Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture

The Satellite Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture is an annual award given by the International Press Academy as one of its Satellite Awards. The category has gone through several changes since its inception.

  • From 1996 to 2010, two categories based on genre were presented, Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama and Best Actor – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical
  • In 2011, the IPA pared down its Satellite nominations in the motion picture categories from 22 to 19 classifications; the change reflects the merger of drama and comedy under a general Best Picture heading, including the Best Actor/Actress headings and the Supporting headings.
  • In 2016 and 2017, two winners were announced within the Best Actor category, one for the performance by an actor in a major studio film and other for a performance in an independent film.
Satellite Award for Best Actor
Awarded forBest Actor in a Drama Motion Picture
Best Actor in a Comedy or Musical Motion Picture
CountryUnited States
Presented byInternational Press Academy
First awarded1996
Currently held byDrama: Brendan FraserThe Whale (2022)
Comedy or Musical: Austin ButlerElvis (2022)
Websitehttp://www.pressacademy.com/ Edit this on Wikidata

Since 2018, the two categories based on genre are presented replacing the Best Actor in a Motion Picture category for the Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama and Best Actor – Motion Picture Comedy or Musical categories previously presented.

Winners and nominees edit

Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama (1996–2010, 2018–present) edit

Year Actor Film Role
1996
[1]
Geoffrey Rush Shine David Helfgott
William H. Macy Fargo Jerry Lundegaard
Christopher Eccleston Jude Jude Fawley
Ralph Fiennes The English Patient László Almásy
Billy Bob Thornton Sling Blade Karl Childers
James Woods Killer: A Journal of Murder Carl Panzram
1997
[2]
Robert Duvall The Apostle Euliss "Sonny" Dewey / The Apostle E.F.
Russell Crowe L.A. Confidential Officer Wendell "Bud" White
Mark Wahlberg Boogie Nights Eddie Adams ("Dirk Diggler")
Djimon Hounsou Amistad Sengbe Pieh / Joseph Cinqué
Leonardo DiCaprio Titanic Jack Dawson
Matt Damon Good Will Hunting Will Hunting
1998
[3]
Edward Norton American History X Derek Vinyard
Stephen Fry Wilde Oscar Wilde
Brendan Gleeson The General Martin Cahill
Derek Jacobi Love Is the Devil: Study for a Portrait of Francis Bacon Francis Bacon
Ian McKellen Gods and Monsters James Whale
Nick Nolte Affliction Wade Whitehouse
1999
[4]
Terence Stamp The Limey Wilson
Kevin Spacey American Beauty Lester Burnham
Russell Crowe The Insider Dr. Jeffrey Wigand
Richard Farnsworth The Straight Story Alvin Straight
Al Pacino The Insider Lowell Bergman
Denzel Washington The Hurricane Rubin "Hurricane" Carter
2000
[5]
Geoffrey Rush Quills Marquis de Sade
Jamie Bell Billy Elliot Billy Elliot
Sean Connery Finding Forrester William Forrester
Russell Crowe Gladiator Maximus Decimus Meridius
Ed Harris Pollock Jackson Pollock
Denzel Washington Remember the Titans Herman Boone
2001
[6][7]
Brian Cox L.I.E. Big John Harrigan
Russell Crowe A Beautiful Mind John Forbes Nash Jr.
Guy Pearce Memento Leonard Shelby
Sean Penn I Am Sam Sam Dawson
Billy Bob Thornton Monster's Ball Hank Grotowski
Denzel Washington Training Day Detective Alonzo Harris
2002
[8]
Michael Caine The Quiet American Thomas Fowler
Daniel Day-Lewis Gangs of New York William "Bill the Butcher" Cutting
Tom Hanks Road to Perdition Michael Sullivan
Jack Nicholson About Schmidt Warren Schmidt
Edward Norton 25th Hour Monty Brogan
Robin Williams One Hour Photo Seymour Parrish
2003
[9]
Sean Penn 21 Grams Paul Rivers
Mystic River Jimmy Markum
Paddy Considine In America Johnny Sullivan
Hayden Christensen Shattered Glass Stephen Glass
Tom Cruise The Last Samurai Cpt. Nathan Algren
Jude Law Cold Mountain W. P. Inman
William H. Macy The Cooler Bernie Lootz
2004
[10]
Don Cheadle Hotel Rwanda Paul Rusesabagina
Kevin Bacon The Woodsman Walter
Javier Bardem The Sea Inside (Mar adentro) Ramón Sampedro
Johnny Depp Finding Neverland J. M. Barrie
Gael García Bernal The Motorcycle Diaries (Diarios de motocicleta) Ernesto Guevara de la Serna
Liam Neeson Kinsey Dr. Alfred Kinsey
2005
[11]
Philip Seymour Hoffman Capote Truman Capote
Jake Gyllenhaal Jarhead LCpl./PFC. Anthony Swofford
Heath Ledger Brokeback Mountain Ennis Del Mar
Tommy Lee Jones The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada Pete Perkins
Viggo Mortensen A History of Violence Tom Stall / Joey Cusack
David Strathairn Good Night, and Good Luck Edward R. Murrow
2006
[12][13]
Forest Whitaker The Last King of Scotland Idi Amin
Leonardo DiCaprio Blood Diamond Danny Archer
Ryan Gosling Half Nelson Dan Dunne
Joshua Jackson Aurora Borealis Duncan Shorter
Derek Luke Catch a Fire Patrick Chamusso
Patrick Wilson Little Children Brad Adamson
2007
[14][15]
Viggo Mortensen Eastern Promises Nikolai Luzhin
Josh Brolin No Country for Old Men Llewelyn Moss
Christian Bale Rescue Dawn Dieter Dengler
Tommy Lee Jones In the Valley of Elah Hank Deerfield
Frank Langella Starting Out in the Evening Leonard Schiller
Denzel Washington American Gangster Frank Lucas
2008
[16]
Richard Jenkins The Visitor Walter Vale
Frank Langella Frost/Nixon Richard Nixon
Leonardo DiCaprio Revolutionary Road Frank Wheeler
Sean Penn Milk Harvey Milk
Mickey Rourke The Wrestler Robin Ramzinski / Randy "The Ram" Robinson
Mark Ruffalo What Doesn't Kill You Brian Reilly
2009
[17][18]
Jeremy Renner The Hurt Locker SFC. William James
Jeff Bridges Crazy Heart Otis "Bad" Blake
Hugh Dancy Adam Adam Raki
Johnny Depp Public Enemies John Dillinger
Colin Firth A Single Man George Falconer
Michael Sheen The Damned United Brian Clough
2010
[19]
Colin Firth The King's Speech King George VI
Javier Bardem Biutiful Uxbal
Leonardo DiCaprio Inception Dominic "Dom" Cobb
Michael Douglas Solitary Man Ben Kalmen
Robert Duvall Get Low Felix Bush
Jesse Eisenberg The Social Network Mark Zuckerberg
James Franco 127 Hours Aron Ralston
Ryan Gosling Blue Valentine Dean Pereira
2018
[20]
Willem Dafoe At Eternity's Gate Vincent van Gogh
Ben Foster Leave No Trace Will
Ryan Gosling First Man Neil Armstrong
Ethan Hawke First Reformed Ernst Toller
Lucas Hedges Boy Erased Jared Eamons
Robert Redford The Old Man & the Gun Forrest Tucker
2019
[21]
Christian Bale Ford v Ferrari Ken Miles
Adam Driver Marriage Story Charlie Barber
Antonio Banderas Pain and Glory Salvador Mallo
George MacKay 1917 Lance Corporal William Schofield
Joaquin Phoenix Joker Arthur Fleck / Joker
Mark Ruffalo Dark Waters Robert Bilott
2020
[22][23]
Riz Ahmed Sound of Metal Ruben Stone
Chadwick Boseman (posthumous) Ma Rainey's Black Bottom Levee Green
Anthony Hopkins The Father Anthony
Delroy Lindo Da 5 Bloods Paul
Gary Oldman Mank Herman J. Mankiewicz
Steven Yeun Minari Jacob Yi
2021
[24]
Benedict Cumberbatch The Power of the Dog Phil Burbank
Denzel Washington The Tragedy of Macbeth Lord Macbeth
Clifton Collins Jr. Jockey Jackson Silva
Joaquin Phoenix C'mon C'mon Johnny
Tom Skerritt East of the Mountains Ben Givens
Will Smith King Richard Richard Williams
2022 Brendan Fraser The Whale Charlie
Tom Cruise Top Gun: Maverick Captain Pete "Maverick" Mitchell
Hugh Jackman The Son Peter Miller
Gabriel LaBelle The Fabelmans Samuel "Sammy" Fabelman
Bill Nighy Living Mr. Williams
Mark Wahlberg Father Stu Father Stuart "Stu" Long

Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy (1996–2010, 2018–present) edit

Year Actor Film Role
1996 Tom Cruise Jerry Maguire Jerry Maguire
Nathan Lane The Birdcage Albert Goldman
Eddie Murphy The Nutty Professor Sherman Klump / Various Characters
Jack Nicholson Mars Attacks! James Dale
Stanley Tucci Big Night Secondo
1997 Jack Nicholson As Good as It Gets Melvin Udall
Robert Carlyle The Full Monty Gary "Gaz" Schofield
Dustin Hoffman Wag the Dog Stanley Motss
Tommy Lee Jones Men in Black Kevin Brown / Agent K
Kevin Kline In & Out Howard Brackett
Howard Stern Private Parts Himself
1998 Ian Bannen Waking Ned Jackie O'Shea
David Kelly Michael O'Sullivan
Warren Beatty Bulworth Senator Jay Billington Bulworth
Jeff Bridges The Big Lebowski Jeffrey "The Dude" Lebowski
Michael Caine Little Voice Ray Say
Robin Williams Patch Adams Hunter "Patch" Adams
1999 Philip Seymour Hoffman Flawless Rusty
Jim Carrey Man on the Moon Andy Kaufman
Johnny Depp Sleepy Hollow Ichabod Crane
Rupert Everett An Ideal Husband Arthur Goring
Sean Penn Sweet and Lowdown Emmet Ray
Steve Zahn Happy, Texas Wayne Wayne Wayne Jr. (a.k.a. David)
2000 Michael Douglas Wonder Boys Grady Tripp
George Clooney O Brother, Where Art Thou? Ulysses Everett McGill
Richard Gere Dr. T & the Women Dr. Sullivan Travis (Dr. T)
Christopher Guest Best in Show Harlan Pepper
Eddie Murphy Nutty Professor II: The Klumps Sherman Klump / Various Characters
Edward Norton Keeping the Faith Brian Finn
2001 Ewan McGregor Moulin Rouge! Christian
Colin Firth Bridget Jones's Diary Mark Darcy
Gene Hackman The Royal Tenenbaums Royal Tenenbaum
John Cameron Mitchell Hedwig and the Angry Inch Hansel Schmidt / Hedwig Robinson
Ben Stiller Zoolander Derek Zoolander
Chris Tucker Rush Hour 2 James Carter
2002 Kieran Culkin Igby Goes Down Jason "Igby" Slocumb Jr.
Nicolas Cage Adaptation. Charlie and Donald Kaufman
Hugh Grant About a Boy Will Freeman
Sam Rockwell Confessions of a Dangerous Mind Chuck Barris
Adam Sandler Punch-Drunk Love Barry Egan
Aaron Stanford Tadpole Oscar Grubman
2003 Bill Murray Lost in Translation Bob Harris
Jack Black School of Rock Dewey Finn
Johnny Depp Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl Capt. Jack Sparrow
Robert Downey Jr. The Singing Detective Dan Dark
Paul Giamatti American Splendor Harvey Pekar
Billy Bob Thornton Bad Santa Willie T. Stokes
2004 Jamie Foxx Ray Ray Charles
Gerard Butler The Phantom of the Opera The Phantom
Jim Carrey Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Joel Barish
Paul Giamatti Sideways Miles Raymond
Kevin Kline De-Lovely Cole Porter
Bill Murray The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou Steve Zissou
2005 Terrence Howard Hustle & Flow DJay
Kevin Costner The Upside of Anger Denny Davies
Robert Downey Jr. Kiss Kiss Bang Bang Harry Lockhart
Cillian Murphy Breakfast on Pluto Patrick "Kitten" Braden
Bill Murray Broken Flowers Don Johnston
Joaquin Phoenix Walk the Line Johnny Cash
2006 Joseph Cross Running with Scissors Augusten Burroughs
Sacha Baron Cohen Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan Borat Sagdiyev
Aaron Eckhart Thank You for Smoking Nick Naylor
Will Ferrell Stranger than Fiction Harold Crick
Peter O'Toole Venus Maurice Russell
2007 Ryan Gosling Lars and the Real Girl Lars Lindstrom
Don Cheadle Talk to Me Ralph Greene Jr.
Richard Gere The Hoax Clifford Irving
Ben Kingsley You Kill Me Frank Falenczyk
Clive Owen Shoot 'Em Up Mr. Smith
Seth Rogen Knocked Up Ben Stone
2008 Ricky Gervais Ghost Town Bertram Pincus
Josh Brolin W. George W. Bush
Michael Cera Nick and Norah's Infinite Playlist Nick O'Leary
Brendan Gleeson In Bruges Ken Daley
Sam Rockwell Choke Victor Mancini
Mark Ruffalo The Brothers Bloom Stephen
2009 Michael Stuhlbarg A Serious Man Larry Gopnik
George Clooney Up in the Air Ryan Bingham
Bradley Cooper The Hangover Phil Wenneck
Matt Damon The Informant! Mark Whitacre
Daniel Day-Lewis Nine Guido Contini
2010 Michael Cera Scott Pilgrim vs. the World Scott Pilgrim
Steve Carell Dinner for Schmucks Barry Speck
Romain Duris Heartbreaker Alex Lippi
Andy García City Island Vince Rizzo
Jake Gyllenhaal Love & Other Drugs Jamie Randall
John Malkovich Red Marvin Boggs
John C. Reilly Cyrus John Kilpatrick
2018 Rami Malek Bohemian Rhapsody Freddie Mercury
Bradley Cooper A Star Is Born Jackson Maine
Lin-Manuel Miranda Mary Poppins Returns Jack
Viggo Mortensen Green Book Frank "Tony Lip" Vallelonga
Nick Robinson Love, Simon Simon Spier
John David Washington BlacKkKlansman Detective Ron Stallworth
2019 Taron Egerton Rocketman Elton John
Daniel Craig Knives Out Detective Benoit Blanc
Leonardo DiCaprio Once Upon a Time in Hollywood Rick Dalton
Eddie Murphy Dolemite Is My Name Rudy Ray Moore
Adam Sandler Uncut Gems Howard Ratner
Taika Waititi Jojo Rabbit Adolf Hitler
2020 Sacha Baron Cohen Borat Subsequent Moviefilm Borat Sagdiyev
Lin-Manuel Miranda Hamilton Alexander Hamilton
Leslie Odom Jr. Aaron Burr
Dev Patel The Personal History of David Copperfield David Copperfield
Andy Samberg Palm Springs Nyles
2021 Andrew Garfield tick, tick... BOOM! Jonathan Larson
Peter Dinklage Cyrano Cyrano de Bergerac
Anthony Ramos In the Heights Usnavi de la Vega
2022 Austin Butler Elvis Elvis Presley
Diego Calva Babylon Manny Torres
Daniel Craig Glass Onion: A Knives Out Mystery Detective Benoit Blanc
Colin Farrell The Banshees of Inisherin Pádraic Súilleabháin
Ralph Fiennes The Menu Julian Slowik
Adam Sandler Hustle Stanley Sugerman

Best Actor – Motion Picture (2011–2017) edit

Year Actor Film Role
2011
[25][26]
Ryan Gosling Drive The Driver
George Clooney The Descendants Matthew "Matt" King
Leonardo DiCaprio J. Edgar J. Edgar Hoover
Michael Fassbender Shame Brandon Sullivan
Brendan Gleeson The Guard Sergeant Gerry Boyle
Tom Hardy Warrior Tommy Riordan Conlon
Woody Harrelson Rampart Officer David "Dave" Brown
Gary Oldman Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy George Smiley
Brad Pitt Moneyball Billy Beane
Michael Shannon Take Shelter Curtis LaForche
2012
[27][28]
Bradley Cooper Silver Linings Playbook Patrizio "Pat" Solitano Jr.
Daniel Day-Lewis Lincoln Abraham Lincoln
John Hawkes The Sessions Mark O'Brien
Hugh Jackman Les Misérables Jean Valjean
Joaquin Phoenix The Master Freddie Quell
Omar Sy The Intouchables Bakary "Driss" Bassri
Denzel Washington Flight Captain William "Whip" Whitaker Sr.
2013
[29][30]
Matthew McConaughey Dallas Buyers Club Ron Woodroof
Christian Bale American Hustle Irving Rosenfeld
Bruce Dern Nebraska Woodrow "Woody" Grant
Leonardo DiCaprio The Wolf of Wall Street Jordan Belfort
Chiwetel Ejiofor 12 Years a Slave Solomon Northup
Tom Hanks Captain Phillips Captain Richard Phillips
Robert Redford All Is Lost Our Man
Forest Whitaker The Butler Cecil Gaines
2014
[31][32]
Michael Keaton Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance) Riggan Thomson / Birdman
Steve Carell Foxcatcher John Eleuthère du Pont
Benedict Cumberbatch The Imitation Game Alan Turing
Jake Gyllenhaal Nightcrawler Louis "Lou" Bloom
David Oyelowo Selma Martin Luther King Jr.
Eddie Redmayne The Theory of Everything Stephen Hawking
Miles Teller Whiplash Andrew Neiman
2015
[33]
Leonardo DiCaprio The Revenant Hugh Glass
Matt Damon The Martian Mark Watney
Johnny Depp Black Mass James "Whitey" Bulger
Michael Fassbender Steve Jobs Steve Jobs
Tom Hardy Legend Ronald "Ronnie" and Reginald "Reggie" Kray
Eddie Redmayne The Danish Girl Lili Elbe / Einar Wegener
Will Smith Concussion Dr. Bennet Omalu
2016
[34]
Andrew Garfield Hacksaw Ridge Desmond T. Doss
Viggo Mortensen Captain Fantastic Ben Cash
Casey Affleck Manchester by the Sea Lee Chandler
Joel Edgerton Loving Richard Loving
Joseph Gordon-Levitt Snowden Edward Snowden
Ryan Gosling La La Land Sebastian Wilder
Tom Hanks Sully Captain Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger
Denzel Washington Fences Troy Maxson
2017
[35][36]
Gary Oldman Darkest Hour Winston Churchill
Harry Dean Stanton Lucky Lucky
Daniel Day-Lewis Phantom Thread Reynolds Woodcock
James Franco The Disaster Artist Tommy Wiseau
Jake Gyllenhaal Stronger Jeff Bauman
Robert Pattinson Good Time Constantine "Connie" Nikas
Jeremy Renner Wind River Cory Lambert

Multiple nominations edit

8 nominations
7 nominations
6 nominations
5 nominations
4 nominations
3 nominations
2 nominations

Multiple wins edit

2 wins

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Satellite Awards 1997". IMDb. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  2. ^ "Satellite Awards 1998". IMDb. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  3. ^ "1999 3rd Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  4. ^ Feiwell, Jill (January 16, 2000). "'Hollow' nabs quartet of Golden Satellites". Variety. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  5. ^ "2001 5th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on June 26, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  6. ^ Berkshire, Geoff (December 17, 2001). "'Moulin Rouge' in orbit, topping Satellite noms". Variety. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  7. ^ "2002 6th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on June 26, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  8. ^ "2003 7th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on June 26, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  9. ^ "2004 8th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on June 26, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  10. ^ "2005-A 9th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards - January 2005". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  11. ^ "2005-B 10th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards - December 2005". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  12. ^ Kilday, Gregg (December 1, 2006). "Satellite Awards nominate seven dramas". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  13. ^ Sneider, Jeff (December 18, 2006). "'Departed,' 'Dreamgirls' win at Satellite Awards". Variety. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  14. ^ "2007 12th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  15. ^ Maxwell, Erin (December 17, 2007). "Satellite Award winners announced". Variety. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  16. ^ "2008 13th Annual SATELLITE™ Awards". International Press Academy. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  17. ^ Pond, Steve (November 30, 2009). "'Nine,' 'Red Cliff' Lead Satellite Nominations". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  18. ^ Kilday, Gregg (December 21, 2009). "'Hurt Locker,' 'Nine' top Satellite Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  19. ^ Pond, Steve (February 16, 2015). "Satellite Awards: Complete Winners List". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  20. ^ "Satellite Awards 2018". International Press Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  21. ^ "Satellite Awards 2019". International Press Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  22. ^ "'One Night in Miami' and 'Nomadland' Lead Nominations for 25th Satellite Awards". Vimooz. February 1, 2021. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  23. ^ Anderson, Erik (February 15, 2021). "Satellite Awards winners: 'Nomadland,' 'Forty-Year Old Version' top film prizes; 'Schitt's Creek,' 'Better Call Saul' take TV". Awards Watch. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  24. ^ "Satellite Awards 2021". International Press Academy. Retrieved December 1, 2021.
  25. ^ "Satellite Awards 2011". International Press Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  26. ^ Pond, Steve (December 18, 2011). "'The Descendants' Takes Top Prize from Satellite Awards". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  27. ^ Kilday, Gregg (December 3, 2012). "Satellite Awards Nominates 10 Films for Best Motion Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  28. ^ Kilday, Gregg (December 16, 2012). "'Silver Linings Playbook' Wins Five Satellite Awards, Including Best Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  29. ^ Pond, Steve (December 2, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave' Tops Satellite Award Nominations". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  30. ^ Kilday, Gregg (February 23, 2014). "Satellite Awards: '12 Years a Slave' Wins Best Motion Picture". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  31. ^ Pond, Steve (December 1, 2014). "'Birdman' Leads Satellite Awards Nominations". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  32. ^ Pond, Steve (February 16, 2015). "Satellite Awards: Complete Winners List". TheWrap. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  33. ^ "Satellite Awards (2015)". International Press Academy. IPA. December 2, 2015. pressacademy.com. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
  34. ^ "Satellite Awards 2016". International Press Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2021.
  35. ^ "'Dunkirk,' 'The Shape of Water' Lead Satellite Award Nominations". TheWrap. November 30, 2017. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
  36. ^ "Satellite Awards 2017". International Press Academy. Retrieved October 13, 2021.

External links edit