Jötunn

In Norse mythology, a jötunn or, in the normalised scholarly spelling of Old Norse, jǫtunn (/ˈjɔːtʊn/;[1] Old Norse pronunciation: [ˈjɔtonː]; plural jötnar/jǫtnar [ˈjɔtnɑz̠]) is a type of entity contrasted with gods (Aesir and Vanir) and other non-human figures, such as dwarfs and elves. The entities are themselves ambiguously defined, variously referred to by several other terms, including risi, thurs and troll. The jötnar predominantly dwell in Jötunheimr, however they are sometimes referred to as living in specific geographical locations such as Ægir on Læsø.[2]

This 10th-century picture stone from the Hunnestad Monument is believed to depict a female troll or jötunn riding on a wolf with vipers as reins. The motif is attested in the "Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar" and Gylfaginning.
A bergrisi ("mountain giant")—the traditional protector of southwestern Iceland—appears as a supporter on the coat of arms of Iceland.

Although the term giant is sometimes used to gloss the word jötunn and its apparent synonyms in some translations and academic texts, jötnar are not necessarily notably large and may be described as exceedingly beautiful or as alarmingly grotesque.[3] Some deities, such as Skaði and Gerðr, who are married to Njörðr and Freyr respectively, are themselves described as jötnar. Reference to Skaði's vés in Lokasenna and toponyms such as Skedevi in Sweden suggests that despite being a jötunn, Skaði was worshipped in Old Norse religion.[4] Furthermore, various well-attested deities, such as Odin and Thor, are descendants of the jötnar. This supports the idea that the distinction between gods and jötnar is not clearly defined and they should be seen as different cultures or peoples rather than different types of being. In later Scandinavian folklore, the ambiguity surrounding the entities gives way to negative portrayals. Belief in jötnar also survived in English folklore as ettins.

EtymologyEdit

 
"Eotenas", as they were called by the anonymous author of Beowulf

Old Norse jötunn (also jǫtunn) and Old English eoten developed from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *etunaz.[5] Philologist Vladimir Orel says that semantic connections between *etunaz with Proto-Germanic *etanan ("to eat") makes a relation between the two nouns likely.[5] Proto-Germanic *etanan is reconstructed from Old Norse etall "consuming", Old English etol "voracious, gluttonous", and Old High German filu-ezzal "greedy".[5] Old Norse risi and Old High German riso derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *wrisjon. Orel observes that the Old Saxon adjective wrisi-līk "enormous" is likely also connected.[6]

Old Norse þurs, Old English ðyrs, and Old High German duris "devil, evil spirit" derive from the Proto-Germanic masculine noun *þur(i)saz, itself derived form Proto-Germanic *þurēnan, which is etymologically connected to Sanskrit turá- "strong, powerful, rich".[7] Several terms are used specifically to refer to female entities that fall into this category, including íviðja (plural íviðjur) and gýgr (plural gýgjar).

The word is cognate with ettin, an archaic word for "giant".[8]

OriginEdit

Norse myth traces the origin of the jötnar to the proto-being Ymir, a result of growth or sexless reproduction from the entity's body. Ymir is later killed, his body is dismembered to create the world, and the jötnar survive this event by way of sailing through a flood of Ymir's blood. The drowning of the jötnar in a flood is pictured on the hilt of the jötunn sword used by Beowulf to slay Grendel's mother.[9]

AttestationsEdit

The jötnar are frequently attested throughout the Old Norse record. For example, in a stanza of Völuspá hin skamma (found in the poem "Hyndluljóð"), a variety of origins are provided: völvas are descended from Viðòlfr, all seers from Vilmeiðr, all charm-workers from Svarthöfði, and all jötnar descend from Ymir.[10]

The Icelandic and Norwegian rune poems name the rune þ as thurs and state that thursar cause strife to women.

In popular cultureEdit

  • Jötnar appear with human disguises in the third season of The Librarians.
  • The Jutul family are jötnar masquerading as humans in the Norwegian-language drama Ragnarok.
  • The Jötunn influenced the creation of the mute giants named "Titans" from the Attack on Titan manga and anime series.
  • A jötunn appears in the 2017 film The Ritual, depicted as Moder the bastard daughter of Loki and worshiped in exchange for immortality.
  • Jotunn's Wrath exists as a weapon granting spell enhancements, appearing in the popular mythological MOBA video game, SMITE.
  • A depiction of jötunn as a weapon appears in Bungie's video game Destiny 2.
  • Jötnar appear in the episode 356 of the manga Berserk as part of the astral races that appeared after the merging of the physical world and astral world, being defeated by the new Band of the Falcon in the following episode.
  • The jötnar are frequently mentioned in the 2018 video game God of War.
  • Jötnar are frequently depicted in the Danish comic series Valhalla, created by Henning Kure and Peter Madsen, based on the Norse myths and starring the gods.
  • Jötnar are a race and occasional enemy encountered in the 2020 video game Assassin's Creed: Valhalla. Here they are mostly depicted at somewhat taller than the Asgardians and blue skinned.
  • Jötnar are found in the 2020 adventure game Röki where they appear as giant animal guardians.
  • Jötun are a race found in the fifth book of Fire Emblem Heroes.
  • Jötunn Winter is the name of the third battle pass of Brawlhalla.
  • Jotun, Who Parts Limbs is of one of three named trolls in Caves of Qud, all of whom sprout smaller "troll foals" from growths on their body.

See alsoEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Jotun". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Heide E Contradictory cosmology in Old Norse myth and religion – but still a system? Maal og minne Available at: https://www.academia.edu/7454838/Contradictory_cosmology_in_Old_Norse_myth_and_religion_but_still_a_system [Accessed June 14, 2021]
  3. ^ Some translators of the Poetic Edda do not render the word jötunn to giant. For example, in the Foreword to Jeramy Dodds's translation of the Poetic Edda, Terry Gunnell says that jötnar is "sometimes wrongly translated as 'giants'" and instead uses jötunns. (Dodds 2014:9).
  4. ^ Blótgyðjur, Goðar, Mimi, Incest, and Wagons: Oral Memories of the | Terry Gunnell - Academia.edu Available at: https://www.academia.edu/36066115/Blótgyðjur_Goðar_Mimi_Incest_and_Wagons_Oral_Memories_of_the [Accessed June 15, 2021]
  5. ^ a b c Orel (2003:86).
  6. ^ Orel (2003:472).
  7. ^ Orel (2003:429–430).
  8. ^ "Ettin | Origin and meaning of ettin by Online Etymology Dictionary".
  9. ^ "BEOWULF". heorot.dk.
  10. ^ Bellows (1923:229) and Thorpe (1866:111).

General referencesEdit

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Jötnar at Wikimedia Commons