Open main menu

2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests

The 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests are a series of ongoing demonstrations in Hong Kong and other cities around the world against the Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill proposed by the Hong Kong government.

2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests
Hundreds of thousands of protesters marching in white on 9 June (top) and in black 16 June (bottom).
Date31 March 2019 – ongoing
(3 months and 3 weeks)
Main demonstrations in Hong Kong:

Solidarity protests:

  • Dozens of other cities abroad
Caused by
  • Resignation of Chief Executive Carrie Lam and the holding of free and fair elections for the Legislative Council and the Chief Executive
  • Complete withdrawal of the Extradition Bill
  • Release and exoneration of rioters
  • Accountability for police force
  • Retract the characterisation of the 12 June protest as a riot
MethodsOccupations, sit-ins, civil disobedience, mobile street protests, Internet activism, mass strike, protest art, hunger strikes, Lennon Walls
  • Bill suspended on 15 June; Lam apologised to the public on 16 June; Lam said 'The bill is dead' on 9 July
  • Police partially retracts the characterisation of the protest as "riot"[2]
Parties to the civil conflict

(no centralised leadership)

Death(s)4 (all suicide)[4][5][6][7]
Injuries90+ (as of 14 June 2019)[3]
Arrested100+ (as of 16 July 2019)[8][9][10][11]
2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests
Traditional Chinese反逃犯條例修訂運動
Simplified Chinese反逃犯条例修订运动
Anti-repatriation protests

The protests arose over concerns that such legislation would blur the demarcation between the legal systems (also known as "one country, two systems") in Hong Kong and mainland China, subjecting Hong Kong residents and those passing through the city to de facto jurisdiction of courts controlled by the Communist Party of China.[12][13][14][15] The bill was first proposed by Secretary for Security John Lee in February 2019. The first protest happened on 31 March with a peak estimate of 12,000 pro-democracy protesters. The movement gained stronger momentum after a second demonstration on 28 April, attracting an estimated 130,000 protesters.[16][17][18]

Starting from June, many demonstrations followed, some of which attracted hundreds of thousands of people. A protest held on 9 June was attended by 240,000 people according to police sources, or over 1 million people according to organisers.[19] On 12 June, the day the government had attempted to table the bill for its second reading, protests outside government headquarters escalated into violent clashes.[20] Allegations of excessive force by the police used severely strained the relationship between the police and the protesters, the press and the medical profession; accountability for police brutality became one of organisers' demands at subsequent protests.[21][22] A protest march held on 16 June was attended by nearly 2 million people, according to organisers;[23][24] police sources estimated 338,000 protesters at the height of the march.[25]

As the city marked the 22nd anniversary of its 1997 handover, the annual pro-democracy protest march organised by civil rights groups claimed a record turnout of 550,000 while police placed the estimate around 190,000. Separately, hundreds of young protesters stormed the Legislative Council and desecrated symbols associated with the People's Republic of China (PRC) and pro-Beijing elements inside the building.[26] International protests in solidarity also took place in New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Toronto, Vancouver, London, Paris, Berlin, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Sydney and Taipei.

On 9 July, Chief Executive Carrie Lam pronounced the extradition bill dead, using an ambiguous Cantonese phrase (壽終正寢 Jyutping: sau6 zung1 zing3 cam2) that may be translated as "dying a peaceful death."[27][28][29] She called amendment efforts a "total failure."[30] Lam gave no assurances, however, that the bill would be completely withdrawn, or that any of the other demands of protestors would be addressed.[31][32] Since July, waves of localised protests have continued, and some have escalated into clashes between police, democracy activists, and pro-Beijing gangsters and local residents.



In 1987, the territorial principle was proposed to settle the jurisdiction issue between Hong Kong and mainland China by the Special Group on Law of the Hong Kong Basic Law Consultative Committee, so that any person, whether an inhabitant of Hong Kong or of mainland China, who has committed an offence should be prosecuted and tried at the place of offence.[33] In 1998, pro-democrat legislator Martin Lee, one of the group members, said in a Legislative Council meeting that the Hong Kong government should "stand firm" on the territorial principle and "must tackle without delay" the rendition arrangement with China.[34][35] However, there is no such arrangement as of 2019.

The bill was first proposed by the Hong Kong government in February 2019 in response to a 2018 homicide involving a Hong Kong couple while visiting Taiwan. Hong Kong does not have a treaty with Taiwan that allows for the arrest and extradition, even for murder. Negotiating such treaty would be problematic since the government of China does not recognise the sovereignty of Taiwan. To resolve this issue, the Hong Kong government proposed an amendment to the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance (Cap. 503) and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation Ordinance (Cap. 525) that would establish a mechanism for case-by-case transfers of fugitives, on the order of the Chief Executive, to any jurisdiction with which the city lacks a formal extradition treaty,[15] and controversially included extradition to mainland China.

The inclusion of mainland China in the amendment became of concern to different sections of society. Democracy advocates expressed fears that the city's jurisdiction would merge itself with Chinese laws administered by the Communist Party, thereby eroding the "one country, two systems" principle established since the Handover in 1997. Opponents had urged the Hong Kong government to establish an extradition arrangement solely with Taiwan, and to sunset the arrangement immediately after the surrender of the suspect.[15][36]


31 March demonstrationEdit

The Civil Human Rights Front (CHRF), a platform for 50 pro-democracy groups, launched its first protest against the bill on 31 March, from Southorn Playground in Wan Chai to the government headquarters in Admiralty. Pro-democracy camp's convener Claudia Mo and Lam Wing-kee, the owner of Causeway Bay Books who was kidnapped by Chinese agents in 2015, led the rally. High-profile democracy activists, like Cardinal Joseph Zen, barristers Martin Lee and Margaret Ng, and Apple Daily owner Jimmy Lai, also attended the rally. Organisers claimed 12,000 people took part in the march, while police put the peak figure at 5,200.[37]

28 April marchEdit

Thousands of protesters marched in Wan Chai against the proposed China extradition law on 28 April 2019.

A second protest march against the extradition bill took place on 28 April. While police estimated 22,800 protesters, organisers claimed 130,000 protesters partook in the march. The latter figure was the highest since the estimated 510,000 who joined the annual 1 July protest in 2014. The rally began at East Point Road, Causeway Bay and headed to the Legislative Council in Admiralty, a 2.2-kilometre (1.4 mi) route representing over four hours of marching.[16]

The next day, Chief Executive Carrie Lam remained adamant that the bill would be enacted and said the Legislative councillors had to pass new extradition laws before their summer break. Lam said Chan could be out of prison by October hence the urgency of passing the extradition bill.[17] Although Chan received a prison sentence on 29 April, Secretary for Security John Lee said that Chan could be free to leave Hong Kong early for good behaviour.[18]

6 June lawyers' silent marchEdit

Thousands of lawyers marched in black against the extradition bill on 6 June 2019.

Legal professionals concerned about the extradition bill also staged a silent march on 6 June. In black attire, lawyers, legal academics and law students marched from the Court of Final Appeal to the Central Government Offices. Dennis Kwok, Legislative Councillor for the Legal constituency, and Martin Lee and Denis Chang, two former Hong Kong Bar Association chairmen, led the march. The group of lawyers stood silently in front of government headquarters for three minutes. Kwok said, "We shall not bow our heads [to the government]".[38] More than 3,000 lawyers, representing around one-quarter of the city's legal professionals, attended the march. It was the fifth and largest protest march held by lawyers in Hong Kong since 1997.[39]

While the protesting lawyers expressed reservations about openness and fairness of the justice system in China, Secretary Lee said the legal sector did not really understand the bill and some had not read the bill before protesting.[39]

9 June protestEdit

Daytime rallyEdit

Mass protest on 9 June: organisers estimated 1 million participants; police said 270,000 at its peak.

Before the government tabled the extradition bill' second reading in the Legislative Council on 12 June, the CHRF had called Hong Kong people to march against the bill on 9 June – an approximately 3 km (1.86 mi) route from Victoria Park to the Legislative Council in Admiralty.

Police ordered MTR to not stop trains at Wan Chai, Causeway Bay and Tin Hau stations for several hours.[40] Protesters had to exit at Fortress Hill to join the protest.[41] Police urged protesters to start off before the official 3 pm start-time to ease overcrowding; police were forced to open up all lanes on Hennessy Road, having previously refused to do so.[42] A significant number of protesters were still leaving Victoria Park up to four hours after the start time, and were still arriving at the end-point at Admiralty seven hours after the protest began.[43]

CHRF convenor Jimmy Sham said that 1.03 million people attended the march, the largest protest Hong Kong has seen since the 1997 handover, surpassing the turnout seen at mass rallies in support of the Tiananmen protests of 1989 and 1 July demonstration of 2003.[44] While reports suggested it had been the largest ever,[45] the police put the crowd at only 270,000 at its peak.[46][47][48]

Night-time clashesEdit

Hundreds of protesters camped in front of the government headquarters well into the night, with more joining them in response to calls from Demosistō and pro-independence activists. Police formed a human chain to prevent protesters from entering Harcourt Road, the main road next to government headquarters, while Special Tactical Squad (STS) stood by for potential conflicts.[49] Although the CHRF officially had called an end to the march at 10 pm, around 100 protesters remained at Civic Square.[50]

Protesters on Harcourt Road at night, with police on standby. 9 June 2019

At 11 pm, the government issued a press statement, saying it "acknowledge[s] and respect[s] that people have different views on a wide range of issues", but insisted the second reading debate on the bill would resume on 12 June.[51] In response to the government's statement, several members of Demosistō staged a sit-in protest outside the Legislative Council Complex demanding a dialogue with Chief Executive Lam and Secretary Lee, while pro-independence groups, Student Localism and the Students Independent Union, called for escalating protest actions if the government failed to respond to their demand to withdraw the bill.[49]

Around midnight, tensions escalated and clashes broke out between protesters and officers at the Legislative Council Complex.[46] Protesters threw bottles and metal barricades at police and pushed barricades while officers responded with pepper spray. Riot police pushed back against the crowd and secured the area, while police on Harcourt Road also pushed protesters back onto the pavements. Clashes shifted to Lung Wo Road as many protesters gathered and barricaded themselves from the officers. Several hundred protesters were herded by officers towards Lung King Street in Wan Chai around 2 am and then moved onto Gloucester Road.[46]

The South China Morning Post described the night protest as similar to "bigger clashes during the 2014 Occupy protests".[50] The number of protesters gradually dwindled around 3 am.[50] By the end of the clearance, 19 protesters had been arrested while 358, who had been corralled along the wall of the Old Wan Chai Police Station by a large number of officers, had their profiles recorded; 80 percent of them were younger than 25.[8]

The next morning, Chief Executive Lam refused to withdraw the bill but acknowledged that the sizeable rally showed there were "clearly still concerns" over the bill.[52] Pressed about whether she would resign, she asserted it was important to have a stable governing team "when our economy is going to undergo some very severe challenges because of external uncertainties."[53]

12 June siege of LegCoEdit

Early stageEdit

Online groups called on people to "picnic" on the morning of 12 June at Tamar Park.

A general strike had been called for 12 June, the day of the planned resumption of the second reading of the extradition bill. The Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (HKCTU) appealed to workers to join the protest; hundreds of businesses closed for the day and numerous workers went on strike.[54] Affiliate Hong Kong Cabin Crew Federation also called a strike. HSBC, Standard Chartered and Bank of East Asia closed some central branches; some of the banks and the Big Four accounting firms had agreed to flexible work arrangements for staff; Hong Kong Jockey Club shut down three of its central betting branches, citing employee safety.[55][56] The Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union (HKPTU) called on its members to attend a protest rally after school hours on that day. Student unions of most of the major higher education institutions also called for student strike on 12 June; 50 social welfare and religious groups also took part in the strike.[57] The Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong urged the Hong Kong government and the public to show restraint, and the administration "not to rush to amend the extradition bill before fully responding to the concerns of the legal sector and the public."[58]

A Facebook post calling on people to "enjoy a picnic" at the Tamar Park on 11 June attracted 2,000 people. In preparation for 12 June protest, the police force tightened the security in the Admiralty station and stopped commuters, mostly teenagers and searched their bags, resulting in some friction between the public and the police.[59]

Another call to "picnic" at the Tamar Park on 12 June attracted close to 10,000 responses. The Legislative Council Commission declared an amber security alert, the protest zone outside the building was closed and access to the complex was limited. Sit-ins began in the morning and large crowd built up at the MTR exit. Around 8 am, the crowd rushed onto Harcourt Road, blocking traffic.[60] Lung Wo Road and surrounding streets were also blocked by the protesters in a scene reminiscent of 2014 Occupy protests. A banner written "Majority calls on Carrie Lam to step down" and "Withdraw the extradition bill, defend One Country Two Systems" was hung from the Admiralty Centre footbridge.[61][59] Around 11 am, the Legislative Council Secretariat announced that the second debate on the extradition bill had been postponed indefinitely.[61]

Violent clashesEdit

Police vans carrying riot police began to line up adjacent to the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, on standby, at around 1 pm. A source in the pro-Beijing camp said that some CCP legislators were at Central Police District Headquarters, while online groups called on protesters to block vehicles that might be used to transport the legislators to the Legislative Council.[61]

Harcourt Road before (top) and after (bottom) police fired tear gas at the protesters. 12 June 2019

Around 3:20 pm, protesters on Tim Wa Avenue began to charge the police barricades and were doused with pepper spray in reply. Some protesters at the junction of Lung Wo Road and Tim Wa Avenue broke through the barricades and took over Tim Wa Avenue after riot police walked into the government headquarters, leaving a Special Tactical Unit to defend. Protesters also attempted to charge the Legislative Council building. Riot police dispersed the protesters by firing tear gas, beanbag rounds and rubber bullets.[61]

Police charged at protesters, pushing their line about 50 metres eastward on Harcourt Road. Protesters stood their ground on Harcourt Road and remained in a stand-off with the police on the road.[61] Many protesters took shelter in the buildings nearby as more tear gas was fired. The police cleared Harcourt Road and advanced on protesters. As of 6 pm, 22 injured people had been sent to public hospitals. Around 6:20 pm, the Legislative Council Secretariat issued a circular saying Legislative Council President Andrew Leung had called off the meeting.[61] Protesters remained in the streets outside the AIA Tower in Central, Queensway outside Pacific Place shopping mall, and at the junction of Arsenal Street and Hennessy Road in Wan Chai into the night. In Central, private cars were employed to block Connaught Road Central while protesters chanted slogans from the Exchange Square bridge. The number of protesters dwindled after midnight as roads gradually reopened.[citation needed] By the end of the day, at least 79 protesters and police officers had been treated in hospitals;[62] around 150 tear gas canisters, "several" rounds of rubber bullets, and 20 beanbag shots had been fired during the protest clearance.[63]

Commissioner of Police Stephen Lo declared the clashes a "riot" and condemned the protesters' behaviour. Speaking in Cantonese, Lo used the term for "disturbance", but a police spokesman later clarified he meant "riot".[64][65][3] Chief Executive Carrie Lam backed Lo, saying the protesters' "dangerous and life-threatening acts" had devolved into a "blatant, organised riot".[66]

Overnight, 2,000 protesters from religious groups held a vigil outside the government headquarters, singing hymns and praying.[67] Various trade unions, businesses and schools also vowed to stage protests.[68] The Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union called for a city-wide strike lasting a week. At least 4,000 Hong Kong teachers followed the call.[69]

Siege of CITIC TowerEdit

CITIC Tower from Lung Wui Road.

According to the CHRF, the police had earlier agreed to peaceful demonstration within the area outside CITIC Tower in its letter of no objection. However, teargas was fired by police, to some criticism.[70][71] Videos depicted the police firing tear gas on both sides of Lung Wui Road at around 4 pm as in a pincer movement near Citic Tower went viral on Hong Kong social media. People who were trying to push into the building to flee the gas, found the doors locked and themselves cornered by police.[70][71]

As people trickled through the jammed central revolving door and a small side door, the police fired another two tear gas canisters into the trapped crowd fuelling panic.[72] Protesters attempted to break down another locked side door in a desperate attempt to rescue the beseiged crowd. Pro-democrat legislators criticised the police action which nearly caused a stampede.[73] Amnesty International also criticised the use of tear gas at the trapped crowd.[74]

Police brutality allegationsEdit

Many videos of aggressive police action appeared online: one showed tear gas canisters being fired at peaceful and unarmed protesters, first-aid volunteers,[75] and even reporters; another showed a protester apparently being hit in the face by a police projectile; another showed police firing multiple rounds of tear gas at hundreds of trapped protesters outside CITIC Tower.[76][77] Additionally, The New York Times released a video essay that shows tear gas was deployed as an "offensive weapon" and that in several cases, unarmed protesters were beaten and dragged by police commanders.[78] On 21 June, Amnesty International published a report examining policing tactics by its team of experts who examined footage of 14 incidents.[74] Video showed apparent unlawful use of batons and rubber bullets, improper use of riot control agents, lack of visible police identification and restrictions on journalists and medics.[79] Amnesty concluded that the use of force by police against the largely peaceful protest was unnecessary and excessive and that police had "violated international human rights law and standards."[74]

Protesters complained about the lack of identifying numbers on the uniforms of the Special Tactical Squad (STS), who were accused of police brutality. Although Secretary Lee claimed there was no space on the new uniforms to display their numbers, it is an operational requirement.[80] The numbers appeared to have been removed since 12 June, when police officers began wearing newly designed uniforms that omitted the numbers. Former uniform designs included numbers, as photos from the South China Morning Post have shown during the 2014 Occupy protests, the 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest, and the recent 9 June clashes. Meanwhile, a spokesman for the police said personal information of more than 400 officers, and about 100 of their family members, had been posted online to their chagrin.[81] Activists have also targeted senior British officers in the force, questioning the legacy of colonial violence.[82][83]

Chief Executive Lam and Commissioner of Police Stephen Lo repeatedly sidestepped questions over police violence and the protesters' demand for an independent inquiry into the policing of the 12 June protest, only replying that the Complaints Against Police Office (CAPO) and the Independent Police Complaints Council (IPCC) – both of which are internal institutions – would look into the complaints.[84] Within weeks, the UK suspended future sales of crowd control equipment and called for independent investigations.[85]

Assaults on journalistsEdit

At a police press conference, reporters wore safety hats and gas masks in protest of police brutality against front line press. 13 June 2019

The Hong Kong Journalists Association (HKJA) accused the police of "trampl[ing] on reporters" and ignoring their safety. They complained that the police had unreasonably interfered with newsgathering by shining flashlights directly at them to disperse them. A driver for public broadcaster RTHK was hit by a tear gas round and was sent to hospital after he suffered a cardiac arrest.[86] The HKJA also said members complained that some police officers had been verbally insulting and abusive,[87] including the use of profanity at a member of the press.[88] Another online video showed riot police firing tear gas rounds directly at a journalist.[89] The HKJA filed a complaint with the Independent Police Complaints Council (IPCC) claiming police had caused bodily harm to 26 journalists during the protests.[90] At a police press conference on 13 June, many reporters wore high-visibility vests, helmets and gas masks in protest.[91]

Hospital arrestsEdit

At least four protesters were arrested at hospitals while receiving treatment following clashes earlier that day. The police chief admitted that officers had accessed medical records, raising concerns over confidentiality of patient information.[92] On 17 June, Legislative Councillor for the Medical constituency Pierre Chan presented a partial list that disclosed the information of 76 patients who were treated in the emergency ward of a public hospital on 12 and 13 June, along with a note that stated "for police" which was written on the top-left corner of the document. Chan said such a list could be obtained through the clinical data system in some hospitals without requiring a login and accused the Hong Kong Hospital Authority (HKHA) for leaking patients' data to the police. The HKHA denied the accusation, stressing that it had never authorised anyone to print the patients' data for police officers.[93]

The Hong Kong Adventist Hospital in Tsuen Wan also reportedly refused to treat an injured protester and advised the person to go to Yan Chai Hospital before reporting him to the police. The private hospital told media that its protocol prohibits it from handling cases related to "criminal activities", adding that patients involved in such cases are referred to a public hospital.[94]

Tensions grew between the medical profession and the police force with both parties accused of verbal harassment and abuse. The police force later withdrew from posts at Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Yan Chai Hospital.[95][96]

14 June mothers' sit-inEdit

Following an interview of Carrie Lam on TVB in the morning of 12 June in which she lamented that as a mother, she would not have tolerated her children's violent protests, a group of women barristers and scholars from Chinese University launched an online petition stating that "the people of Hong Kong are not your children" and admonished her for attacking their children with tear gas, rubber bullets or bag bombs."[97][98] Some 6,000 people participated in a three-hour sit-in at Chater Garden in Central on the evening of 14 June. The protesters dressed in black and holding carnations, called on Carrie Lam to step down and for the government to retract the bill. They also held up placards condemning police brutality, such as "don't shoot our kids."[99] The organisers also said they had collected more than 44,000 signatures in a petition condemning the views Lam expressed in the interview.[100]

16 June marchEdit

On 15 June, Chief Executive Carrie Lam announced a pause in the passage of the extradition bill after the Legislative Council meetings had been postponed for four working days in a row.[23] The pro-democracy camp feared it was merely a tactical retreat and demanded a full withdrawal of the bill and said they would go ahead with the 16 June rally as planned. Jimmy Sham, convenor of the CHRF, said the suspension could be a trap.[101][102] They also called for Lam's resignation, apology for "disproportionally violent" police tactics towards peaceful protesters, the release of arrested protesters, and to withdraw the official characterisation of the protest on 12 June as "riot".[103]

Aerial view of the protesting crowd in Causeway Bay on 16 June.

The march started ahead of time, at 2:30 pm on 16 June, from Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, to the Legislative Council in Admiralty – an approximately 3-kilometre-long (1.9 mi) route. Slogan-chanting protesters were predominantly dressed in black, some wearing white ribbons on their chests in anger at police brutality during the 12 June crackdown.[104] Many protesters started their march from North Point as the police ordered the MTR not to stop at Tin Hau and Causeway Bay during the march.[105] Nearby train stations were swamped with hundreds of thousands pouring into the protest zone; those from the Kowloon side trying to join the protest had to wait up to an hour at a time to board cross-harbour Star Ferry from Tsim Sha Tsui. The size of the crowd forced police to open all the six lanes of Hennessy Road; the masses then also spilled over onto Lockhart Road and Jaffe Road – all three being parallel streets and major thoroughfares in Wan Chai.[106]

Protesters making way for an ambulance on Queensway at night.

The procession from Causeway Bay to Admiralty lasted from 3 pm to 11 pm. Marchers left bouquets and slogans on the site in front of Pacific Place where a man had committed suicide on 15 June. At night, protesters blocked Harcourt Road, causing traffic to grind to a halt. Protesters, however, allowed trapped vehicles – mainly franchised buses and emergency vehicles – to pass.[105]

The CHRF claimed the final turnout at "almost 2 million plus 1 citizens", which set the record of the largest protest in Hong Kong history.[107][108][109][110][111] The police said that there were 338,000 marchers on the original route at its peak.[25] Early in the afternoon, Radio France Internationale reported that Stand News, an independent online news agency, had used big data to predict that at most 1.44 million would have participated in the protest.[112]

At 8:30 pm, the government issued a statement in which Carrie Lam apologised to Hong Kong residents and promised to "sincerely and humbly accept all criticism and to improve and serve the public."[25]

21 and 24 June police HQ siegesEdit

A loose association of university-based protest groups, officially known as the Student's Unions of Higher Institutions, reiterated its four main as-yet unaddressed demands after not receiving any official response from the government. Further protests were called on 21 June.

At around 11 am, protesters gathered outside government headquarters and quickly blocked the traffic on Harcourt Road. Some of the protesters also marched to Hong Kong Police Headquarters in Wan Chai as Demosistō activist Joshua Wong, who was released from prison only a few days earlier after serving a sentence for his actions in the 2014 protests, urged the crowd to surround the complex.[113] Dozens of protesters also staged a sit-in at the Revenue Tower and Immigration Tower nearby.[114] Another round of blockade occurred three days later, on 24 June.[115] On 26 June, protesters returned to the Revenue Tower to apologise to civil servants for the earlier disruption.[116]

By the evening of 21 June, a siege had developed at the Police Headquarters as thousands of protesters amassed in Arsenal Street.[114] South China Morning Post reported that protesters had "blocked the police headquarters' exits, threw eggs at the compound, drew graffiti on the walls, covered closed-circuit television cameras with tape, splashed oil on officers and targeted laser beams at police officers' eyes".[117] The police took no action to disperse the protesters. The police sought medical attention for some staff members and had made a total of five ambulance calls by 9:33 pm. After the ambulance's arrival, the medics waited for tens of minutes in front of the gate of the police headquarter for the police to unlock it.[118] The siege ended peacefully at 2:40 am as most of the protesters had left. Staff members and officers trapped inside the building evacuated via a back entrance to board waiting for coaches.[117] The police blamed the protesters for the delayed treatment, though Hong Kong Fire Services Department stated that the protesters did not obstruct any rescue effort by the paramedics.[119]

26 and 28 June G20 summit ralliesEdit

Protests occurred outside 19 foreign consulates in Hong Kong. Around 1,500 protesters during the day visited the consulates of countries expected to attend the G20 Osaka summit, handing out petitions to raise awareness of the movement in hopes of putting pressure on China.[120] Meanwhile, there were solidarity protests in Osaka, Japan during the G20 Summit.[121][122] China said it would not tolerate any discussion at the forum because "Hong Kong matters are purely an internal affair to China [in which] no foreign country has a right to interfere."[123]

In the evening, thousands gathered for a rally outside the City Hall, shouting slogans of freedom and democracy. The protests stretched to the International Finance Centre, and spilled over into Lung Wo Road, blocking westbound traffic during the evening rush hour.[124][125] Thousands of protesters then assembled at Edinburgh Place at night, holding signs that read "Democracy now" and "Free Hong Kong."[126] At the same time, around 1,000 protesters surrounded the Wan Chai police headquarters for six hours.[127]

On 28 June, some of the G20 demonstrations also protested against the Hong Kong government's prospective surrender of a strip of land in Central Harbourfront to the People's Liberation Army on 29 June. In light of the protests on 27 June, Au Nok-hin's resolutions and Eddie Chu's proposal to delay the surrendering date were halted as pro-Beijing legislator Christopher Cheung requested an adjournment for debate to shift attention on restoring peace in Hong Kong.[128] Chu and protesters entered the pier at around 11:30 pm. Protesters left the pier at midnight when its jurisdiction was legally turned over to PLA, though a standoff between the protesters and the police continued till 1 am.[129]

1 July protestsEdit

Annual pro-democracy marchEdit

The annual 1 July march at the Jardine's Bazaar shopping district.

As the city marked the 22nd anniversary of its 1997 handover to China, the annual pro-democracy protest march organised by CHRF claimed a record turnout of 550,000 while police placed the estimate around 190,000;[130][131] independent organisations using scientific methods calculated that participation was in the region of 250,000 people.[132][133]

At the annual flag-raising ceremony in the morning outside the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, police used pepper spray and batons to suppress the disruption by protesters.[134] Before the march, youths had begun besieging the Legislative Council building. Due to the storming of the Legislative Council, the destination of the march was diverted to Chater Road in Central.[135]

Storming of LegcoEdit

Hong Kong flag with black background – the Black Bauhinia – used by some protesters.

At around 9 pm local time, hundreds of protesters stormed the legislature after breaking through the glass walls and metal doors of the building.[136] Protesters damaged portraits of former pro-Beijing presidents of the Legislative Council, spray-painted slogans such as "It was you who taught me peaceful marches did not work,"[137][138] smashed furniture, defaced the Hong Kong emblem, waved the Union Flag and displayed the colonial Hong Kong flag on the podium.[139][140] At the same time, protesters hung up signs and installed barricades, warning others to protect cultural objects and to do no damage to books in the library while protesting.[141] The police started using tear gas to disperse protesters around the LegCo at 12:05 am and reached the building 15 minutes later.[142]

Protesters blamed the occupation and acts of property damage to be the result of Carrie Lam's "lack of positive response to the public."[143] It was also reported that the deaths from the suicide events also sparked anger and desperation among the protesters, which also contributes to the protest on 1 July.[144]

Carrie Lam held a press conference at 4 am stating that she acknowledged the peaceful and orderly march, but condemned strongly the "violence and vandalism by protesters who stormed into the Legislative Council building".[145] However, Lam dodged questions regarding recent deaths and the government left the unanswered questions out of the official transcript, an act criticised by the Hong Kong Journalists Association for hindering public's right to know. Information Services Department responded that the transcript released was not a "verbatim".[146]

By early 5 July, there had been at least 66 arrests and first formal charges laid in connection with the incident.[147]

After the protest, demonstrators and legislators condemned the Hong Kong police for deliberately allowing protesters to ram the glass doors and windows of the LegCo in front of cameras and television crews for hours, without any arrests or clearance. A journalist with The New York Times remarked on the "notable [and] ominous" absence of the police and questioned the lack of action to prevent the legislature from being stormed, asserting that the police force "no longer sees its purpose as maintaining public order and is, instead, carrying out the government’s political agenda."[148] The police explained that their decision to retreat was after "considering a number of factors."[149] However, opponents have asserted it was to manipulate public opinion and blame protesters in an attempt to seize the moral high ground.[150][151]

Admiralty DeclarationEdit

From within the occupied Legislative Council governing chambers, a new manifesto with ten points was presented,[152][153] calling for greater freedom and democracy, and independence from the political influences of Beijing.[154] Brian Leung Kai-ping, the 25-year-old student activist who presented this declaration, said afterward: "As police were drawing closer and closer, after some deliberation, most decided to end the siege. I volunteered to be in front of the camera to read out the key demands of protesters in the chamber. The last thing I wished to see ... was to have no clear demands put on the table."[155] Risking arrest, he removed his mask to make the address, saying later that "Hongkongers have nothing left to lose. Hongkongers cannot [afford to] lose any more."[156]

5 July mothers' sit-inEdit

On Friday evening, a second mother's rally occurred at Chater Garden in Central. According to organisers, about 8,000 were in attendance, while police cited 1300 in attendance[157][158] The gathering of mothers and allies shared solidarity with young protestors and condemned the government for being indifferent to Hong Kong people's demands.[159] One mother vowed, "If they don't release the young people, we will keep standing out."[160]

7 July Tsim Sha Tsui marchEdit

Daytime rallyEdit

Tens of thousands of protesters in Nathan Road on 7 July.

The first anti-extradition bill protest in the Kowloon side of Hong Kong was held on 7 July in Tsim Sha Tsui. Before the march, organisers had promised that it would be a peaceful rally.[161]

The rally started from Salisbury Garden at 3:30 pm, heading to the West Kowloon MTR station. The march ended at around 7 pm. The march was then officially called to an end at 7:30 pm. The organiser claimed more than 230,000 marchers, while police estimated around 56,000 only.[162]

Protesters arriving at the destination of the march, the West Kowloon station.

Protesters marched along Nathan Road and Canton Road, which mainland tourists frequent because of the presence of a long string of luxury stores. The protest was aimed at giving a good impression to these visitors, hoping to raise their awareness of the issues and support for their cause. Hard copy booklets about the extradition bill in Simplified Chinese were distributed to mainland tourists, to bypass mainland web censorship.[163] About 200 protestors assembled near the ferry terminal by the China Hong Kong City Centre, chanting in Mandarin and urging the shoppers to join the demonstration.[164]

As a precaution, water barricades had been also set up by the police, with checkpoints to confirm the passengers' identities; the MTR Corporation had stopped selling tickets for journeys during noon-time. Protesters and residents condemned the action, complaining it unnecessary and unreasonable. This is the largest protest in Hong Kong solely mobilised by netizens and in Kowloon area so far.[165]

Night-time clashesEdit

After the end of the march at 7:30 pm, around 300 protesters left the station and headed to Canton Road again. They proceeded up Nathan Road and arrived at Mong Kok to find police amassed on Shantung Street, where there was a stand-off for around 20 minutes.[166] Riot police, most of them refusing to display an identification number or warrant card[167][168] arrived, assaulting protestors and journalists alike.[169][170][171][172] By the end of the night, at least six arrests were made.[173][174] The following day, lawmaker Lam Cheuk-ting requested an independent investigation of police conduct, called for a review of video that may show the use of excessive force, and stated that failure to have warrant cards visibly displayed may be a violation of the law.[168]

10 July Subsequent protestsEdit

On 10 July, two rival protests were held outside Wan Chai Police Headquarters. Around a dozen protesters from the pro-democracy Labour Party, called the police to launch a criminal investigation, they presented five pieces of video footage as evidence, purportedly showing officers hitting or kicking demonstrators even after they were pinned down. However, the Labour Party protesters were referred to the force's internal investigation unit – the Complaints Against Police Office. Around a dozen protesters from the pro-establishment Anti-black money, anti-Hong Kong independence concern group filed a police report claiming that pro-democracy lawmakers: Jeremy Tam, Au Nok-hin and Roy Kwong were involved in the violent night clashes.[175]

10 July Yau Tong's Lennon Wall tensionEdit

On 10 July, a few youngsters constructed a makeshift Lennon Wall on a pillar outside the Yau Tong MTR exit. They were soon surrounded and intimidated by tens of mostly middle-aged pro-government residents who were suspected of being off-duty policemen from nearby Yau Mei Court, which contains a "disciplined staff quarters" for police.[176]

The crowds built up at night, growing into the hundreds.[177] Numerous scuffles then broke out between a hundred pro-government residents and a much larger crowd protecting the youngsters.[178] Hundreds of police arrived and formed a defence line on the staircase leading from the MTR exit.[179] They were accused of not stopping the violence of the pro-government residents against the youngsters. The conflict persisted for hours and did not subside until 1 a.m. on 11 July. At least three arrests were made,[178] including two retired police officers for common assault.[180]

14 July Sha Tin marchEdit

Tens of thousands marched in Sha Tin near New Town Plaza on 14 July.

Daytime rallyEdit

In the afternoon, the first anti-extradition bill protest in the New Territories side of Hong Kong was held on 14 July in Sha Tin. The rally started from Chui Tin Street Soccer Pitch near Che Kung Miu at 3:10 pm, passing Hong Kong Heritage Museum, heading to the Sha Tin station Bus Terminus. Protesters chanted "all five demands must be fulfilled" and "Hong Kong police break laws." The first batch of protesters arrived at the destination at around 4:45 pm, and the march ended officially at 7:15 pm. The organiser claimed more than 115,000 marchers, while police estimated around 28,000.[181]

Evening clashesEdit

Stand-off between protesters and police near Sha Tin Jockey Club Swimming Pool. Night of 14 July.

After the march, protesters moved to the streets near Sha Tin Jockey Club Swimming Pool. They set up barricades and threw objects including traffic cones and bottles at police at about 5 pm. Shortly afterwards, around 20 officers moved towards them while pepper-spraying them. During the stand-off, residents near the streets tossed down necessities, including water bottles, umbrellas and cling wrap, to support the protesters.[182] At 6 pm, dozens of officers moved closer to the protesters but kept a distance, while warning the crowd to leave with a loudspeaker.[183] Tension rose when a police officer attempted to remove the mask worn by a protester without showing his warrant card.[184]

As the authorisation according to the Letter of No Objection had expired, protesters moved to the nearby shopping mall, New Town Plaza.[185] At 8:55 pm, police warned the crowd that those who did not leave they would face arrest. Ten minutes later, police raised the red warning flag. At 10 pm, police started using pepper spray on some protesters in the plaza.[182]

While protesters were trying to leave via MTR, riot police blocked the entrance of the train station from inside the mall. Meanwhile, another group of riot police followed behind protesters as they proceeded to the station engaging in a tactic called "kettling – thereby unnecessarily trapping demonstrators" – which sparked reactions from cornered protesters. At the same time, MTR Corporation announced that trains would bypass Sha Tin station. Both protesters and bystanders were trapped inside the plaza until the police started letting people enter the railway station later that night.[186] Fearing that other protesters would not being able to leave, some individuals stopped the train's doors from closing to ensure that all protesters could evacuate.[187] After some chaos, at around 11 pm, MTR announced that the service would gradually resume. Protesters then started to leave via MTR and the police started to disperse.[183]

Lawmaker Jeremy Tam questioned the need for the police to block the entrance to the train station and bring about conflict which could have been avoided.[188] Pro-democracy lawmaker Au Nok-hin, who was there that night, also asked why demonstrators were given no pathway to leave, and called the policing tactics "rubbish."[189] Pro-Beijing lawmakers, on the other hand, claimed demonstrators were perpetrating "organised violent acts" and stated that "no one should insult the police [or] damage their morale."[189] Chief Executive Carrie Lam stated that police "exercised restraint when they were being attacked by those whom I describe as 'rioters'."[190] By the end of the night, at least 22 people had been hospitalised, several in critical and serious condition; and at least 40 arrests had been made.[191]

15 and 16 July accountability protestsEdit

Following the Sunday night clashes with police at New Town Plaza, on Monday evening about 100 demonstrators and local residents gathered at the mall to petition property owners about their responsibility and participation in the previous night's events. Activists surrounded the customer service desk to demand answers from Sun Hung Kai Properties. On Tuesday, several hundred people turned up again and demanded answers, accusing property owners of assisting police in the raid that led to numerous hospitalisations and arrests. Protesters chanted "shame on Sun Hung Kai for selling out Hongkongers"; many also walked through the mall and created Lennon Walls with post-it note messages containing their grievances.[192] In a Facebook post, mall management denied involvement, saying they had not invited police onto the premises.[193][194]

15 July hunger strikers marchEdit

On the evening of 15 July, a dozen hunger strikers (many of whom have been on strike for over 12 days), along with 2,400 protesters marched from Admiralty Centre to the Chief Executive's official residence – Government House. They called for the protesters' five demands to be answered and requested dialogue with Carrie Lam. While waiting for an audience with Lam, demonstrators created a post-it note Lennon Wall along the Government House complex walls. After waiting for over an hour, democracy activists left by about 11 pm, and marched back to Admiralty Centre. Carrie Lam did not make an appearance.[195]

17 July elderly marchEdit

Elderly marching on 17 July in support to the youths in the anti-extradition bill protests.

A group of seniors marched from Chater Garden to the Central Government Complex on 17 July. Organisers estimated that 9,000 had participated, while police put the figure as 1,500.[196] During the "silver-hair" rally organised by Chu Yiu-ming, participants showed their support for the frontline youths.[197] They reiterated the five key demands of the democracy movement and hoped the march would clear the stereotype that all senior citizens held pro-establishment views. Reverend Chu Yiu-ming called on Carrie Lam to "repent" and urged compassion, asking her to stop dividing society by criminalising young protesters.[198] Demonstrators carried massive banners, and upon reaching government buildings wrote demands onto yellow ribbons and tied them to a metal fence.[199] Actress Deanie Ip also attended, holding a banner that said "Support youth to protect Hong Kong."[200]

21 July marchEdit

Social workers silent marchEdit

Five social workers associations in Hong Kong, including the Hong Kong Social Workers' General Union, staged a silent march on 21 July. The protesters condemned Carrie Lam for ignoring people's demands and shifting the responsibility to resolve social conflicts to counsellors, social workers, and non-governmental organisations.[201] According to organisers, about 4,000 were in attendance, while police cited 1500 in attendance.[202]

CHRF marchEdit

The CHRF announced that the police had approved a march on Sunday, 21 July, from Admiralty to the Court of Final Appeal,[203] despite earlier requests by the police to delay the march till August.[204] The police, fearing the risk of increased violence, stipulated in its letter of no objection that the march would avoid Admiralty and end at Luard Road in Wan Chai, and must end no later than midnight on the basis of public safety and public order—conditions more stringent than those placed on previous marches. Many protestors will continue its rally into Admiralty and Central regardless of the circumstance due to the fact the police are being inconsiderate with the crowd, not taking notice of the Book fair in Wan Chai North. [205][206] The CHRF appealed the ruling to the Appeal Board on Public Meetings and Processions but is expected to continue its rally all the way to Chater Road, Central.[205] The CHRF claimed that 430,000 people attended the protest.[207]

Some protesters advanced beyond the police-mandated endpoint for the protest (in Southorn Playground) and marched to the Court of Final Appeal, the original destination, and Sheung Wan as the police began to retreat. Major roads and thoroughfares in Admiralty and Central were occupied by protesters, and the water barriers surrounding the Police HQ were turned into a Lennon Wall.[208] Some protesters surrounded the Hong Kong Liaison Office in Sai Ying Pun, threw eggs at the building, and defaced the Chinese national emblem outside the Office.[209] Another group of demonstrators vandalised the Central Police Station. Scuffles broke out next to Shun Tak Centre.[210] Protesters threw bottles at the police while the police used rubber bullets and several rounds of tear gas to disperse the protesters.[211]

The government condemned the protesters besieging the Liaison's Office for challenging "national sovereignty" and threatening one country, two systems.[207]

Yuen Long station attacksEdit

White shirt attackers assaulting commuters inside train compartment, in Yuen Long MTR station on 21 July.

A pro-Beijing group of suspected gangsters gathered at the Yuen Long station starting at around 11 pm, during the stand-off between police and anti-bill protesters in Sheung Wan. Wearing white clothes and armed with iron bars and wooden clubs, they assaulted democracy movement protesters and innocent bystanders in the station and train compartments.[212] Some protesters fought back using umbrellas.[213] Originally planned to attack anti-bill protesters wearing black, they also attacked other people, including defenceless commuters and journalists.[214] Multiple citizens were reported injured, including Legislative Council member Lam Cheuk-ting and a reporter from Stand News.

Various citizens have claimed to contact the police through the emergency hotline 999, but were asked to wait for further support. There was no presence of police officers for more than 3 hours.[215] Police stations nearby either did not answer or hung up calls requesting for help, and even pulled down the roller gate to stop people from reporting these cases. Officers patrolling the area also did not provide help.[216] The white-clothes group left at around mid-night and the police arrived from the opposite entrance of the station almost at the same time.[217]

After the incident, pro-Beijing legislator Junius Ho was found greeting the white clothes group and calling the suspected gangsters "heroes" in various videos posted online.[213] The pro-democrat LegCo members signed a petition to condemn the negligence of the police force in mid-night (local time) after the incident, while pro-Beijing camp DAB condemned the violent incident.[218]

Worldwide solidarity protestsEdit

On 9 June, at least 29 rallies were held in 12 countries with protesters taking to the streets in cities around the world with significant Hong Kong diaspora, including about 4,000 in London, about 3,000 in Sydney and further rallies in New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Boston, Toronto, Vancouver, Berlin, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Perth, Canberra, Melbourne, Brisbane and Taipei.[219][220] In one of the biggest overseas protests, hundreds of demonstrators made of mostly Hong Kong immigrants filled the streets outside the Chinese consulate-general in Vancouver with yellow umbrellas, referencing the 2014 Occupy protests, and chanted against the extradition law. More than 60 people gathered outside the White House in Washington to protest against the bill.[220]

On 12 June, representatives from 24 Taiwanese civic groups, including Taiwan Association for Human Rights, protested outside Hong Kong's representative office in Taipei, whilst shouting slogans such as "Taiwan supports Hong Kong". In Kaohsiung, around 150 Hong Kong students staged a sit-in protest demanding the Hong Kong government to withdraw the bill.[221] In Adelaide, 150 people protested against the extradition law.[222]

On 16 June, 10,000 Hong Kong students and Taiwanese supporters held a peaceful sit-in at the Legislative Yuan in Taipei to support the protests in Hong Kong.[223] [224] In Auckland and Adelaide, around 500 people gathered to demand Chief Executive Lam to withdraw the bill and apologise for her actions.[225] On 17 June, 1,500 people protested outside the Chinese Consulate in Vancouver.[226]

On 23 June, 5000 people held a rally in Taipei against Hong Kong's controversial extradition bill.[227]

On 14 July a "Sing for Hong Kong" event was held in London.[228][229]


A protester on scaffolding at Pacific Place before he fell to his death on 15 June.
Gathering for Lo Hiu-yan at The Education University of Hong Kong on 30 June 2019
A straw man in yellow raincoat resembling that worn by the first protester who jumped to his death from Pacific Place is still hung over the railing outside the suicide scene in honour of him.

Four deaths by suicide occurred during the anti-extradition bill protests. All had left suicide notes decrying the unelected and unresponsive government and the government's insistence on forcing through the extradition bill; they expressed despondency whilst urging Hongkongers to continue their fight.[230][231][232] One even stated "What Hong Kong needs is a revolution."[233][234]

The first person committed suicide on 15 June, when 35-year-old Marco Leung Ling-kit climbed the elevated podium on the rooftop of Pacific Place, a shopping mall in Admiralty at 4:30 pm.[230] Wearing a yellow raincoat with the words "Brutal police are cold-blooded" and "Carrie Lam is killing Hong Kong" in Chinese written on the back, he hung a banner on the scaffolding with several anti-extradition slogans.[235] After a five-hour standoff, during which police officers and Democratic Party legislator Kwong Chun-yu attempted to talk him down, Leung fell to his death on the pavement below, missing an inflatable cushion set up by firefighters.[230][236][237]

A shrine appeared at the scene soon afterward. Organisers asked participants to wear black and bring white flowers to commemorate the deceased for the 16 June march; Ai Weiwei shared the news on his Instagram feed, while Chinese satirist Badiucao honoured the dead man with a cartoon.[237] On Thursday 11 July another vigil was held, in which thousands turned up leaving sunflowers at the memorial site.[238] Artists in Prague have also honoured the event, and painted a memorial on the Lennon Wall in the Czech Republic, depicting a yellow raincoat along with words of well wishes.[239]

Lo Hiu-yan, a 21-year-old Education University of Hong Kong student, committed suicide 29 June and jumped from the Ka Fuk Housing Estate in Fanling.[240][241] She left two notes written on a stairwell wall with red marker, urging the movement to press on, and uploaded photos of her note to Instagram.[6][231][242] A memorial was held the following Friday at the site of her death in Fanling.[243][244][245]

On 30 June a third democracy activist died, when 29-year-old notary office clerk Zita Wu jumped from the International Financial Centre.[246][232] She left a final note on Facebook hoping for victory.[232] On Saturday night, 6 July there was a memorial event held for Ms. Wu at Edinburgh Place in Central.[247][248] Thousands were in attendance, honouring her life with offerings of flowers and candles.[249]

On 4 July, a 28-year-old female with the family name of Mak committed suicide by jumping off a building in Cheung Sha Wan.[250] Her suicide note urged a revolution.[233][251][252][234] Ms. Mak's memorial service was held on the evening of 10 July at Edinburgh Place.[253][254][255]


Decentralised leadershipEdit

Unlike the 2014 Hong Kong protests, the protesters of 2019 have formed a generally decentralised movement, but are nonetheless "impeccably organised", as described by the Los Angeles Times.[256] The CHRF has a long history of organising social movements and was the organiser of the two massive protests on 9 and 16 June. Demosistō led by Joshua Wong and the localist groups called on supporters to participate in marches, rallies and other forms of direct action. Yet, none of these groups have claimed leadership over the movement. Many pro-democracy legislators were present at the protests, but they largely played supporting roles. The logistics of the movement – bringing supplies, setting up medical stations, rapid mass communication – were the result of experience from previous protests.[256] This decentralisation has led to more fluidity but has also made it difficult for officials to locate representatives for negotiations.[257]

On 1 July, after the protesters had forced their way into the Legislative Council, Wong said the act was intended "to show how the Legislative Council has never represented the voice of the people." He also said there would not have been any rallies or protests had the Hong Kong Legislative Council been democratically elected.[258]

Flexible and diverse tacticsEdit

Protesters are reported to have adopted Bruce Lee’s philosophy, to be "formless [and] shapeless, like water."[259] By flowing dynamically to different government offices during the 21 June protests, they aimed to bring additional pressure to bear on the government.[257][260]

The "Do Not Split" (不割席) principle has helped maintain cohesion throughout the broad political spectrum of the struggle.[261] Embracing a diversity of tactics has allowed participants to engage in different levels of action while respecting the roles that others play. Hong Kong political commentator Lewis Lau said, " 'Do Not Split' serves as a bridge ... by promoting mutual respect for diverging views within the protest movement."[261] Minimisation of internal conflict is key to achieving broader goals; a common phrase that has served as a reminder is "Preserve yourself and the collective; no division."[262] Protesters also developed a set of hand signs to aid communications.[263]

Solidarity between protestors and engagement with the "Do Not Split" praxis was evidenced by the two mothers' sit-in demonstrations of 14 June and 5 July and the silver-haired protest on July 17.[264] Tens of thousands attended the rallies, in support of the protest actions of the younger generation, while standing firm together in opposition to police brutality, Carrie Lam, and the undemocratic interventionism of the mainland Chinese government.[99][157][159]

Online activismEdit

Protesters also took to the Internet to exchange information and ideas. Netizens used the popular online forum LIHKG to gain traction for protests. These included disrupting MTR services, gathering for vigils, organising "picnics" (a term used to deflect surveillance), and making anti-extradition bill memes that appeal to conservative values so that Hong Kong elderly would better understand the anti-extradition rationale.[256]

Lulu Yilun Chen of Bloomberg News stated that protesters used Telegram, an encrypted messaging app, to communicate in order to conceal identities and prevent tracking by the Chinese government and Hong Kong Police Force.[265] The app's servers were under denial-of-service attacks on 12 June. The app's founder Pavel Durov identified the origin of the attack as China,[266][267][268] and stated that it "coincided in time with protests in Hong Kong."[269]

Some have accused protesters of "doxxing" members of the police force. Police claimed to have found a website run by the hacktivist group Anonymous that disclosed personal data of more than 600 officers.[270] Legal scholar Professor Richard Cullen stated that he had never seen that degree of cyberbullying against the police before.[271] In early July, the police arrested eight individuals in connection to the alleged doxxing.[272][273]

Christian hymnEdit

A group of Christians singing "Sing Hallelujah to the Lord" near the Central Government Complex.

A 1974 Christian hymn called "Sing Hallelujah to the Lord" has become the "unofficial anthem" of the anti-extradition protests as it was heard everywhere at the protest sites. On 11 June, a group of Christians began to sing the four-line-verse simple melody at the Central Government Complex as they held a public prayer meeting through the night before the Legislative Council was as scheduled to begin the second reading the following day. On the morning of 12 June the Christians, led by pastors, stood between the crowd and police to help prevent violence and pray for Hong Kong with the hymn.[274] Under Hong Kong's Public Order Ordinance, religious gatherings are exempt from the definition of a "gathering" or "assembly" therefore more difficult to police.[275][276] The song was sung repeatedly over 10 hours throughout the night and a video of the event quickly became viral online.[274] Hong Kong local ministries, many of whom support underground churches in China, supported the protests. Most Hong Kong churches tend to shy away from political involvement, however many are worried about the effects of the extradition bill on Christians since mainland China does not have religious freedom laws.[277][278]

Petition campaignsEdit

A petition to revoke the U.S. citizenship and visas of the Hong Kong and China officials who support the extradition bill.

From May 2019 onwards, multiple petitions against the Bill from over 200 secondary schools, various industries, professions, and neighbourhoods were created.[279] More than 167,000 students, alumni and teachers from all public universities and one in seven secondary schools in Hong Kong, including St. Francis' Canossian College which Carrie Lam attended, also launched online petitions against the extradition bill in a snowballing campaign.[280] St. Mary's Canossian College and Wah Yan College, Kowloon, which Secretary for Justice Teresa Cheng and Secretary for Security John Lee attended, respectively, also joined the campaign.[280] Even the alumni, students and teachers at St. Stephen's College, which the victim in the Taiwan homicide case Poon Hiu-wing attended from Form 1 to Form 3, were unconvinced as they accused the government of using her case as a pretext to force the bill's passage.[281]

There are also various online petitions including We the People and Generally, the petitions request governments in Western countries to respond to the extradition bill and hold the officials who pushed the bill forward accountable and reprehensible by the means of sanctioning and through revoking their citizenship. One petition urged the French government to strip Carrie Lam of her Legion of Honour award.[282]

Advertising campaignEdit

Anti-extradition bill advertisement placed on page A7 of The New York Times on 28 June 2019.

In June, protesters launched an online crowdfunding campaign to place open letters as full-page ads in major international newspapers before the 28 June G20 summit in Osaka, Japan to raise global awareness and appeal for world leaders' intervention on the bill, urging everyone to "ally with [them]" and to "[demand] the preservation of Hong Kong's freedom and autonomy under the Chinese government."[283] The goal to raise HK$3 million was accomplished in less than four hours, and successfully raised HK$5.45 million in less than six hours.[284] The open letter was published by popular international newspapers including The New York Times, The Guardian, Japan Times, The Globe and Mail, Süddeutsche Zeitung, The Chosun Ilbo, Le Monde and the online version of Politico Europe.[285][286] The advertisements were printed in the local languages of the readership for each periodical, and while graphic design and layout varies, most included the slogan and appeal to "Stand with Hong Kong at G20" along with the open letter.[287]

AirDrop broadcastEdit

In June and July, protesters in Hong Kong have been using Apple devices' short-range file transfer service AirDrop to broadcast anti-extradition bill information to people inside MTR trains, allowing recipients to read about concerns regarding the proposed law, aiming to raise awareness among the residents in Hong Kong.[288][289]

During the 7 July protest in Tsim Sha Tsui, a major tourist district, protesters again used AirDrop to share information regarding protests and concerns about the bill with tourists from mainland China.[290] Some shared QR codes that looked like "free money" from Alipay and WeChat Pay, but actually redirected to information–written in Simplified Chinese–about the on-going democratic movement.[291][292] Because AirDrop creates a direct link between local devices, the technology bypasses mainland China's censorship efforts[292][293] that have distorted and limited information about extradition bill protests.[294][295]

Neighbourhood Lennon WallsEdit

A tunnel near the Tai Po Market MTR station, dubbed as the "Lennon Tunnel."

The original Lennon Wall has been once again set up in front of the Hong Kong Central Government Offices staircase. During the months of June and July, Lennon Walls covered with colourful post-it note messages for freedom and democracy have "blossomed everywhere" (遍地開花)[296] and appeared throughout the entire Hong Kong.[297][298][299] According to a crowd-sourced map of Hong Kong, there are over 140 Lennon Walls throughout the region.[300]

At several Lennon Walls, protesters taped photos of Lam and other officials on the wall and let other citizens slap the photos with a pair of slippers in a manner similar to "petty person beating", a local custom.[301] Lennon Walls led to conflicts between pro-democratic and pro-Beijing citizens , some of whom attempted to tear the messages off from the walls and physically assaulted the pro-democratic protesters.[302][177] Police also removed post-it notes containing officer's personal information from Tai Po, an act which caused the police to be mocked as the "king of tearing off paper" (撕紙皇).[303]

Lennon Walls have also appeared outside of Hong Kong in the cities of: Toronto, Vancouver BC, Tokyo, Berlin, London, Melbourne, Manchester, Sydney, and Taipei.[304][305][306][307] Messages of solidarity for the Hong Kong democracy movement have also been added to the very first and oldest Lennon Wall in Prague.[307]

Lennon Wall outside of a Yoshinoya fast-food chain, Hong Kong. A protest against their advertisement decisions.

Advertising boycottsEdit

The Communications Authority received approximately 12,000 complaints criticising that TVB's coverage favoured the pro-establishment camp and the CCP.[308] There were accusations that TVB presented an overly simplified narrative with limited information, therefore avoiding more overt censorship methods.[309] In light of this, some businesses, including the Hong Kong branches of Pocari Sweat and Pizza Hut, withdrew their advertisements from TVB, delighting anti-extradition protestors but angering Mainland consumers.[310]

Japanese fast-food chain Yoshinoya Hong Kong faced accusations of victimising employees who were fighting the extradition bill and who would take time off to join the protests. After an advertisement satirising recent police brutality appeared on the company's Facebook page, the company said it had severed ties with their partnering marketing agency.[311]

Hunger strikers outside Admiralty Centre. 9 July 2019

Hunger strikesEdit

A group of protesters have been on hunger strike following the 1 July rally in Admiralty. Preacher Roy Chan initiated the action and has been joined by about 10 others, including Labour Party lawmaker Fernando Cheung. They are camped near Harcourt Road in Admiralty, with many signs displayed to inform the public about their goals. At least five people have vowed to continue fasting until the extradition bill is officially withdrawn.[312][313][314]

Other movementsEdit

As the momentum of the anti-extradition protests continued to grow, several more protests movements focusing on local issues were held in different regions in Hong Kong.

Reclaim Tuen MunEdit

On 6 July, people marched in a protest organised by the Tuen Mun Park Sanitation Concern Group. The protest aimed at condemning mainland Chinese middle-aged women singers and dancers, also known by the nickname "dai ma" (大媽), and the elderly men who gave these women "donations" for the noise disturbance and annoyances they have caused in Tuen Mun Park. Conflicts between the police and the protesters brew as the police escorted a person who allegedly assaulted the marchers away while using pepper spray on the protesters.[26] The organiser claimed that nearly 10,000 people attended the protest.[315]

Reclaim Sheung ShuiEdit

A female AFP journalist injured during a protest in Sheung Shui on 13 July 2019.

On 13 July, a protest was organised in Sheung Shui for opposing mainland Chinese parallel trading, with 30,000 attendees claimed by the organiser.[316] It was largely peaceful for the first two hours.

However, as it went on, the organiser and protesters refused to follow the authorised route, which had Sheung Shui Station as the destination. Instead, they marched on Sheung Shui Plaza, occupied some roads and started clashing with the police who accused them of unlawful assembly, triggering an hour-long standoff which lasted until late night. A handful of journalists were maliciously attacked by the police.[317][318]

During the skirmishes, a number of dispensaries were vandalised by the protesters because they were thought to be complicit in the mainland Chinese parallel trading. After the riot police resumed traffic by dispersing the crowd, they chased the crowd onto a footbridge leading to Sheung Shui Station, when a handicapped teenager suddenly jumped off the footbridge for escape, but was rescued jointly by the journalists and police. He was eventually arrested, insulted and ushered into the police van.[319]

Reclaim HKUEdit

On 13 July, about 300 students attended an on-campus protest to denounce Hong Kong University's president and vice-chancellor Zhang Xiang for his statement on 3 July condemning the "violent storming" of the Legislative Council building on 1 July, and to demand retraction of the statement. Zhang later met the students and agreed to create a forum of dialogue with students.[320]

Journalists' silent marchEdit

Protester handing their complaint letter to police representative on 14 July.

On 14 July, at 10:30 am, journalists and others in the media industry held a silent march from Harcourt Garden in Admiralty to Police Headquarters in Wan Chai; then on to the Chief Executive Office to protest against police attacks on the press. Journalists at the front of the march held a large banner that read "Stop Police Violence, Defend Press Freedom." They called on the Chief Executive to defend press freedom and enforce the Pledge to Uphold Press Freedom decree, which she signed in 2017.[321]

The rally was jointly organised by Hong Kong Journalists Association, Hong Kong Press Photographers Association, Independent Commentators Association, Journalism Educators for Press Freedom, as well as staff associations of Ming Pao, Next Media and RTHK. It was attended by approximately 1,500 people.[322]


On 9 June, more than a dozen ships carrying banners with slogans supporting the bill cruised Victoria Harbour.[323] Around 20 supporters from the Safeguard Hong Kong Alliance, a pro-Beijing activist group, also showed up at the government quarters to support the bill a few hours before the anti-extradition bill protest.[324]

On 16 June, around 40 protesters from the pro-Beijing Safeguard Hong Kong Alliance and the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions (HKFTU) protested outside the U.S. Consulate General in Central, condemning the US for allegedly interfering in the extradition law.[325] Hundreds of Pro-Beijing supporters gathered in Chater Garden in Central under the banner "Support Hong Kong Police Force, Blessing to Hong Kong" on 22 June; pro-Beijing figures such as legislator Priscilla Leung and pro-police campaigner Leticia Lee fronted the rally.[326]

On 30 June, a more significant demonstration was organised by pro-Beijing legislator Junius Ho Kwan-yiu to show solidarity for the police and support for the extradition bill, taking place in front of the government headquarters in Tamar. Former police chief Tang King-shing and former deputy police commissioner Peter Yam Tat-wing took to the podium, as did artists such as Alan Tam and Tony Leung.[327] The organisers claimed that 165,000 people attended, while police cited 53,000. There were multiple confrontations as the pro-police supporters ran into small groups of anti-bill protesters wearing black, getting into arguments and scuffles with them as well with journalists covering the event.[327] The Lennon Wall in Admiralty was destroyed by the pro-police supporters[328] and pan-democratic Legislative Councilor Lam Cheuk-ting was physically assaulted.[329]

On 15 July, dozens of protesters from ten Pro-Beijing groups including the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) held a demonstration in support of the Police and condemned the protesters for violently attacking the police. [330] On 16 July, 20 members of a Hawker Association held a demonstration outside the Wan Chai Police Station, condemning the protests for the drop of 50-60% in their sales. They also thanked the police for their work and called for the authorities to uphold the rule of law. [331] On 17 July, 70 members from the DAB and Politihk Social Strategic including lawmakers Ann Chiang, Elizabeth Quat, Wilson Or and Junius Ho Kwan-yiu held demonstrations outside the Wan Chai Police Station to express their support for the police, urge them to rethink their operations when dealing with ongoing protests and called the government to ban protests until september. [330][332][333] On 18 July, around 30 supporters from the Pro-Beijing organisation of The Friends of Hong Kong Association held a demonstration outside the Wan Chai police's headquarters to show their support. They also donated 10 million to the police welfare fund. [334][335] On 19 July, 20 members from the pro-Beijing group, the Justice Alliance led by Leticia Lee held a demonstration out the Police Headquarters, where they delivered 10,000 juice boxes to the police and called on officers to "show no mercy" to protesters.[336][337]

On 20 July, a demonstration organised by pro-Beijing coalition Safeguard Hong Kong Alliance occurred at Tamar Park to show solidarity for the police and support for the extradition bill. The organisers claimed that 316,000 attended, while police cited 103,000.[338] Chan Pak-cheung, Maria Cordero, Elsie Leung and Maria Tam, former police chief Tang King-shing, and pro-Beijing legislators Regina Ip and Starry Lee attended and took turns giving speeches on the stage.[339]

Chinese government and mediaEdit

Allegations of foreign interferenceEdit

Timelapse video of 16 June protests.

After the 9 June protest, the Beijing government blamed "outside interference" and voiced support for the Hong Kong administration. The Chinese Foreign Ministry accused opponents of the proposed extradition law of "collusion with the West."[340] State-run media such as China Daily cited more than 700,000 people backing the legislation through an online petition, "countering a protest by about 240,000 people."[324][340] Meanwhile, Chinese tabloid Global Times dismissed the mass demonstration on 9 June, stating that "some international forces have significantly strengthened their interaction with the Hong Kong opposition in recent months."[341]


The first two weeks of protests were largely ignored by central mainland media outlets, with no major stories published until 17 April.[342] The protests were mostly censored from Mainland Chinese social media, such as Sina Weibo.[343] Keyword searches of "Hong Kong", "HK" and "extradition bill" led to other official news and entertainment news. Accounts that posted content regarding the protest were also blocked.[344] By 14 June, censors were said to be working overtime to erase or block news of the protests on social media. "People are very curious and there is a lot of discussion on this event," according to a Weibo censor.[345] On Sina Weibo and WeChat, the term "let's go Hong Kong" was blocked with the platform citing "relevant laws, regulations and policies" as the reason for not showing search results.[346] However, Chinese social media users have circumvented the censors by rotating relevant pictures or even putting logos on them.[347]

International reactionsEdit

  •   Australia – Minister for Foreign Affairs Marise Payne stated, "Australia supports the right of people to protest peacefully and to exercise their freedom of speech, and we urge all sides to show restraint and avoid violence".[348]
  •   Canada – Minister of Foreign Affairs Chrystia Freeland released a statement on 12 June, stating that "Canada remains concerned of the potential effects these proposals may have on the large number of Canadian citizens in Hong Kong, on business confidence, and on Hong Kong's international reputation". The statement urged the Hong Kong government to heed the people and the international community, as well as to safeguard the high degree of autonomy, rule of law, and independent judiciary of the territory.[349]
  •   European Union – The European Union External Affairs Ministry said rights "need to be respected" in Hong Kong on 12 June: "Over the past days, the people of Hong Kong have exercised their fundamental right to assemble and express themselves freely and peacefully. These rights need to be respected"[350]. MPs of European Parliament have also proposed motions to be debated among the 29 EU countries during their assembly on 18 July 2019, aiming at seeking EU-wide ban on supplying weapons to Hong Kong police and demanding the Chinese communist regime to honour the Sino-British Joint Declaration by stopping objectionable meddling in Hong Kong's internal affairs [351].
  •   Germany – Chancellor Angela Merkel's spokesman, Steffen Seibert, said the protest was a good sign that the majority of protesters have been peaceful "and we appeal to all concerned to ensure that things remain just as peaceful in Hong Kong".[352]
  •   Japan – Minister of Foreign Affairs Tarō Kōno said, "I strongly hope that things will be settled early and Hong Kong's freedom and democracy will be maintained".[353] Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has cautioned President Xi over recent turmoil in Hong Kong at the G20 Summit. Abe told Xi it is important for "a free and open Hong Kong to prosper under "one country, two systems' policy".[354]
  •   Macau – On 11 June, following the events in Hong Kong, the Macau SAR government said it would develop a wait-and-see approach in regards to negotiating their own extradition law with Mainland China.[355]
  •   Republic of China (Taiwan) – President Tsai Ing-wen expressed her solidarity with the people of Hong Kong, remarking that Taiwan's democracy was hard-earned and had to be guarded and renewed, and pledged that as long as she is Taiwan's president, she will never accept "one country, two systems"; she cited what she considered to be a constant and rapid deterioration of Hong Kong's democracy in merely 20 years' time.[356] She also posted on Instagram to provide support for "Hongkongers on the front line," saying the Taiwanese people would support all those who fight for free speech and democracy.[357] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Taiwan stated they supported Hong Kong's fighting against the extradition bill and for rule of law.[358] They also criticised Hong Kong officials of using Taiwan as an excuse to pass the extradition bill, citing the Hong Kong government had been indifferent to "multiple requests" to extradite Chan Tong-kai on an ad-hoc basis.[359]
  •   United Kingdom – Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt urged the Hong Kong government to "engage in meaningful dialogue and take steps to preserve Hong Kong's rights and freedoms and high degree of autonomy, which underpin its international reputation". He added that upholding the "one country, two systems" principle, which is legally bound in the Sino-British Joint Declaration, is vital to Hong Kong's future success.[360] The British Consulate in Hong Kong also opened its doors for protesters in need of sanctuary.[361] The supply of crowd control equipment (e.g. rubber bullets and tear gas) have been suspended in response to the violence portrayed by the police force.[362] Former colonial Hong Kong governor Chris Patten hoped the (British) government would "have a public enquiry into the demonstrations that have taken place over recent weeks, and to the way they’ve been policed", but he also criticised the storming of the Legislative Council on 1 July.[363] On 3 July, Chinese ambassador to the UK, Liu Xiaoming, was summoned to the UK's Foreign Office.[364] In mid-July at Chatham House, during one of her last public speeches before leaving office, Prime Minister Theresa May stated that the Sino-British Joint Declaration continues to be in force and that it "needs to be abided by, it needs to be respected, and continue to be respected" by China.[365]
  •   United States – State Department voiced support for the 9 June protesters, and called on the Hong Kong government to ensure "any amendments to the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance should be pursued with great care".[366] United States House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi strongly condemned the bill and offered support to the protesters.[367] After the storming of Legislative Council complex, President Trump said, "I think most people want democracy. Unfortunately, some governments don't want democracy"; US State Department urged "all sides to refrain from violence".[368] However, during the G20 meeting in late June, President Trump reportedly told Chinese President Xi the US would mute its support for the protests in exchange for re-opening US-China trade talks.[369][370]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Hong Kong democrats urge leader Carrie Lam to drop extradition law plans entirely and resign; Sunday protest to proceed". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  2. ^ Ng, Kang-chung; Sum, Lok-kei (17 June 2019). "Police roll back on categorisation of Hong Kong protests as a riot". South China Morning Post. ISSN 1021-6731. OCLC 648902513. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Hong Kong extradition: Police fire rubber bullets at protesters". BBC. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  4. ^ "21-year-old Hong Kong student falls to her death in Sheung Shui, leaving message opposing extradition law". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  5. ^ "【引渡惡法】男子太古廣場掛反送中橫額墮樓亡 朱耀明到場獻花悼念". Apple Daily. Hong Kong. 15 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b "粉嶺21歲大學生留「反送中」字句後墮樓亡". Apple Daily. Hong Kong. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  7. ^ "第四宗反送中自殺個案 死者親友冀政府回應訴求 「真正能阻止年輕人絕望係政府」". Stand News. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  8. ^ a b Leung, Christy (10 June 2019). "Hong Kong police say nearly 360 protesters, most younger than 25, could face arrest for clashes after extradition protest march". South China Morning Post. ISSN 1021-6731. OCLC 648902513. Archived from the original on 10 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  9. ^ "【持續更新】6.12 佔領被捕名單 包括多名大學生、拔萃女書院老師". Stand News. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  10. ^ "【大搜捕●不斷更新】6月9日至今 至少51名男女被捕". Apple Daily. Hong Kong. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  11. ^ "沙田警民衝突仍有6人留院 警方拘捕47人". RTHK. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  12. ^ "EU lodges formal diplomatic note against contentious Hong Kong extradition bill". Reuters. 24 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Is HK tilting from a semi-democracy to a semi-dictatorship?". Ejinsight. 23 May 2019.
  14. ^ "Ex-governor Chris Patten says extradition bill 'worst thing' for Hong Kong since 1997, as Carrie Lam faces grilling". Hong Kong Free Press. 22 May 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "Extradition bill not made to measure for mainland China and won't be abandoned, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam says". South China Morning Post. 1 April 2019.
  16. ^ a b "Estimated 130,000 protesters join march against proposed extradition law that will allow transfer of fugitives from Hong Kong to mainland China". South China Morning Post. 28 April 2019.
  17. ^ a b "New extradition laws still urgent, says Carrie Lam". RTHK. 29 April 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Hong Kong man at centre of extradition legal row jailed for 29 months, may be out as early as October". Hong Kong Free Press. 29 April 2019.
  19. ^ Kleefeld, Eric (9 June 2019). "Hundreds of thousands attend protest in Hong Kong over extradition bill". Vox. Archived from the original on 9 June 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  20. ^ Solomon, Feliz. "Hong Kong Is on the Frontlines of a Global Battle For Freedom". Time. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  21. ^ Cheng, Kris (18 June 2019). "Anti-extradition protest organiser 'disappointed' by Hong Kong leader's refusal to retract bill and resign". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  22. ^ Hong Kong Free Press (14 July 2019). "'All five demands must be fulfilled': Thousands of Hong Kong anti-extradition law protesters rally in Sha Tin". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  23. ^ a b "Hong Kong extradition bill: Carrie Lam backs down and 'suspends' legislation, sets no new time frame". South China Morning Post. 15 June 2019.
  24. ^ "How many really marched in Hong Kong? And how should we best guess crowd size?". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  25. ^ a b c "Nearly 2 million people march to oppose Hong Kong extradition bill, organisers say". South China Morning Post. 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  26. ^ a b Cheng, Kris (5 July 2019). "Hong Kong extradition bill battle continues with more protests planned for the weekend". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  27. ^ "So the bill is 'dead'…but how dead, exactly? Lam's choice of words raises eyebrows". Coconuts Hong Kong. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  28. ^ Siu-fung, Lau; Mudie, Luisetta. "Hong Kong's Lam Says Extradition Bill is 'Dead,' Campaigners Skeptical". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  29. ^ Kuo, Lily; Yu, Verna. "Hong Kong: Carrie Lam says extradition bill is 'dead' but will not withdraw it". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  30. ^ Rosenfeld, Everett (9 July 2019). "Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam: Extradition bill 'is dead'". CNBC. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  31. ^ "Hong Kong extradition bill 'is dead' says Lam". BBC. 9 July 2019. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  32. ^ Lee, Timothy. "Why Hong Kong extradition protests continue: the bill is not 'dead' – it can be revived in 12 days". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  33. ^ Special Group on Law of the Basic Law Consultative Committee (12 June 1987). Final Report on Conflict of Laws, Extradition, and Other Related Issues (PDF). Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  34. ^ "Council Meeting (Hansard) 9 Dec 98". Legislative Council of the Hong Kong SAR of the PRC. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  35. ^ "Regina Ip: Rendition bill opponents hypocrites". China Daily. 29 June 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  36. ^ Lam, Jeffie; Cheung, Tony (16 April 2019). "Hong Kong's pro-democracy lawmakers seek last-minute adjustment to extradition bill to ensure Taiwan murder suspect faces justice". South China Morning Post.
  37. ^ Chan, Holmes (31 March 2019). "In Pictures: 12,000 Hongkongers march in protest against 'evil' China extradition law, organisers say". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  38. ^ "'Record 3,000' lawyers in silent march against extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  39. ^ a b "Hong Kong lawyers protest "polarising" extradition bill in rare march". Reuters. 6 June 2019.
  40. ^ "【逃犯條例】港鐵四綫受阻 網傳車長特別廣播灣仔銅鑼灣天后可「飛站」". Hong Kong Economic Times. 9 June 2019.
  41. ^ "MTR struggles with deluge of protesters". RTHK. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  42. ^ Creery, Jennifer (9 June 2019). "Over a million attend Hong Kong demo against controversial extradition law, organisers say". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  43. ^ Davidson, Helen (9 June 2019). "Clashes in Hong Kong after vast protest against extradition law". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Over a million attend Hong Kong demo against controversial extradition law, organisers say". Hong Kong Free Press. 9 June 2019.
  45. ^ Fowler, Evan (11 June 2019). "Why the extradition law will pass, despite the largest protest in Hong Kong history". Hong Kong Free Press.
  46. ^ a b c "Violent clashes mar protest after 'more than a million' Hongkongers of all ages and backgrounds march against controversial extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 10 June 2019.
  47. ^ Griffiths, James; Cheung, Eric; Lee, Chermaine (8 June 2019). "More than 1 million protest in Hong Kong, organizers say, over Chinese extradition law". CNN. Retrieved 11 June 2019.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  48. ^ "Hong Kong's Leader Says Extradition Bill to Go Ahead Prompting Calls for Fresh Protests". Time. 10 June 2019.
  49. ^ a b "Protesters clash with police after massive demonstration". Ejinsight. 10 June 2019.
  50. ^ a b c "Mass rally against extradition bill in Hong Kong turns violent". South China Morning Post. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  51. ^ "Government response to procession". The Hong Kong Government. 9 June 2019.
  52. ^ "Hong Kong protests: Carrie Lam vows to push ahead with extradition bill". The Guardian. 10 June 2019.
  53. ^ "Carrie Lam vows to press on with controversial extradition bill despite mass protest but tries to pacify dissenters". South China Morning Post. 10 June 2019.
  54. ^ "Hong Kong faces shut down over extradition bill". Asia Times. 11 June 2019.
  55. ^ "Hong Kong shops, workers in rare strike to 'defend freedom'". Reuters. 12 June 2019.
  56. ^ "About 100 businesses pledge to close doors to allow workers to join another protest against Hong Kong's controversial extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 10 June 2019.
  57. ^ "多間院校學生會發起罷課反對修訂逃犯條例". RTHK. 11 June 2019.
  58. ^ "Catholic Church urges restraint as social workers vow to strike and Hong Kong's biggest teachers' union calls for protests against extradition amendment". South China Morning Post. 11 June 2019.
  59. ^ a b "Protesters brace for fresh showdown with Hong Kong police over bill". South China Morning Post. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  60. ^ "Hong Kong Police Force on Twitter". Twitter. 12 June 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  61. ^ a b c d e f "As it happened: Hong Kong police and extradition protesters renew clashes as tear gas flies". South China Morning Post. 12 June 2019.
  62. ^ "79 in hospital after sustaining injuries from Admiralty clashes". ejinsight. 13 June 2019.
  63. ^ "'Very restrained' – Hong Kong police say 150 rounds of tears gas, 20 bean bag shots fired during anti-extradition law 'riot'". Hong Kong Free Press. 13 June 2019.
  64. ^ "Hong Kong police declare China extradition protest 'a riot' as rubber bullets and tear gas fired at crowd". CNN. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  65. ^ "Hong Kong police fire rubber bullets as extradition bill protests turn to chaos". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  66. ^ "Global backing for protest rights as Trump hopes Hong Kong can 'work it out'". The Guardian. 13 June 2019.
  67. ^ Ives, Mike; May, Tiffany (11 June 2019). "Hong Kong Residents Block Roads to Protest Extradition Bill". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  68. ^ "'Paralyse the gov't': Hong Kong pledges more protests after million-strong anti-extradition march". Hong Kong Free Press. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  69. ^ "【逃犯條例】教協發動本周全港罷課 教育局:堅決反對罷課 教聯會譴責". Ming Pao. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  70. ^ a b "【轉載】還原真相: 中信圍困事件 Siege of Citic" – via YouTube.
  71. ^ a b "【引渡惡法】中信圍困真相!警狂轟催淚彈暴力驅散數百人 空拍證險釀人踩人慘劇". Apple Daily (in Chinese). 18 June 2019.
  72. ^ "【逃犯條例】催淚煙困中信大廈 中年男憶千人「生死一刻」". HK01. 15 June 2019.
  73. ^ "Video: Hong Kong security chief apologises over extradition debacle, as lawmakers slam police use of force". Hong Kong Free Press. 19 June 2019.
  74. ^ a b c "How not to police a protest: Unlawful use of force by Hong Kong Police". Amnesty International. 21 June 2019.
  75. ^ Leung, Frankie (20 June 2019). "Hong Kong Police Face Mounting Criticism Over Use of Force on Protesters". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  76. ^ "Video: Level of force used by Hong Kong police to clear protests questioned, as video clips go viral". Hong Kong Free Press. 18 June 2019.
  77. ^ Hernández, Javier C.; Marcolini, Barbara; Willis, Haley; Jordan, Drew; Felling, Meg; May, Tiffany; Chen, Elsie. "Did Hong Kong Police Abuse Protesters? What Videos Show: Tear-gassed, beaten and dragged. Experts in crowd control say the Hong Kong police used excessive force on protesters during a demonstration in June". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  78. ^ "Visual Investigation: Did Hong Kong Police Abuse Protesters? What the Videos Show" (video). The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  79. ^ "Verified: Hong Kong police violence against peaceful protesters". Anmesty International. 21 June 2019.
  80. ^ "General Enquiries | Hong Kong Police Force". Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  81. ^ "Questions over credibility of Hong Kong Police Force as security chief says riot squad uniforms have no room for officers' identity numbers". South China Morning Post. 20 June 2019.
  82. ^ Sherwell, Philip. "Activists single out British officers in protests against Hong Kong police". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  83. ^ Hazelwood, Jack. "Hong Kong's Police Violence Is Stamped 'Made in U.K.'". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  84. ^ "Police pledge fair and impartial probe of June 12 clashes". ejinsight. 19 June 2019.
  85. ^ "Video: UK halts export licences for Hong Kong crowd control gear, urges investigation into police-protester clashes". HKFP. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  86. ^ "RTHK driver hit by tear gas round". RTHK. 13 June 2019.
  87. ^ "Hong Kong's journalism watchdog says police 'trampled on reporters' rights' during extradition protest clashes". Hong Kong Free Press. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  88. ^ "Hong Kong police facing High Court challenge over officer's 'Jesus' comment during extradition bill protest". 19 June 2019.
  89. ^ Lomas, Claire. "Hong Kong protests: Police accused of shooting at journalists amid demonstration over China extradition bill". The Independent. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  90. ^ "Anti-extradition protests: Hong Kong press watchdog files police complaint alleging abuse against 26 journalists". Hong Kong Free Press.
  91. ^ "Hong Kong reporters wear helmets to indoor police press conference to highlight police brutality". Mothership. Singapore. 14 June 2019.
  92. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma. "Hong Kong police chief admits officers sought to arrest wounded protesters in hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  93. ^ "Hong Kong Hospital Authority denies leaking data to police after extradition bill protesters arrested in public hospitals". South China Morning Post. 18 June 2019.
  94. ^ "HA vows to review data security after arrests of patients". EJ Insight. 21 June 2019.
  95. ^ Shirley, Zhao (27 June 2019). "Hong Kong police defend decision to withdraw from posts at two hospitals, as tension between public and force intensifies". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  96. ^ Phlia, Siu (26 June 2019). "Hong Kong police quit posts at two city hospitals after complaining they were verbally abused over extradition bill arrests". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  97. ^ "香港妈妈回应林郑"母亲论":人民不是特首你的孩子". Lianhe Morning News. Singapore. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  98. ^ "Hong Kong Leader Likens Protesters to 'Wayward Children,' Reminiscent of Communist Propaganda". The Epoch Times. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  99. ^ a b "Thousands of Hong Kong mothers rally to support extradition law protesters, as Gov't HQ hunger strike enters 85th hour". Hong Kong Free Press. 15 June 2019.
  100. ^ "Protesting mothers call on government to withdraw extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 14 June 2019.
  101. ^ "Hong Kong protest organisers vow to press ahead with Sunday march and strike action despite government backing down on extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 15 June 2019.
  102. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Yu, Verna (16 June 2019). "'Fighting for our freedom': protesters flood on to Hong Kong's streets". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019.
  103. ^ AFP (16 June 2019). "Public anger seethes in Hong Kong ahead of another anti-extradition law rally". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  104. ^ Khan, Natasha; Wang, Joyu; Fan, Wenxin (16 June 2019). "Black-Clad Protesters Pour Back into Hong Kong Streets". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. OCLC 781541372. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  105. ^ a b "Hong Kong protest march grows and crowds take over streets close to government headquarters". South China Morning Post. 16 June 2019. ISSN 1021-6731. OCLC 648902513. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  106. ^ "'Nearly 2 million' people take to streets, forcing public apology from Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam as suspension of controversial extradition bill fails to appease protesters". South China Morning Post. 17 June 2019.
  107. ^ "民陣宣布近200萬人參與遊行". RTHK. 16 June 2019.
  108. ^ "Hong Kong Protest Live Updates: Nearly 2 Million People Took Part in Rally, Organizers Say". The New York Times. 16 June 2019.
  109. ^ "Hong Kong protest sees thousands call for city's leader to step down: live updates". CNN. 16 June 2019.
  110. ^ "Nearly 2 million march in Hong Kong to protest extradition bill, organizers say". CNN. 16 June 2019.
  111. ^ "Almost 2 Million Protesters Hit Hong Kong Streets". Bloomberg. 16 June 2019.
  112. ^ "反送中大數據曝香港或144萬人示威 習保林鄭疑倒計時". Radio France Internationale.
  113. ^ "Protest spills over to major thoroughfares". RTHK. 21 June 2019.
  114. ^ a b "Hong Kong anti-extradition protesters occupy roads at gov't and police HQ after vowing 'escalation'". Hong Kong Free Press. 21 June 2019.
  115. ^ Ting, Victor (24 June 2019). "Extradition bill protesters blockade Hong Kong government buildings for the second time in four days, preventing civil servants and taxpayers from entering". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  116. ^ Creery, Jeffery (13 July 2019). "Hong Kong anti-extradition law protesters apologise to gov't office workers for Monday's disruption at Revenue Tower". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  117. ^ a b "Hong Kong police condemn protesters and vow response to their 'illegal activities' after 15-hour siege of force's HQ finally comes to an end". South China Morning Post. 22 June 2019.
  118. ^ "警稱召救護車送走病患同事 籲示威者讓路 救護員到場卻一度遭警拒開正門". 立場新聞 Stand News. 21 June 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  119. ^ "接報後兩小時進入警總 消防:示威者沒阻擋救護". Ming Pao. 23 June 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  120. ^ "Hong Kong protesters petition G20 consulates". South China Morning Post.
  121. ^ Creery, Jennifer. "G20: Protests in Osaka over Hong Kong extradition law, as Japan's Abe raises concerns with China's Xi Jinping". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  122. ^ "Protest in Osaka City -- Asians Rising Against Communist China". Justice 20 Committee. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  123. ^ Yu, Verna (24 June 2019). "China will not allow G20 to discuss Hong Kong, says foreign minister" – via
  124. ^ Yu, Verna. "Hong Kong protesters call on foreign leaders to raise crisis at G20". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  125. ^ "Hong Kong Protesters Call for Foreign Backing Ahead of G20". Time.
  126. ^ Creery, Jennifer (26 June 2019). "'Democracy now, Free Hong Kong': Thousands of protesters urge G20 to back anti-extradition law movement". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  127. ^ "Six-hour siege of HK police headquarters". South China Morning Post.
  128. ^ "PLA's waterfront pier in balance". The Standard. 27 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  129. ^ Cheng, Kris (29 June 2019). "In Pictures: Hundreds protest as strip of Hong Kong Harbourfront handed over to Chinese military". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  130. ^ "【7.1遊行】歷來最多!55萬人上街促查6.12警暴 起步6小時龍尾先到金鐘". Apple Daily (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  131. ^ Press, Hong Kong Free (1 July 2019). "Organisers say 550,000 attend annual July 1 democracy march as protesters occupy legislature". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  132. ^ "Hong Kong protests: How many protesters took to the streets on July 1?". Reuters.
  133. ^ Lai, K. K. Rebecca; Wu, Jin; Huang, Lingdong (3 July 2019). "How A.I. Helped Improve Crowd Counting in Hong Kong Protests". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  134. ^ hermesauto (1 July 2019). "Hong Kong police fire tear gas at protesters near parliament". The Straits Times. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  135. ^ "'Free Hong Kong': Thousands rally for democracy, as anti-extradition protesters, occupy roads, clash with police". Hong Kong Free Press. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  136. ^ "Hong Kong protesters smash up legislature in direct challenge to China". Reuters. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  137. ^ "Hong Kong protests: What LegCo graffiti tells us". BBC. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  138. ^ Chan, Holmes. "The writing on the wall: Understanding the messages left by protesters during the storming of the Hong Kong legislature". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  139. ^ "Hundreds of protesters storm Hong Kong government HQ, smashing pictures and spraying graffiti". The Independent. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  140. ^ "Hong Kong: Protesters storm and deface parliament on handover anniversary". BBC News. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  141. ^ "PHOTOS of polite Hong Kong protesters 'paying for drinks' go viral". RT International. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  142. ^ "【引渡惡法●Live】警方龍匯道施放催淚彈 速龍清路障". Apple Daily (in Chinese). 1 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  143. ^ Griffiths, James. "Hong Kong's democracy movement was about hope. These protests are driven by desperation". CNN. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  144. ^ Su, Alice. "Crackdown, arrests loom over Hong Kong as martyrdom becomes part of protest narratives". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  145. ^ "Chief executive slams 'violent, lawless' protests". RTHK. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  146. ^ Cheng, Kris (3 July 2019). "Hong Kong gov't accused of omitting 'tough questions' in official transcript of Carrie Lam's 4 am press con". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  147. ^ "First charges against Hong Kong anti-gov't protester as Chief Sec. meets democrats". Hong Kong Free Press. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  148. ^ Giry, Stéphanie. "The Extraordinary Power of Hong Kongers' Solidarity". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  149. ^ "Legco battered but police take little action to avoid 'affecting peaceful marchers'". South China Morning Post. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  150. ^ "'Negligent' policing sacrificed force's image and morale, officers say". South China Morning Post. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  151. ^ Ng, Kenneth (7 July 2019). "Violence condemned, but storming of Hong Kong's legislature has not dispelled public sympathy for protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  152. ^ Cheung, Eric. "New manifesto of Hong Kong protesters released". CNN. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  153. ^ "Admiralty Manifesto". LIHKG. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  154. ^ Lam, Jeffie. "Anger of the young at Hong Kong government now goes beyond the extradition bill, and targets the legitimacy of Carrie Lam's administration". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  155. ^ Lum, Alvin. "'It wasn't violence for violence's sake': the only unmasked protester at storming of Hong Kong's legislature gives his account of the day's drama". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  156. ^ Su, Alice. "In Hong Kong, one protester pulls off his mask and defines a movement". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  157. ^ a b "Thousands rally in support of young demonstrators". RTHK. Radio Television Hong Kong. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  158. ^ Tong, Noah Sin and Vimvam (6 July 2019). "Hong Kong mothers march to back students". The Canberra Times.
  159. ^ a b Xinqi, Su. "Mothers gather in show of solidarity with Hong Kong's young protesters, pleading their lives must be treasured". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  160. ^ "Hong Kong Mothers March in Support of Student Protesters". The Epoch Times. Reuters. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  161. ^ "'More than 230,000' in Kowloon protest against extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  162. ^ Yu, Verna (7 July 2019). "Hong Kong protesters march to train station to send message to China". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  163. ^ Qin, Amy (7 July 2019). "Hong Kong Protesters Take Their Message to Chinese Tourists". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  164. ^ "Public increasingly backing radical Hong Kong protesters despite unease over violence, say academics, as Carrie Lam's government faces even greater resistance against extradition bill". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  165. ^ Chan, Holmes (7 July 2019). "Organisers say 230,000 Hongkongers march to China express rail station to spread anti-extradition 'message to mainlanders'". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  166. ^ "大量警察16組嚴重違規行為,警方及政府須緊急嚴正交代 | 黃宇軒 (Sampson) | 立場新聞". Stand News (in Chinese). 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  167. ^ "【逆權運動】便衣警豪言「不需展示委任證」 網民揭打人前藏於衫內". Apple Daily. 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  168. ^ a b "Lawmaker demands probe into police actions". RTHK. Radio Television Hong Kong. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  169. ^ "【逆權運動】躁警爆粗與居民鬥嘴!無辜路過慘被警撞落地 阻記者拍攝". Apple Daily. 8 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  170. ^ "【逆權運動】「舌戰」譚文豪防暴警敗走 突向記者群推進女記者被撞跌". Apple Daily. 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  171. ^ "便衣警戴頭盔、持圓盾清場 稱執行職務毋須展示委任證". 立場新聞 Stand News (in Chinese). 8 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  172. ^ "Police condemned for 'declaring war on media'". RTHK. Radio Television Hong Kong. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  173. ^ AFP (7 July 2019). "JUST IN: Arrests made as thousands face police in escalation of Hong Kong anti-extradition protests". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  174. ^ "Hong Kong police arrest six at Sunday protest". CNBC. Reuters. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  175. ^ "Rival groups rally over Mong Kok police action - RTHK".
  176. ^ Chan, Holmes. "'Lennon Wall' message boards spark neighborhood confrontations in Yau Tong and Kowloon Bay". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  177. ^ a b Tsang, Emily; Mok, Danny. "Clashes break out over extradition bill at 'Lennon Wall' near Hong Kong MTR station between protesters and supporters of Carrie Lam". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  178. ^ a b "Violent clash breaks out between young protestors and over 200 middle-aged men who reprimand the Lennon Wall message board in Yau Tong". DimSum Daily Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  179. ^ "Confrontation at Yau Tong Lennon Wall" (video). Facebook. Stand News. Retrieved 10 July 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  180. ^ Lum, Alvin; Lo, Clifford. "Two retired policemen among three people arrested over clashes sparked by 'Lennon Walls', Hong Kong's latest show of defiance against hated extradition bill". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  181. ^ "Chaotic scenes in the mall as police move to clear protesters after rallying stand-off". South China Morning Post. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  182. ^ a b "Protesters showered with support in Sha Tin – even from 10 floors up". South China Morning Post. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  183. ^ a b "Chaotic scenes in a mall as police move to clear protesters after rallying stand-off". South China Morning Post. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  184. ^ "有防暴警察扯掉示威者口罩 引起在場示威者不滿". RTHK. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  185. ^ "What's New:沙田反修例遊行後,警方大規模進入商場清場,警民爆發衝突多人被捕". Initium Media. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  186. ^ "【沙田遊行】新城市廣場爆發大衝突 防暴隊罕有進駐清場". Hong Kong 01. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  187. ^ "Violent clashes broke out inside New Town Plaza". The Standard. 14 July 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  188. ^ "新城市廣場爆大混戰 多人被捕 警曾封港鐵入口 致示威者滯留商場 | 立場報道 | 立場新聞". 立場新聞 Stand News. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  189. ^ a b Cheng, Kris. "Hong Kong democrats question police 'kettling' tactic during Sha Tin mall clearance, as pro-Beijing side slams violence". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  190. ^ "Hong Kong leader Lam condemns 'rioters' after violent clashes". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  191. ^ Chan, Holmes. "Over 40 arrests, 22 hospitalised in Sha Tin clashes, as police chief condemns 'thugs' and defends decision to storm mall". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  192. ^ Chan, Holmes; Creery, Jennifer. "Hundreds of protesters gather at Sha Tin mall to demand accountability for violent clashes on Sunday". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  193. ^ Hui, Mary; Steger, Isabella. "Photos: Hong Kong police fight protesters in a luxury shopping mall". Quartz. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  194. ^ Kang-chung, Ng; Lo, Clifford. "Hong Kong protesters blame developer Sun Hung Kai for clashes with police in Sha Tin's New Town Plaza". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  195. ^ Chan, Holmes. "Hong Kong anti-extradition law hunger strikers lead supporters to leader Carrie Lam's residence". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  196. ^ "'Extradition bill not just a concern for young'". RTHK. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  197. ^ "Hong Kong: 'Silver protest' as elderly march in support of youths". Sky News. 17 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  198. ^ Chan, Holmes (17 July 2019). "'No rioters, only a tyrannical regime': Thousands of Hong Kong seniors march in support of young extradition law protesters". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  199. ^ James, May. "HKFP Lens: 'Protect Hong Kong' – seniors rally against extradition bill in solidarity with young protesters". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  200. ^ Fung, Alice. "Hong Kong elders march in support of young demonstrators". SFGate. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  201. ^ "社福界 4000 人靜默遊行 社總會長:創傷、情緒問題非社工能解決 促政府回應訴求". Stand News. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  202. ^ "【逃犯條例】社福界靜默遊行 社工斥政府「龜縮」 (15:14)". Ming Pao. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  203. ^ Cheung, Tomy; Lum, Alvin; Lok-kei, Sum (17 July 2019). "Another massive march in Hong Kong secures approval despite police earlier asking organisers to postpone over safety concerns". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  204. ^ Lum, Alvin (17 July 2019). "Hong Kong extradition bill protests: police warn organisers they may block Kowloon rally between Hung Hom and To Kwa Wan over unrest fears". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  205. ^ a b Cheng, Kris (19 July 2019). "Hong Kong police restrict Sunday's anti-extradition law rally over fears of 'violent acts', as gov't HQ on security lockdown". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  206. ^ "To request for the independent inquiry" (PDF). Hong Kong Police. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  207. ^ a b Leung, Hillary (21 July 2019). "Fresh Hong Kong Protests End in Chaotic Clashes With Police". Time. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  208. ^ Kuo, Lily (21 July 2019). "Police and protesters clash amid huge democracy march in Hong Kong". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  209. ^ "Protesters vent anger at Beijing's liaison office". RTHK. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  210. ^ "Hong Kong police fire rounds of tear gas after skirmishes and a tense stand-off with extradition bill protesters". South China Morning Post. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  211. ^ "Hong Kong police deploy tear gas, rubber bullets against protesters as gov't slams 'direct challenge to national sovereignty'". Hong Kong Free Press. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  212. ^ 白衣人西鐵元朗站內追打乘客 林卓廷嘴角受傷流血. "instant news" section. Hong Kong Economic Journal (in Chinese). 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  213. ^ a b Cheng, Kris (22 July 2019). "Chaos and bloodshed in Hong Kong district as hundreds of masked men assault protesters, journalists, residents". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  214. ^ "Yuen Long MTR Station closed after violent attacks". RTHK. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  215. ^ 【元朗黑夜】元朗YOHO街坊受驚三小時 致電警署:驚你就唔好出街. Hong Kong 01. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  216. ^ 【元朗黑夜】白衣人元朗站聚集 追打市民前夕 兩軍裝警轉身離去. Hong Kong 01. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  217. ^ 【無警時份】逾千白衣人「保衞元朗」揮棍舞藤條四處追打黑衣人. "real time news" section. Apple Daily (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Next Digital. 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  218. ^ 民主派議員聯署 強烈譴責元朗暴行及警方失職. "instant news" section. Hong Kong Economic Journal (in Chinese). 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  219. ^ Fowler, Evan (11 June 2019). "Why the extradition law will pass, despite the largest protest in Hong Kong history". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  220. ^ a b "From Berlin to Brisbane, rallies in 12 countries express solidarity with Hong Kong's mass protest against extradition agreement". South China Morning Post. 9 June 2019.
  221. ^ "Groups in Taiwan support Hong Kong extradition bill protests | Cross-Strait Affairs | FOCUS TAIWAN – CNA ENGLISH NEWS". Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  222. ^ "Anti-bill protest in Australia".
  223. ^ "The Latest: Taiwan groups rally to support Hong Kong protest". The Washington Post. Fred Ryan. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  224. ^
  225. ^ "Taipei activists at forefront as world chimes in on row". The Standard. 17 June 2019.
  226. ^ Eagland, Nick (16 June 2019). "Hong Kong supporters rally outside China's consulate in Vancouver". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, British Columbia. ISSN 0832-1299. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019.
  227. ^ "Hong Kong protests inspire Taiwan to amp up resistance to China". Nikkei Asian Review.
  228. ^ "London: Sing for Hong Kong 14 July". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  229. ^ "London Flash Mob Sings for Hong Kong (逆權運動 倫敦港人周日快閃 為香港唱歌集氣)". Apple Daily. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  230. ^ a b c "Hong Kong protest: Flowers pile up for protester who fell to his death at Pacific Place". The Straits Times. 16 June 2019. OCLC 8572659. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019.
  231. ^ a b "逃犯條例:牆身留反修例字句 教大女學生墮樓亡". on.cc東網 (in Cantonese). 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  232. ^ a b c Tan, Kenneth. "Third suicide by an anti-extradition protestor in Hong Kong sparks alarm bells". shanghaiist. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  233. ^ a b "第四宗反送中自殺個案 死者親友冀政府回應訴求 「真正能阻止年輕人絕望係政府」". Stand News. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  234. ^ a b Perper, Rosie. "Protesters in Hong Kong are killing themselves in a disturbing turn in their high-profile struggle against China". Business Insider. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  235. ^ "Hong Kong Protester Dies After Unfurling Anti-Extradition Banner". Time. 15 June 2019. ISSN 0040-781X. OCLC 1311479. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  236. ^ "Man protesting Hong Kong's extradition law dies after falling from mall in Admiralty". Hong Kong Free Press. 15 June 2019. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019.
  237. ^ a b "A Hong Kong Extradition Protester Who Fell to His Death Is Being Hailed as a 'Martyr'". Time. 15 June 2019. ISSN 0040-781X. OCLC 1311479. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019.
  238. ^ Yuan, Iris; Tong, Vimvam. "Activists lay flowers at memorial for Hong Kong protester". Reuters. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  239. ^ "Marco Leung Memorial Art @ Lennon Wall in Prague". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 12 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  240. ^ Grundy, Tom. "21-year-old Hong Kong student falls to her death in Sheung Shui, leaving message opposing extradition law". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  241. ^ Ai, Weiwei. "Ai Weiwei: Can Hong Kong's Resistance Win? A loss to Chinese authoritarianism would set a frightening precedent for the world". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  242. ^ "大學生粉嶺墮樓亡 梯間寫上「反送中」字句". Stand News (in Cantonese). 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  243. ^ Robbins, Siobhan. "Hong Kong protests: Suicides spark mental health fears". Sky News. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  244. ^ "Fanling Memorial for Lo Hiu-yan". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  245. ^ "Lennon Wall for Lo Hiu-yan". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  246. ^ "【引渡惡法】29歲女子中環ifc墮樓亡 fb留遺言:七一我去不了". Apple Daily (in Chinese). 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  247. ^ "Ms. Wu Memorial Event". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  248. ^ "Memopads & Markers Memorial Event". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  249. ^ "Thousands of civilians gather at Edinburg Place to pay their respect to the female protestor who committed suicide 7 days ago". DimSum Daily Hong Kong. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  250. ^ Leung, Hillary. "Another Hong Kong Protester Fell to Her Death After Leaving a Message for the Government". Time. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  251. ^ "Mak's Final Letter for Hong Kong". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  252. ^ "More Notes from Mak". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  253. ^ "Hong Kong activists hold vigil for deceased supporters". Sun Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  254. ^ "Vigil for Ms. Mak". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  255. ^ "Lennon Wall for Ms. Mak". Twitter CDN. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  256. ^ a b c "A new kind of Hong Kong activism emerges as protesters mobilize without any leaders". Los Angeles Times. 14 June 2019.
  257. ^ a b "Be water, my friend: how Bruce Lee has protesters going with flow". South China Morning Post. 22 June 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  258. ^ "Hong Kong protests: Parliament 'never represented its people'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  259. ^ John Little (1996). "Five: The Running Water". In John Little (ed.). The Warrior Within (Book). Martial Arts-Philosophy: McGraw-Hill. p. 43. ISBN 0-8092-3194-8.
  260. ^ "In Pictures: 'Flow like water' – Hong Kong protesters converge on police HQ after day of wildcat road occupations". Hong Kong Free Press. 21 June 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  261. ^ a b Lau Yiu-man, Lewis. "Hong Kong's Protesters Are Resisting China With Anarchy and Principle: The movement is leaderless but not chaotic. It self-regulates even as it constantly reinvents itself". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  262. ^ Chan Man Hei, Jacky; Pang, Jun. "The untold story of Hong Kong's protests is how one simple slogan connects us. We've developed an understanding that though our strategies may differ, we will never walk alone". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  263. ^ "Mooncakes, hymns and post-it notes: The colour of Hong Kong's protests". Channel News. 18 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  264. ^ Fung, Alice. "Hong Kong elders march in support of young demonstrators". SFGate. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  265. ^ "Telegram Traces Massive Cyber Attack to China During Hong Kong Protests". 13 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  266. ^ Dreyfuss, Emily (15 June 2019). "Security News This Week: Telegram Says China Is Behind DDoS". Wired.
  267. ^ Mozur, Paul; Stevenson, Alexandra (13 June 2019). "Chinese Cyberattack Hits Telegram, App Used by Hong Kong Protesters". The New York Times.
  268. ^ "Telegram founder links cyber attack to China". BBC. 13 June 2019.
  269. ^ Porter, Jon (13 June 2019). "Telegram blames China for 'powerful DDoS attack' during Hong Kong protests". The Verge. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  270. ^ Cheng, Kris. "'Temporary' closure of police posts at two Hong Kong hospitals is because of 'political hatred,' says commissioner". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  271. ^ Li, Bincun. "Legal expert: Intimidation of Hong Kong police 'unacceptable'". China Daily. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  272. ^ "8 people arrested for 'doxxing' police officers related to extradition bill protests". Coconuts Hong Kong. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  273. ^ Cheng, Kris. "Hong Kong police arrest 8 on suspicion of releasing officers' personal information online". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  274. ^ a b "Sing Hallelujah無限唱 跨宗派信徒自發晝夜守護香港". CitizenNews. 22 June 2019.
  275. ^ "A 1974 Hymn Called 'Sing Hallelujah to the Lord' Has Become the Anthem of the Hong Kong Protests". Time. 19 June 2019.
  276. ^ "Hong Kong protests: How Hallelujah to the Lord became an unofficial anthem". BBC. 21 June 2019.
  277. ^ "'Sing Hallelujah to the Lord' has become the unofficial anthem of the anti-extradition protest movement". Shanghaiist. 16 June 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  278. ^ "'Sing Hallelujah to the Lord': Religion on the forefront of Hong Kong's protests". Hong Kong Free Press. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  279. ^ "Hundreds of petitions appear in protest of Hong Kong's controversial China extradition bill". Hong Kong Free Press. 30 May 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  280. ^ a b "【引渡修例】中學反修例聯署共逾16萬簽名人次 鄭若驊母校居榜首". HKC News. 5 June 2019.
  281. ^ "Thousands sign petitions against extradition bill at 90 Hong Kong schools – including city leader Carrie Lam's alma mater St Francis Canossian College". South China Morning Post. 28 May 2019.
  282. ^ "Petition urges France to strip Carrie Lam of civil honor". The Standard. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  283. ^ "(G20) HK activists rally foreign capitals for freedom". The Standard. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  284. ^ "Hong Kong G20 Open Letter Initiative: Make the Anti-Extradition Bill an Issue for the G20 Summit! Crowdfunding Campaign for a Front-Page Open Letter Advertisement on the Financial Times and Other International Newspapers". GoGetFunding. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  285. ^ "'Stand with Hong Kong': G20 appeal over extradition law crisis appears in over 10 int'l newspapers". Hong Kong Free Press. 28 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  286. ^ "Activists in Osaka call on world leaders to press Xi on Hong Kong freedoms". South China Morning Post. 28 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  287. ^ "Coffers swell for G20 ad push". The Standard. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  288. ^ Liu, Nicolle; Wong, Sue-Lin (2 July 2019). "How to mobilise millions: Lessons from Hong Kong". Financial Times. Retrieved 14 July 2019. The protesters also use iPhone's AirDrop function to anonymously and rapidly share information.
  289. ^ "逃犯條例:疑AirDrop收相後死機 專家稱未聽聞會中毒". Oriental News (in Chinese). Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  290. ^ "AirDrop requests are Gen Z's way of passing notes on Apple devices – as Hong Kong protesters show". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  291. ^ Fingas, Roger (9 July 2019). "Hong Kong protesters turn to Apple's AirDrop to bypass Chinese censorship". AppleInsider. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  292. ^ a b Mayo, Benjamin (9 July 2019). "Hong Kong protesters using AirDrop to share images opposing Chinese extradition bill". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  293. ^ Hui, Mary. "Hong Kong's protesters put AirDrop to ingenious use to breach China's Firewall". Quartz. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  294. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon. "What China Is Saying About the Hong Kong Protests: In the upside-down world of Chinese state media, the extradition bill is actually supported by most Hong Kongers". The Diplomat. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  295. ^ Dixon, Robyn. "The 'Great Firewall': China censors videos, social media posts of Hong Kong protests". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  296. ^ Yu, Verna. "'Don't mess with us': the spirit of rebellion spreads in Hong Kong". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  297. ^ "Lennon Walls of Hong Kong: Lennon Walls started to spread all over Hong Kong during the 2019 Anti-ELAB Movement". Twitter. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  298. ^ Cheng, Kris; Chan, Holmes. "In Pictures: 'Lennon Wall' message boards appear across Hong Kong districts in support of anti-extradition bill protesters". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  299. ^ Zhou, Joyce; Ruwitch, John. "Imagine all the Post-its: Hong Kong protesters come together with 'Lennon Walls'". Yahoo!. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  300. ^ "HK Lennon Wall Map (香港連儂牆地圖)". Google Maps. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  301. ^ "Imagine all the Post-its: Hong Kong protesters come together with 'Lennon Wall'". Channel News Asia. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  302. ^ "Scuffles at Hong Kong's sticky note 'Lennon wall'". BBC. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  303. ^ Lam, Jeffie (10 July 2019). "'Lennon Walls' spring up across Hong Kong as more than 200 police in Tai Po remove messages featuring officers' personal information". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  304. ^ "A world away from Hong Kong, a 'Lennon Wall' supporting pro-democracy demonstrators springs up in Toronto". MSN. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  305. ^ Seucharan, Cherise. "'Lennon wall' on Vancouver steam clock a symbol of support for Hong Kong protesters". The Star. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  306. ^ "Tokyo Shibuya Lennon Wall (東京渋谷現「連儂牆」紙牌、人身代牆避免打擾日本人)". The Stand News. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  307. ^ a b Un, Phoenix. "Imagine that - 'support HK' messages on Prague wall". The Standard. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  308. ^ Lok-kei, Sum (10 July 2019). "Pocari Sweat among big brand advertisers ditching Hong Kong broadcaster TVB over claims its extradition bill protest coverage was biased". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  309. ^ Ives, Mike; Li, Katherine. "Hong Kong Protesters' New Target: A News Station Seen as China's Friend". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  310. ^ Tsang, Denise. "Pocari Sweat, Pizza Hut's mainland China offices distance themselves from Hong Kong franchises over 'TVB bias' in coverage of extradition bill protests". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  311. ^ Xinqi, Sun (12 July 2019). "Yoshinoya Hong Kong steams at local advertising agency as disputes over extradition bill roil local workplaces". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  312. ^ "Hunger-strikers throw down gauntlet over bill". RTHK. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  313. ^ Cheng, Kris. "Hong Kong anti-extradition bill hunger strikers enter eighth day, as lawmaker Fernando Cheung joins". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  314. ^ "Hunger strikers vow to continue Hong Kong protest – Protesters that include members of religious groups say fast not over until extradition bill is officially withdrawn". UCAN. Union of Catholic Asian News Limited. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  315. ^ Chan, Holmes (7 July 2019). "Tuen Mun becomes latest protest flashpoint as thousands rally against 'dancing aunties' in local park". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  316. ^ "光復上水遊行主辦單位指三萬人參加 警方指四千人參與". Now News. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  317. ^ "警察上水瘋狂鎮壓立法議員被打額頭起包法新社女記者混亂中受傷". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  318. ^ "Hong Kong press watchdogs condemn police over insults, 'malicious jostling' of journalists during protest clearance". HKFP. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  319. ^ "(逃犯條例.不斷更新.短片) 光復上水遊行結束後爆衝突 防暴警清場 有青年墮橋被拉回". Ming Pao. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  320. ^ Chan, Holmes (14 July 2019). "HKU head Zhang Xiang promises dialogue with students after criticism overstatement on LegCo storming". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  321. ^ Grundy, Tom. "'Stop police violence, defend press freedom': Hong Kong reporters stage rare protest over police treatment". HKFP. Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  322. ^ Lam, Jeffie; Low, Zoey; Mok, Danny. "'More than 1,500' join journalists' silent march in Hong Kong, accusing police of mistreating media during extradition bill protests and demanding Carrie Lam steps in to defend press freedom". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  323. ^ "As it happened: How protest march against extradition bill turned ugly". South China Morning Post. 9 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  324. ^ a b "'Massive backing' for change". The Standard.
  325. ^ "Beijing loyalists called to liaison office". RTHK.
  326. ^ "Pro-police groups rally in Central". RTHK. 22 June 2019.
  327. ^ a b "Clashes with rivals, assaults on journalists mar Hong Kong pro-police rally". South China Morning Post. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  328. ^ "Video: Thousands join pro-Hong Kong police rally, as anti-extradition law 'Lennon Wall' messages destroyed". Hong Kong Free Press. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  329. ^ "Lam Cheuk-ting identifies suspects who attacked him". The Standard. 4 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  330. ^ a b "DAB holds pro-police rally, but queries tactics".
  331. ^ "Hawkers say protests are hitting their income - RTHK".
  332. ^ "何君堯促警方撤銷民陣集會申請 「只可以去公園傾下計」 | 獨媒報導". 香港獨立媒體網.
  333. ^ "Hong Kong anti-extradition law demo set for Sunday, as pro-Beijing lawmakers urge gov't to ban protests till Sept". 18 July 2019.
  334. ^ "Pro-govt side plan rival 'safeguard HK' rallies - RTHK".
  335. ^ "人大政協香港友好協進會 捐1000萬慰問警方 | 立場報道 | 立場新聞". 立場新聞 Stand News.
  336. ^ "Show no mercy to rioters, Leticia Lee urges police". 19 July 2019.
  337. ^ 【逃犯條例】李偲嫣贈警1萬盒飲品 下午往加國領事館抗議何韻詩聯合國發言 (13:39). 19 July 2019.
  338. ^ Creery, Jennifer; Grundy, Tom; Chan, Holmes (20 July 2019). "In Pictures: 'Safeguard Hong Kong' - Thousands rally to support gov't and oppose 'violent protesters'". Hong Kong Free Press HKFP. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  339. ^ "Hundreds of thousands turn out for pro-police rally next to government HQ". South China Morning Post. 20 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  340. ^ a b "Chinese media blames Hong Kong demo on collusion with West". Hong Kong Free Press. 10 June 2019.
  341. ^ "China backs Hong Kong extradition law, opposes 'foreign interference'". Channel NewsAsia. 10 June 2019.
  342. ^ Nip, Joyce Y.M. "Extremist mobs? How China's propaganda machine tries to control the message in the Hong Kong protests". HKFP. The Conversation. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  343. ^ "Hong Kong protesters make historic stand over extradition bill". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 June 2019. News of the massive protest was mostly censored on mainland Chinese social media.
  344. ^ "'Million-strong' Hong Kong rally against extradition bill is censored in China". Abacus. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  345. ^ "As Chinese search for news on Hong Kong extradition protests, censors work overtime". Japan Times. 14 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  346. ^ Kharpal, Arjun (13 June 2019). "How social media is shaping what people know – and don't know – about the Hong Kong protests". CNBC. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  347. ^ South China Morning Post (14 June 2019), Hong Kong protests on Chinese social media, retrieved 17 June 2019
  348. ^ "Statement on protests in Hong Kong". 13 June 2019.
  349. ^ "Statement on Protests in Hong Kong". Global Affairs Canada. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  350. ^ "Global backing for protest rights as Trump hopes Hong Kong can 'work it out'". The Guardian. 13 June 2019.
  351. ^ "European MPs' motion calls for Hong Kong to withdraw extradition bill and start democratic reform". SCMP. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  352. ^ "The Latest: Trump impressed with protests, doesn't take side". The Public's Radio. 13 June 2019.
  353. ^ Hui, Mary. "Why foreign governments are so worried about Hong Kong's extradition law". Quartz. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  354. ^ "Japan says Abe raised Hong Kong with China's Xi". The Public's Radio. 28 June 2019.
  355. ^ "Local gov't developing a wait-and-see approach to possible extradition bill".
  356. ^ "Tsai, Lai voice support for Hong Kong extradition bill protesters". Focus Taiwan. The Central News Agency. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  357. ^ "蔡英文 on Instagram: "我參與過「港澳關係條例」的起草,年輕時也常趁著轉機,跑去香港的書店買當時最新的貿易法專業書籍,順便看看「那些在台灣不一定能看得到的書」。那時,在使用中文的地方裡,台灣還沒有充分出版與#言論的自由,中國則是從來都沒有。香港是我和許多人「買書的地方」。 …"". Instagram. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  358. ^ "I stand shoulder to shoulder with the hundreds of thousands in #HongKong fighting the extradition bill & for rule of law. Please know you are not alone. #Taiwan is with you! The will of the people will prevail! JW #撐香港, #反送中". Republic of China: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  359. ^ "Taiwan lambasts Hong Kong for using it as an excuse in suspension of controversial extradition bill". 15 June 2019.
  360. ^ "Foreign Secretary statement on protests in Hong Kong". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  361. ^ Ni, Adam (12 June 2019). "British consulate opens door to protesters needing sanctuary. #HongKong #antiELAB Other consulates should do the same, immediately". @adam_ni. Retrieved 12 June 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  362. ^ "Britain suspends exports of tear gas and rubber bullets to Hong Kong police". South China Morning Post. 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  363. ^ Sky News (2 July 2019), Former Hong Kong governor Chris Patten praises protesters, retrieved 3 July 2019
  364. ^ editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (3 July 2019). "Foreign Office calls in China ambassador over Hong Kong protests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  365. ^ "Abide by Joint Declaration, May tells Beijing". RTHK. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  366. ^ "US State Department expresses support for Hongkongers protesting extradition bill". South China Morning Post. 11 June 2019.
  367. ^ "Pelosi Statement on Hong Kong Protests and Extradition Bill". Speaker Nancy Pelosi. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  368. ^ "Trump says Hong Kong protesters 'looking for democracy', US urges all sides to avoid violence". The Strait Times. 2 July 2019.
  369. ^ "Trump softened stance on Hong Kong protests to revive trade talks". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  370. ^ "Trump cut a deal with China to mute US support for Hong Kong protests in exchange for progress in the trade war, report says". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 July 2019.

Cite error: A list-defined reference named "AutoV3-13" is not used in the content (see the help page).

External linksEdit