Ukiah, California

Ukiah (/jˈkə/ yoo-KY; Pomo: Yokaya, meaning "deep valley")[8] is the county seat and largest city of Mendocino County, California, with a population of 16,607[7] at the 2020 census. With its accessible location along the U.S. Route 101 corridor, Ukiah serves as the city center for Mendocino County and much of neighboring Lake County.

Ukiah, California
Historic former post office in Ukiah[1]
Historic former post office in Ukiah[1]
Official seal of Ukiah, California
Location in Mendocino County and California
Ukiah is located in California
Ukiah
Ukiah
Ukiah is located in the United States
Ukiah
Ukiah
Coordinates: 39°09′01″N 123°12′28″W / 39.15028°N 123.20778°W / 39.15028; -123.20778Coordinates: 39°09′01″N 123°12′28″W / 39.15028°N 123.20778°W / 39.15028; -123.20778
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountyMendocino
IncorporatedMarch 8, 1876[2]
Government
 • TypeCouncil/Manager[3]
 • MayorJim Brown[4]
 • City managerSage Sangiacomo[3]
Area
 • Total4.83 sq mi (12.5 km2)
 • Land4.78 sq mi (12.4 km2)
 • Water0.04 sq mi (0.1 km2)  1.11%
Elevation633 ft (193 m)
Population
 • Total16,607
DemonymUkiahan
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Codes
95482, 95418
Area code707
FIPS code06-81134
GNIS feature IDs277623, 2412125
Websitewww.cityofukiah.com

HistoryEdit

EstablishmentEdit

 
The Yokayo band of Pomo people who inhabited the Russian River valley from the pre-Columbian era are today an unrecognized tribe in the United States.

Ukiah is located within Rancho Yokaya, one of several Spanish colonial land grants in what was their colonists called Alta California. The Yokaya grant, which covered the majority of the Ukiah valley, was named for the Pomo word meaning "deep valley."[9] The Pomo are the indigenous people who occupied the area at the time of Spanish colonization.

Later European-American settlers adopted Ukiah as an anglicized version of this name for the city.[10]

Cayetano Juárez was granted Ukiah by Alta California. He was known to have a neutral relationship with the local Pomo people. He sold a southern portion of the grant (toward present-day Hopland) to the Burke brothers. The first Anglo settler in the Ukiah area was John Parker, a vaquero who worked for pioneer cattleman James Black.[11] Black had driven his stock up the Russian River valley and took over a block of grazing land at that locale. A crude blockhouse was constructed for Parker so he could have shelter to protect the herd from the hostile indigenous local people, who resented the squatters on their land.[11] The blockhouse was located just south of present-day Ukiah on the banks of what was known as Wilson Creek.[11]

The next Anglo settler was Samuel Lowry; in 1856 he built a log cabin approximately on the corner of today's East Perkins and North Main streets.[11] Lowery sold his claim to A.T. Perkins in the spring of 1857, and the latter moved his family into the valley. They were the first Anglo-American pioneer family of the township.[11] Six others followed to make their home there that same year.[11] The first United States post office opened in 1858.[8] By 1859, the population of Ukiah had grown to about 100 people, making it a community sufficient in size to serve as the county seat. Before this, administrative duties for Mendocino County had been handled by Sonoma County.[12]

Initially visitors could reach town only by stagecoach, or private horses. A short rail line from San Francisco terminated in Petaluma, nearly 80 miles (130 km) to the south. In 1870 the remainder of the trip to Ukiah took another two days by horse.[13] In subsequent years the rail line was extended further northward to Cloverdale. Although the stagecoach portion was reduced to 30 miles (48 km), the community was still relatively isolated and slow to develop.[13]

Ukiah was incorporated in 1876.[8] It was not until 1889 that the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad completed its line from Cloverdale to Ukiah, linking the Mendocino County seat to the national rail network.[14]

Economic historyEdit

Ukiah has been the hub of an agricultural and business community. Over the decades various commodity crops have been grown in the Ukiah Valley. They include pears, green beans, hops, apricots, and grapes. As part of California's Wine Country, grapes have become the predominant agricultural product.

Hops were once a major crop grown around Ukiah. The beer flavoring agent was first grown there in 1868 when L.F. Long of Largo grew an initial experimental crop.[13] The climate proved suitable for the crop and production expanded, peaking in 1885. It declined in the last years of the 1880s as prices dropped.[13] Mendocino County remained the third-largest producer of hops in the state of California in 1890, with well over 900 acres (3.6 km2) under cultivation.[15] Production continued well into the 20th century. A refurbished hop kiln can be seen at the north end of Ukiah east of Highway 101, where many of the old fields were located.

Ukiah's 20th-century population developed in relation to the lumber boom of the late 1940s. Logging of redwoods was once a major industry. Activists have worked to preserve areas of redwood forest, which became endangered for overlogging.[citation needed] Young people entered the area from the 1960s, seeking alternative lifestyles and, in some cases, artisan and rural living.

GeographyEdit

Ukiah is in southeastern Mendocino County in the valley of the Russian River, a south-flowing river which reaches the Pacific in Sonoma County. Via U.S. Route 101, Ukiah is 60 miles (97 km) north of Santa Rosa and 158 miles (254 km) south of Eureka. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 4.8 square miles (12 km2), of which 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2), or 0.93%, are water.[5]

ClimateEdit

Ukiah has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). Average rainfall for the area is 38.90 inches (988 mm) per year. Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 77.1 days per year. The greatest monthly precipitation was 30.75 inches (781 mm) in January 1909 and the greatest 24-hour precipitation was 6.18 inches (157 mm) on December 22, 1964. The wettest "rain year" was from July 1997 to June 1998 with 72.74 inches (1,848 mm) and the driest from July 1976 to June 1977 with 14.20 inches (361 mm). Light snowfall occurs about every other year. The greatest recorded snowfall was 1.5 inches (38 mm) on March 2, 1976, while the most in a month was 5 inches (130 mm) in March 1896 and in January 1952. Temperatures reach 90 °F (32 °C) on an average of 61.0 afternoons annually and 100 °F (38 °C) on an average of 8.7 afternoons. Due to frequent low humidity, summer temperatures normally drop into the fifties at night. Freezing temperatures occur on an average 33.6 mornings per year. The record high temperature was 117 °F (47 °C) on September 6, 2022, and the record low temperature was 12 °F (−11 °C) on January 12, 1898.[16]

Climate data for Ukiah, California, 1991-2020 normals, extremes 1893-present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 82
(28)
86
(30)
93
(34)
98
(37)
106
(41)
114
(46)
114
(46)
114
(46)
117
(47)
105
(41)
92
(33)
84
(29)
117
(47)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 68.7
(20.4)
74.1
(23.4)
80.6
(27.0)
86.9
(30.5)
94.1
(34.5)
101.9
(38.8)
104.6
(40.3)
104.0
(40.0)
102.8
(39.3)
93.1
(33.9)
78.4
(25.8)
67.1
(19.5)
107.4
(41.9)
Average high °F (°C) 56.9
(13.8)
60.2
(15.7)
64.8
(18.2)
69.6
(20.9)
76.3
(24.6)
82.8
(28.2)
91.1
(32.8)
90.6
(32.6)
87.0
(30.6)
76.7
(24.8)
62.8
(17.1)
55.6
(13.1)
72.9
(22.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 47.1
(8.4)
49.2
(9.6)
52.3
(11.3)
56.0
(13.3)
61.8
(16.6)
67.3
(19.6)
73.4
(23.0)
72.4
(22.4)
69.1
(20.6)
61.1
(16.2)
51.4
(10.8)
45.9
(7.7)
58.9
(15.0)
Average low °F (°C) 37.4
(3.0)
38.3
(3.5)
39.7
(4.3)
42.4
(5.8)
47.3
(8.5)
51.9
(11.1)
55.6
(13.1)
54.2
(12.3)
51.3
(10.7)
45.5
(7.5)
40.0
(4.4)
36.2
(2.3)
45.0
(7.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 26.7
(−2.9)
29.0
(−1.7)
31.7
(−0.2)
34.0
(1.1)
38.8
(3.8)
44.7
(7.1)
49.8
(9.9)
49.1
(9.5)
43.2
(6.2)
36.3
(2.4)
29.1
(−1.6)
25.8
(−3.4)
23.8
(−4.6)
Record low °F (°C) 12
(−11)
18
(−8)
22
(−6)
23
(−5)
28
(−2)
35
(2)
39
(4)
38
(3)
30
(−1)
24
(−4)
19
(−7)
13
(−11)
12
(−11)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 7.39
(188)
6.98
(177)
5.33
(135)
2.81
(71)
1.71
(43)
0.41
(10)
0.00
(0.00)
0.05
(1.3)
0.20
(5.1)
1.95
(50)
4.11
(104)
7.96
(202)
38.90
(988)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.5 11.9 10.2 7.8 5.0 1.6 0.1 0.2 0.7 3.6 9.8 13.7 77.1
Source 1: NOAA [17]
Source 2: National Weather Service [16]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860624
187096654.8%
1880933−3.4%
18901,62774.4%
19001,85013.7%
19102,13615.5%
19202,3057.9%
19303,12435.5%
19403,73119.4%
19506,12064.0%
19609,90061.8%
197010,0952.0%
198012,03519.2%
199014,59921.3%
200015,4976.2%
201016,0753.7%
202016,6073.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[18] 1870 Census[19]

2010Edit

The 2010 United States Census[20] reported that Ukiah had a population of 16,075. The population density was 3,403.7 inhabitants per square mile (1,314.2/km2). The racial makeup of Ukiah was 11,592 (72.1%) White, 174 (1.1%) African American, 601 (3.7%) Native American, 412 (2.6%) Asian, 34 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 2,385 (14.8%) from other races, and 877 (5.5%) from two or more races. There were 4,458 Hispanic or Latino residents, of any race (27.7%).

The Census reported that 15,301 people (95.2% of the population) lived in households, 281 (1.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 493 (3.1%) were institutionalized.

There were 6,158 households, out of which 2,049 (33.3%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,317 (37.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 938 (15.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 356 (5.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 484 (7.9%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 56 (0.9%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,064 households (33.5%) were made up of individuals, and 919 (14.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48. There were 3,611 families (58.6% of all households); the average family size was 3.18.

The population was spread out, with 3,981 people (24.8%) under the age of 18, 1,562 people (9.7%) aged 18 to 24, 4,184 people (26.0%) aged 25 to 44, 4,011 people (25.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 2,337 people (14.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males.

There were 6,488 housing units at an average density of 1,373.8 per square mile (530.4/km2), of which 2,673 (43.4%) were owner-occupied, and 3,485 (56.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.6%; the rental vacancy rate was 3.7%. 6,733 people (41.9% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 8,568 people (53.3%) lived in rental housing units.

2000Edit

 
The "World's Largest Redwood Tree Service Station" in Ukiah is built largely from a massive section of Sequoia.

As of the census of 2000,[21] inside the city limits, there were 15,497 people in the city limits, 5,985 households, and 3,656 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,275/sq mi (1,265/km2). There were 6,137 housing units at an average density of 1,296 per square mile (500/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 79.5% White, 1.0% African American, 3.8% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.7% from other races, and 4.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.3% of the population.

There were 5,985 households, out of which 33.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.12.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 26.5% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,707, and the median income for a family was $39,524. Males had a median income of $31,608 versus $24,673 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,601. About 13.2% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.

As a community, Ukiah has roughly twice the number of people (including Redwood Valley, Potter Valley, Calpella, and Talmage) as the census reports. During the business day, an average of 40,000 people work inside the city limits, or in the business and residential neighborhoods to the north and south.

EconomyEdit

Major employers in Ukiah include:[22]

Major productsEdit

Ukiah is known for wine production. Some very large production wineries, including Brutocao, Fife, Parducci, Frey, and Bonterra have become established here since the late 20th century. Ukiah vintners are known for innovating with organic and sustainable practices.

Ukiah was previously a major producer of pears. Alex R. Thomas & Company owned hundreds of acres of Bartlett pear orchards on the east side of the Ukiah Valley. For nearly 90 years, many local residents and migrant workers have been employed packing the pears for domestic and foreign consumption. On December 1, 2008, the company announced it would be shutting down major operations at the end of the year due to bankruptcy.[23] Several acres of orchard have been torn down and replaced with vineyards since the packing shed closed its doors. As of 2011, the main facility was slated to reopen as a composting and trash-sorting facility.[23]

The Ukiah Valley is home to the Ukiah Brewing Company, a certified organic brewpub. It used to be a center of hops cultivation in the 19th century. Craft beers are stimulating production again.

Additionally, Ukiah has become home to four marijuana dispensaries, as a large town within the Emerald Triangle. Cannabis is produced and sold from the surrounding areas.

Arts and cultureEdit

 
Grace Hudson's Sun House, designed by Grace and John Hudson c. 1911 in the Craftsman style

Institutions of the arts include:

RecreationEdit

  • Alex R. Thomas Plaza
  • Gardner Park
  • Giorno Park
  • Great Redwood Trail[24]
  • Low Gap Park
  • McGarvey Park
  • Oak Manor Park
  • Observatory Park
  • Orchard Park
  • Riverside Park
  • Todd Grove Park
  • Ukiah Skate Park
  • Ukiah Sports Complex
  • Vinewood Park

GovernmentEdit

 
Mendocino County Main Library

Ukiah uses a council–manager form of government in which policy is set by a five-member city council, elected at-large to four-year terms. The council appoints both the mayor and the city manager.[25]

  • Mayor until December 2022 - Jim Brown [4] (appointed by council based on seniority for a one-year term)
  • City council:
    • Josefina Dueñas, Vice-Mayor[4]
    • Mari Rodin, Council Member[4]
    • Douglas Crane, Council Member[4]
    • Juan Orozco, Council Member[4]
  • City Manager - Sage Sangiacomo[26]
  • City Treasurer - Allen Carter[4]
  • City Clerk - Kristine Lawler[27] (appointed)
  • City Attorney - David Rapport[28]

In the California State Legislature, Ukiah is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire,[29] and the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood.[30]

In the United States House of Representatives, Ukiah is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.[31]

The tribal headquarters of both the Pinoleville Pomo Nation and the Potter Valley Tribe are in Ukiah.[32]

EducationEdit

 
Ukiah High School sign

Ukiah Unified School DistrictEdit

  • Ukiah High School
  • Calpella Elementary School
  • Eagle Peak Middle School (Redwood Valley)
  • Nokomis Elementary School
  • Oak Manor Elementary School
  • Pomolita Middle School
  • South Valley High School
  • Yokayo Elementary School
  • Frank Zeek Elementary School
  • Tree of Life Montessori Charter School
  • Grace Hudson Elementary School
  • River Oak Charter School
  • Ukiah Independent Study Academy
  • Calpella Preschool
  • Preschool Village
  • Small Wonders State Preschool
  • Yokayo State Preschool
  • Ukiah Adult School

Other K–12 schoolsEdit

  • Accelerated Achievement Academy
  • Redwood Academy of Ukiah
  • Deep Valley Christian School
  • Ukiah Junior Academy
  • Instilling Goodness / Developing Virtue School
  • St. Mary of the Angels Catholic School

Former K–12 schoolsEdit

  • Trinity School for Children (closed as of July 31, 2009)[33][34]

CollegesEdit

Notable peopleEdit

In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
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  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Ukiah City Council". City of Ukiah, CA. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
  5. ^ a b "2021 U.S. Gazetteer Files: California". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  6. ^ "Ukiah". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved February 25, 2015.
  7. ^ a b "P1. Race – Ukiah city, California: 2020 DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Clovis, Calif.: Word Dancer Press. p. 162. ISBN 1-884995-14-4.
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  10. ^ Alfred L. Kroeber, "California Place Names of Indian Origin," Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 12, no. 2 (1916), pp. 31-69.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Lyman Palmer, History of Mendocino County, California, Comprising Its Geography, Geology, Topography, Climatography, Springs and Timber. San Francisco, CA: Alley, Bowen and Co., 1880; pg. 475.
  12. ^ Palmer, 'History of Mendocino County, California, pg. 476.
  13. ^ a b c d Carl Purdy, "Ukiah, 1870-1890: Interesting Reminiscences; Progress Made; Products of Our Valley," Dispatch-Democrat [Ukiah City], vol. 21, no. 15 (Jan. 10, 1890), pg. 2.
  14. ^ Stindt, Fred A. (1978). The Northwestern Pacific Railroad Redwood Empire Route (3rd ed.). Fred A. Stindt.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit