch 79 (1998):35-58. The same author provides an overview of Schopenhauer's discovery of Buddhism in Arthur Schopenhauer and China. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. 200 (April 2010) whose appendix contains transcriptions and English translations of Schopenhauer's early notes about Asian religions including Buddhism.
  13. ^ David R. Loy, "Review of Nietzsche and Buddhism: A Study in Nihilism and Ironic Affinities by R.G. Morrison".
  14. ^ "80th anniversary of Das Buddhistische Haus in Berlin – Frohnau, Germany". Daily News (Sri Lanka). April 24, 2004. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  15. ^ Fields 1992, p. 124.
  16. ^ a b c McMahan 2008.
  17. ^ Tweed 2005.
  18. ^ "80th anniversary of Das Buddhistische Haus in Berlin – Frohnau, Germany". Daily News (Sri Lanka). April 24, 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
  19. ^ a b c Shakya, Tsering "Review of Prisoners of Shangri-la by Donald Lopez". [2]
  20. ^ Thévoz, Samuel (2016-07-21). "On the Threshold of the "Land of Marvels:" Alexandra David-Neel in Sikkim and the Making of Global Buddhism". Transcultural Studies. 0 (1): 149–186. ISSN 2191-6411.
  21. ^ Woodhead, Linda; Partridge, Christopher; Kawanami, Hiroko (2016). Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations 3rd Edition.
  22. ^ "ABC - Why so many South Australian's are choosing Buddhism". Archived from the original on 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
  23. ^ Why is Buddhism the fastest growing religion in Australia? by Darren Nelson
  24. ^ The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life - U.S. Religious Landscape Survey
  25. ^ Asian Tribune - Buddhism fastest growing religion in West
  26. ^ Diamond Way Buddhist Centers
  27. ^ Bell, Sandra (2002). "Scandals in Emerging Western Buddhism". In Charles S Prebish & Martin Baumann. Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia (PDF). University of California Press. pp. 230–242. ISBN 0-520-22625-9.
  28. ^ Sharf, Robert H. (1995), "Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 22 (3–4)
  29. ^ Lachs, Stuart (1999), Means of Authorization: Establishing Hierarchy in Ch'an /Zen Buddhism in America
  30. ^ Lachs, Stuart (n.d.), Reply to Vladimir K.
  31. ^ Lachs, Stuart (2002), Richard Baker and the Myth of the Zen Roshi
  32. ^ Lachs, Stuart (2006), The Zen Master in America: Dressing the Donkey with Bells and Scarves
  33. ^ Lachs, Stuart (2011), When the Saints Go Marching In: Modern Day Zen Hagiography (PDF)
  34. ^ E.L. Mullen, "Orientalist commercializations: Tibetan Buddhism in American popular film Archived 2007-01-26 at the Wayback Machine."
  35. ^ Nan Tien Temple
  36. ^ The City of 10,000 Buddhas
  37. ^ History and Background

SourcesEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Prebish, Charles S ; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2002). Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia, Berkeley: University of California Press
  • Clausen, Christopher, Victorian Buddhism and the Origins of Comparative Religion, Religion: Journal of Religion and Religions, V (Spring 1975), 1-15.
  • Fields, Rick (1992), How the Swans came to the Lake - A Narrative History of Buddhism in America. Shambhala.
  • Halkias, G. T. "The Self-immolation of Kalanos and other Luminous Encounters Among Greeks and Indian Buddhists in the Hellenistic World." JOCBS, 2015 (8), pp. 163–186.
  • Halkias, Georgios. “When the Greeks Converted the Buddha: Asymmetrical Transfers of Knowledge in Indo-Greek Cultures.” In Religions and Trade: Religious Formation, Transformation and Cross-Cultural Exchange between East and West, ed. Volker Rabens. Leiden: Brill, 2013: 65-115.
  • Numrich, Paul (2003). Two Buddhisms further considered, Contemporary Buddhism 4 (1), 55-78
  • Ulanov MS, Badmaev VN (2015). Buddhist World in Global Context. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2015. № 5 (Special Issue). pp. 15–17. [4]

External linksEdit