Human chain (politics)
A human chain is a form of demonstration in which people link their arms as a show of political solidarity. The chains can involve thousands of people, with the world record being claimed in 2020 by Bihar, India, which was estimated to include 43 million people across 18,000 kilometres (11,000 mi)to support his government's efforts towards environment conservation and eradication of social evils.
List of notable human chainsEdit
|Date||Event||Location||Number of participants||Purpose|
|December 1982||Embrace the Base||RAF Greenham Common Newbury, Berkshire, England||30,000 (women)||Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.|
|1 April 1983||14-mile (23 km) human chain||Greenham to Aldermaston and the ordnance factory at Burghfield||70,000 (40,000 – 80,000)||Protested siting of American nuclear missiles in West Germany.|
|May 25, 1986||Hands Across America||Across United States||5,000,000||Charitable event to raise money to fight hunger.|
|August 23, 1989||Baltic Way||Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania||2,000,000||Called for regaining independence for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania from the Soviet Union. Was followed by a similar chain on August 23, 1991, with people holding candles.|
|January 21, 1990||Reunion Day||Lviv–Kiev, Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine)||450,000 (according to Soviet militsiya); 3,000,000 (according to organizers)||Marking the 71st anniversary of the Act Zluky, an agreement unifying the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian National Republic.|
|August 1997||XII World Youth Day, 1997||Paris, France||400,000||A 36 km ring surrounding Paris facing outwards, symbolically calling for peace.|
|16 May 1998||Jubilee 2000 Human Chain||Birmingham, UK||70,000 – 100,000||The first Chain demonstration by Jubilee 2000, a coalition of church and faith groups, overseas development agencies and others at the G8 Summit in Birmingham, UK, to highlight the indebted poverty of many poor countries and the need for the G8, World Bank and IMF to act to remit that debt. The Chain surrounded Birmingham city center including the International Convention Center.|
|September 8, 1999||Protest against violence in East Timor||Lisbon||300,000+||A 20 km ring connecting the United Nations delegation and the embassies of Russia, China, UK, France and the US in Lisbon, calling for the end of violence in East Timor.|
|2000||Latin American Jubilee 2000||Germany||50,000||Called for debt forgiveness for developing nations.|
|February 28, 2004||228 Hand-in-Hand Rally||Taiwan: from Keelung to Eluanbi (500 kilometers, 300 miles)||1,000,000+ ( 2,000,000+ according to organizers)||Commemoration of the February 28 Incident and protest of People's Republic of China missiles aimed at Taiwan.|
|July 25, 2004||Israeli Chain||Gush Katif (Jewish communities adjacent to the Gaza Strip, Israel), to the Western Wall, Jerusalem (90 kilometers)||130,000 (according to police); 200,000 (according to organizers)||Opposing Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Disengagement Plan which involves dismantling of Jewish communities and settlements of Gush Katif.|
|December 11, 2004||'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government||Teknaf to Tentulia, Bangladesh||5,000,000+ and||The participants were supporters of 14 opposition parties led by the Bangladesh Awami League to express their 'No Confidence' campaign to the BNP-led alliance government and to demand fresh polls. It was 1,050 km (652.4 miles) long.|
|May 1, 2006||Great American Boycott||New York City. (Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn Bronx)||12,000 (according to CNN )||Protesting H.R. 4437, a bill in Congress to toughen immigration checks.|
|February 25, 2008||Gaza Chain||Gaza||20,000 ||Protesting Israeli blockade of Gaza|
|September 1, 2008||"Stop Russia" campaign||Georgia||1,000,000 (according to the Georgian authorities)||Protesting Russian military intervention|
|October 24, 2008||2009 Tamil protests in India||Chennai, India||100,000 – 150,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|December 13, 2008||"Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks"||Mumbai, India||60,000||Protesting Against the terror attacks that took place in Mumbai on the 26th of November 2008|
|January 28, 2009||2009 Tamil protests in Canada||Toronto, Canada||20,000||Protesting the violence against Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Civil War.|
|June 9, 2009||Green Chain, Iran's Presidential Election
2009 Iranian Election Protests
|Tehran, Iran||18,000 – 30,000||In support of Mir-Hossein Mousavi|
|July 2009||The Dolomites Embrace Africa||Tre Cime di Lavaredo – Auronzo di Cadore – Dolomites – Italy||6,000||To ask the G8 leaders to take care of Africa and drop the debt of the poor countries It was 6 km long.|
|October 2, 2009||Kerala CPM,
2009 ASEAN agreement Protest
|Kerala, India||3,000,000 – 4,000,000+ (according to estimates made by organizers before the protest)||Protesting against the ASEAN and New Delhi free trade agreement|
|February 3, 2010||Telangana JAC,
Telangana Human Chain
|Andhra Pradesh, India||50,000||The people of Telangana formed a 500 kilometers-long human chain all along the National Highway number 7 from Adilabad on the northernmost tip of the region to Alampur on the borders of Kurnool district, to press their demand for forming a separate state.|
|December 10, 2012||Human Chain for Human Rights.||Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India||20,000||25 km long Human chain formed for Human Rights on Human Rights Day on December 10, 2012 by 20,000 tribal students of Kalinga Institute of Social Science (KISS) in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India .|
|September 11, 2013||Catalan Way Towards Independence||Throughout Catalonia||1,600,000||480 km long Human chain organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana for the independence of Catalonia.|
|November 29, 2013||Pro-European Union protests / Against Russian intervention||Various, largest from Ukraine to Subcarpathian Voivodeship. Also Lithuania – Latvia.||2,000,000+||Symbolic "linking" of Ukraine to the European Union|
|June 8, 2014||Human Chain For The Right to Decide of the Basque Country||Throughout Basque Country, from Durango to Iruñea-Pamplona||150,000+||123 km long Human chain organized by Gure Esku Dago for the Self-determination of the Basque Country.|
|September 2015||The Dolomites Embrace Human Rights||Tre Cime di Lavaredo – Auronzo di Cadore – Dolomites – Italy||6,000||To celebrate Human Rights and the 40th Anniversary of Amnesty International Italian section It was 6 km long.|
|October 1, 2015||Madhesh Human Chain||Mechi to Mahakali, Hulaki Rajmarg, Nepal.||1,500,000+||The 2015 Human Chain for Madhesh Movement was an organised protest in Nepal for pressurizing the government of Nepal to withdraw the discriminatory policies being institutionalized in the constitution that came in effect on 20 September 2015. The Madheshis the residents and indigenous population of Madhesh, the southern plains of Nepal, created world record in creating 1155 km of human chain to draw attention of Nepal government.|
|17 January 2016||Human chain to move 1400 sandbags||Singapore||Defending their loved ones. Organised by 8xx BN|
|December 29, 2016||Kerala LDF,
2016 Indian Bank Note Demonetization Protest
|Kerala, India||1,000,000+ (according to estimates made by the organizers)||Protesting against the demonetization of ₹500 (US$7.40) and ₹1,000 (US$15) banknotes|
|21 January 2017||Support for Total prohibition||Bihar, India||20,000,000||The participants expressed support to implement and promote complete Prohibition of liquor and intoxicants in the territory of the State of Bihar and in favour of the law to be passed by Nitish Kumar Government by forming human chain of around 12,760 km across the state of Bihar. It was of the length of 11,292 km (7,017 mi).|
|June 10, 2018||Human chain for Basque self-determination 2018||Basque Autonomous Community, Spain||175,000||Advocacy for a right of the Basques to decide their political status.|
|1 January 2019||Vanitha Mathil (Women's wall)||Kerala, India||3,000,000 –5,000,000 (women)||The women's wall was formed for a distance of around 620 kilometers from Kasargod to Thiruvanathapuram to uphold gender equality and protest against gender discrimination. .|
|August 23, 2019||Hong Kong Way||Hong Kong||210,000||Advocacy for withdrawal of the extradition bill and for democratic elections. The chain was nearly 50 km (30 mi) and stretched through Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. It was held on the 30th anniversary of the Baltic Way Chain of Freedom, a peaceful gathering that called for independence from Soviet Russia.|
|October 27, 2019||2019–20 Lebanese protests||Lebanon coastline||170,000||Symbolize the unity of the Lebanese protesters against austerity, political corruption and sectarianism. It ran from Tripoli to Tyre.|
|January 26, 2020||Manushya Maha Sringhala||Kerala state||6,000,000 – 7,500,000||Republic Day, across the state of Kerala in India. The chain was organized by the ruling Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Democratic Front. The chain was formed to swear an oath to protect the Constitution of India and to demand the withdrawal of the Citizenship Amendment Act and non-implementation of the National Register of Citizens.A 700 km long human chain was formed on|
- Reunion of Ukraine (video) (in Ukrainian)
- "Mundo". an.com.br. Archived from the original on 2008-03-01.
- "Longest human chain (length)". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
- "Thousands march for immigrant rights – May 1, 2006". CNN. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Israeli anarchists commend Gaza rally against blockade". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
- Protesters wave the flag in 'Stop Russia' campaign. Financial Times. 2008-09-01.
- Georgians stage mass protest Archived 2008-09-14 at the Wayback Machine. news.com.au. September 02, 2008.
- Rain highlights depth of emotions in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Net. 2008-10-24.
- Mumbai citizens form human chain to protest attacks. The Times of India. 2008-12-13.
- Aulakh, Raveena (2009-01-28). "They are killing innocent people". Toronto Star. Toronto. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "20 Km Human Chain in Tehran-June 8th". Retrieved 2010-09-01 – via YouTube.
- "BBC فارسی – ايران – زنجیره انسانی ۲۵ کیلومتری حامیان موسوی در تهران". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- Le Dolomiti abbracciano l'Africa G8 2009, retrieved 2019-12-28
- "Le Dolomiti abbracciano l'Africa". Insieme si può (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-12-28.
- IANS, Sep 30, 2009, 11.22am IST (2009-09-30). "CPM activists to form 500km human chain in Kerala to protest India, ASEAN free trade deal – India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-09-01.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Pix: 'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana: Rediff.com News". Rediff.com. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "'Longest human chain' formed for Telangana". rediff news. February 2010.
- "25 km Human chain formed".
- "Human Chain Human Rights". Yahoo! News India.
- "1.600.000 persones, com a mínim" (in Catalan). 324.cat. 11 September 2013.
- "El recorregut de la cadena humana de l'Onze de Setembre ja és públic" (in Catalan). Vilaweb. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013)
- "A human chain in Vilnius showed support of Ukraine". The Lithuania Tribune. Archived from the original on 2014-03-13.
- "Euskal kultura". Euskal kultura.
- "13 settembre: 'Le Dolomiti abbracciano i diritti umani'. Una catena umana di 6000 persone per la libertà, la giustizia e la pace". Amnesty International Italia (in Italian). 2015-09-14. Retrieved 2019-12-28.
- Moioli, Marina (2015-09-10). ""Le Dolomiti abbracciano i diritti umani": una gigantesca catena contro le violazioni in 10 Paesi". Vita (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-12-28.
- "Mezzo milione di clic al top su Fb per il video di Amnesty alle Tre Cime". ilgazzettino.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2019-12-28.
- "JOIN MADHESH HUMAN CHAIN – 1ST OCTOBER, 1 PM @ HULAKI RAJMARG". Madhesi Youth. 2015-10-01. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
- REPUBLICA. "My Republica – UDMF says it formed world's longest human chain to protest constitution". Archived from the original on 2015-10-12. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
- PTI, Dec 29, 2016, 8.26pm IST (2016-12-29). "LDF's 'Human Chain' protest against demonetisation in Kerala". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2016-12-29.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Bihar forms world's largest human chain against alcoholism and liquor". The Indian Express. 2017-01-21. Retrieved 2019-06-28.
- "Bihar prohibition and excise Act 2016" (PDF). Retrieved 2019-12-28.
- "Lebanon protesters form human chain across the country". Al Jazeera. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- Elassar, Alaa (27 October 2019). "Protesters in Lebanon formed a human chain across the entire country". CNN. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- "620-km human chain formed in Kerala demanding withdrawal of CAA". [India Today]. 26 January 2020.
- "Kerala protesters form human chain across the state". [Manorama]. 26 January 2020.
- "7 million join Kerala human chain to protest against citizenship act". [India Today]. 26 January 2020.