This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2015)
Sons of God (Hebrew: בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים, romanized: Bənē hāʾĔlōhīm, literally: "sons of the gods") is a phrase used in the Hebrew Bible and in Christian Apocrypha. The phrase is also used in Kabbalah where bene elohim are part of different Jewish angelic hierarchies.
1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, 2 That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. 3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. 4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.— Genesis 6:1–4, KJV
That the "sons of God" were separate enough from the "daughters of men" that they warranted such a distinction, has spawned millenia's worth of debate regarding the meaning of the term. Historically, in Jewish thought, this passage has had two interpretations:
- Offspring of Seth: The first references to the offspring of Seth rebelling from God and mingling with the daughters of Cain are found in Christian and rabbinic literature from the second century CE onwards e.g. Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, Origen, Augustine of Hippo, Julius Africanus, and the Letters attributed to St. Clement. It is also the view expressed in the modern canonical Amharic Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. In Judaism "Sons of God" usually refers to the righteous, i.e. the children of Seth.
- Angels: All of the earliest sources interpret the "sons of God" as angels. From the third century BCE onwards, references are found in the Enochic literature, the Dead Sea Scrolls (the Genesis Apocryphon, the Damascus Document, 4Q180), Jubilees, the Testament of Reuben, 2 Baruch, Josephus, and the book of Jude (compare with 2 Peter 2). This is also the meaning of the only two identical occurrences of bene ha elohim in the Hebrew Bible (Job 1:6 and 2:1), and of the most closely related expressions (refer to the list above). In the Septuagint, the interpretive reading "angels" is found in Codex Alexandrinus, one of four main witnesses to the Greek text.
Rabbinic Judaism traditionally adheres to the first interpretation, with some exceptions, and modern Jewish translations may translate bnei elohim as "sons of rulers" rather than "sons of God". Regardless, the second interpretation (sons of angels or other divine beings) is nonexistent in modern Judaism. This is reflected by the rejection of Enoch and other Apocrypha supporting the second interpretation from the Hebrew Bible Canon.
- KTU² 1.40 demonstrates the use of bn il to mean "sons of gods".
- KTU² 1.65 (which may be a scribal exercise) uses bn il three times in succession: il bn il / dr bn il / mphrt bn il "El, the sons of gods, the circle of the sons of gods / the totality of the sons of gods."
Elsewhere in the Ugarit corpus it is suggested that the bn ilm were the 70 sons of Asherah and El, who were the titulary deities of the people of the known world, and their "hieros gamos" marriage with the daughters of men gave rise to their rulers. There is evidence in 2 Samuel 7 that this may have been the case also in Israel.
J. Scharbert associates Genesis 6:1–4 with the Priestly source and the final redaction of the Pentateuch. On this basis, he assigns the text to later editorial activity. Rüdiger Bartelmus sees only Genesis 6:3 as a late insertion.
Józef Milik and Matthew Black advanced the view of a late text addition to a text dependent on post-exilic, non-canonical tradition, such as the legend of the Watchers from the pseudepigraphic version of the Book of Enoch.
Different source versions of Genesis 6:1–4 vary in their use of "sons of God". Some manuscripts of the Septuagint have emendations to read "sons of God" as "angels". Codex Vaticanus contains "angels" originally. In Codex Alexandrinus "sons of God" has been omitted and replaced by "angels". This reading of Angels is further confirmed by Augustine in his work City of God where he speaks of both variants in book 15 chapter 23. The Peshitta reads "sons of God". Furthermore the Vulgate goes for the literal filii Dei meaning Sons of God. Most modern translations of Christian bibles retain this whereas Jewish ones tend to deviate to such as Sons of Rulers which may in part be due to Simeon ben Yohai who cursed anyone who translated this as "Sons of God" (Genesis Rabbah 26:7).
Beyond this in both the Codices Job 1:6 and Deuteronomy 32:8 when the phrase "angels of God" is used in place of where the Hebrew says "sons of God". For the verse in Deuteronomy the Masoretic Text does not say "sons of God" but "sons of Israel" however in 4Q37 the term "sons of God" is used. This is probably the root reading for the reading we see in the Septuagint.
The phrase "sons of the Elohim" also occurs in:
- Job 1:6 bənê hāʼĕlōhîm (בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים) the sons of Elohim.
- Job 2:1 bənê hāʼĕlōhîm (בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים) the sons of Elohim.
- Job 38:7 bənê ĕlōhîm (בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִֽים) without the definite article - sons of Elohim
- Deuteronomy 32:8 both bənê ĕlōhîm (בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים) and bənê ĕl (בני אל) the sons of Elohim or sons of El in two Dead Sea Scrolls (4QDtj and 4QDtq); mostly "angels of God" (αγγελων θεου) in the LXX (sometimes "sons of God" or "sons of Israel"); "sons of Israel" in the MT.: 147 
Closely related phrases include:
- Psalms 29:1 bənê ēlîm (בְּנֵי אֵלִים) without the definite article - sons of elim (a similar expression).
- Psalms 82:6 bənê elîon (בְּנֵי עֶלְיוֹן) without the definite article and using ‘Most high’ instead of ēl.
- Psalms 89:6 bənê ēlîm (בְּנֵי אֵלִים) - sons of elim
- A closely related Aramaic expression occurs in Daniel 3:25: bar elahin - בַר אֱלָהִֽין - son of the gods.
Second Temple Judaism (c. 500 BCE – 70 CE)Edit
The Book of Enoch, the Enochic Book of Giants, and the Book of Jubilees refer to the Watchers who are paralleled to the "sons of God" in Genesis 6. The Epistle of Barnabas is considered by some to acknowledge the Enochian version.
Christian writers such as Justin Martyr, Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Commodianus believed that the "sons of God" in Genesis 6:1–4 were fallen angels who engaged in unnatural union with human women, resulting in the begetting of the Nephilim. Some scholars view Jesus' comment in Matthew 22:30 that angels in heaven do not marry, as a refutation to this view.
Other early Christians believed that the "sons of God" in Genesis 6:1–4 were the descendants of Seth. Augustine of Hippo subscribed to this view, based on the orations of Julius Africanus in his book City of God, which refer to the "sons of God" as being descendants of Seth (or Sethites), the pure line of Adam. The "daughters of men" are viewed as the descendants of Cain (or Cainites). Variations of this view were also received by Jewish philosophers.
Traditionalists and philosophers of Judaism in the Middle Ages typically practiced rational theology. They rejected any belief in rebel or fallen angels since evil was considered abstract. Rabbinic sources, most notably the Targum, state that the "sons of God" who married the daughters of men were merely human beings of exalted social station. They have also been considered as pagan royalty or members of nobility who, out of lust, married women from the general population. Other variations of this interpretation define these "sons of God" as tyrannical Ancient Near Eastern kings who were honored as divine rulers, engaging in polygamous behavior. No matter the variation in views, the primary concept by Jewish rationalists is that the "sons of God" were of human origin.
Most notable Jewish writers in support for the view of human "sons of God" were Saadia, Rashi, Lekah Tob, Midrash Aggada, Joseph Bekor Shor, Abraham ibn Ezra, Maimonides, David Kimhi, Nahmanides, Hizkuni, Bahya Ashur. Gersonides, Shimeon ben Yochai, and Hillel ben Samuel.
Jewish commentator Isaac Abrabanel considered the aggadot on Genesis 6 to have referred to some secret doctrine and was not to be taken literally. Abrabanel later joined Nahmanides and Levi ben Gerson in promoting the concept that the "sons of God" were the older generations who were closer to physical perfection, as Adam and Eve were perfect. Though there are variations of this view, the primary idea was that Adam and Eve's perfect attributes were passed down from generation to generation. However, as each generation passed, their perfect physical attributes diminished. Thus, the early generations were mightier than the succeeding ones. The physical decline of the younger generations continued until the Flood, to the point that their days were numbered as stated in Genesis 6:3. It was immoral for the older generations to consort with the younger generations, whereby puny women begot unusually large children. Nephilim was even considered a stature.
- Douglas et al. 2011, p. 1384 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDouglasTenneyMursketSilva2011 (help)
- The lexical item in Hebrew: אלהים, romanized: ʼĕlōhîm, means “God” but uses the Hebrew plural morpheme -im. Although ʼĕlōhîm is plural in form, it is understood in the singular sense. Therefore the English translation is "God" rather than "Gods".
- Davies 1995, p. 22
- C. Westermann, Genesis, BKAT 1/3. (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1982), 42
- DDD 1998, p. 795
- Mark S. Smith The Ugaritic Baal cycle 1994 p249 "all the divine sons" (or "all the sons of God"). ESA sources may support this point."
- M. Dietrich, O. Loretz, J. Sanmartin Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit 2d ed. (Munster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1995)
- Jesús-Luis Cunchillos, Juan-Pablo Vita, A concordance of Ugaritic words 2003 p389
- Jesús-Luis Cunchillos, Juan-Pablo Vita, The texts of the Ugaritic data bank 2003 p82
- Marvin H. Pope El in the Ugaritic texts 1955 p49
- Rahmouni, A. Divine epithets in the Ugaritic alphabetic texts 2008 p91
- Young G. D. Concordance of Ugaritic 1956 Page 13
- G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren Theological dictionary of the Old Testament 2000 p130
- Parker, Simon B. (2000). "Ugaritic Literature and the Bible". Near Eastern Archaeology. 63 (4): 228–31. doi:10.2307/3210794. JSTOR 3210794. S2CID 163249370.
- Cooke, Gerald (1961). "The Israelite King As Son of God". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 73 (2): 202–25. doi:10.1515/zatw.19126.96.36.199. S2CID 170218194.
- Davies 1995, p. 23
- Scharbert, J. Traditions- und Redaktionsgeschichte von Gn 6 1967
- Jackson 2004, p. 75, "Rahlfs (1971) reports that Alexandrinus was emended by another hand at 6.2 crossing out the word uioi and writing the word aggeloi."
- "CHURCH FATHERS: City of God, Book XV (St. Augustine)". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- Biblia Peshitta en español: traducción de los antiguos manuscritos arameos.. Nashville, Tenn.: Holman Bible Publishers. 2006. ISBN 9789704100001.
- "Genesis 6 - VUL Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "Nephilim: Fallen Angels, Giants or Men? - The mystery of Genesis 6:1–4". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "Job 1 - LXX Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls - 4Q37 Deuteronomy". dssenglishbible.com. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "Deuteronomy 32 - LXX Bible". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 2019-03-17.
- "Job 1:6 (KJV)". Blue Letter Bible.
- Michael S. Heiser. "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God" (PDF).
- Riemer Roukema (2010). Jesus, Gnosis and Dogma. T&T Clark International. p. 147. ISBN 9780567466426. Retrieved 30 January 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Michael S. Heiser (2001). "DEUTERONOMY 32:8 AND THE SONS OF GOD". Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Wright 2004, p. 20
- James Carleton Paget, The Epistle of Barnabas: outlook and background 1994 - p10 "The quotation finds no precise equivalent in Enoch, which is probably explicable on the grounds that B. is inspired by something he remembers from Enoch at this point (see for a parallel to I Enoch 89:61-64; 90:17f.)"
- Douglas 2011, p. 1384 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDouglas2011 (help)
- Bamberger 2006, pp. 150, 151
- Bamberger 2006, p. 148
- Bamberger 2006, p. 147
- Bamberger 2006, p. 149
- Bamberger 2006, p. 150
- Bamberger 2006, pp. 149, 150
- Jung & 2004 Reprint, pp. 66, 67 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJung2004_Reprint (help)
- Bamberger 2006, p. 151
- Douglas, J. D.; Tenney, Merrill C.; Silva, Moisés (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Revised ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 978-0310229834.
- Davies, Jon, ed. (1995). Words remembered, text renewed: essays in honour of John F. A. Sawyer. Sheffield: JSOT Press [u.a.] ISBN 1850755426.
- Darshan, Guy "The Story of the Sons of God and the Daughters of Men: Gen.6:1–4 and the Hesiodic Catalogue of Women", Shnaton: An Annual for Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies 23 (2014), 155–178 (in Hebrew; Eng. abstract)
- DDD, Editors: Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. van der Horst (1998). Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible (DDD) (2., extensively rev. ed.). Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004111190.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International. ISBN 0826470890.
- Wright, Archie T. (2004). The origin of evil spirits the reception of Genesis 6.1–4 in early Jewish literature. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 3161486560.
- Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels: soldiers of satan's realm (1. paperback ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. ISBN 0827607970.
- Jung, Rabbi Leo (2004). Fallen angels in Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan literature. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Reprints. ISBN 0766179389.