J. Edgar is a 2011 American biographical drama film based on the career of FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, directed, produced and scored by Clint Eastwood.[4] Written by Dustin Lance Black, the film focuses on Hoover's life from the 1919 Palmer Raids onward. The film stars Leonardo DiCaprio in the title role along with Armie Hammer, Naomi Watts, Josh Lucas, and Judi Dench, and features Adam Driver in his film debut.

J. Edgar
Theatrical release poster
Directed byClint Eastwood
Written byDustin Lance Black
Produced by
CinematographyTom Stern
Edited by
Music byClint Eastwood
Distributed byWarner Bros. Pictures
Release dates
  • November 3, 2011 (2011-11-03) (AFI Film Festival)
  • November 9, 2011 (2011-11-09) (United States)
Running time
137 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$35 million[2]
Box office$84.9 million[3]

J. Edgar opened the AFI Fest 2011 in Los Angeles on November 3, 2011, and had its limited release on November 9, 2011 followed by wide release on November 11. The film received mixed reviews from critics, although DiCaprio's performance was widely praised, and it grossed $84 million worldwide. It was chosen by the National Board of Review and American Film Institute as one of the top ten films of 2011, while DiCaprio earned a nomination for a Golden Globe Award and both he and Hammer earned Screen Actors Guild Award nods.

Plot edit

The film uses a nonlinear narrative, alternating between J. Edgar Hoover's role in establishing the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and his later years trying to safeguard it against perceived threats. As a frame story, the aging Hoover narrates the events of the Bureau's early years to a series of agents he has assigned to ghostwrite a book about it.

In 1919, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer survives an assassination attempt by anarchists and assigns Hoover, a Justice Department employee, to head a division dedicated to purging radicals. Realizing that the police handling of the crime scene was primitive, and recognizing the importance of criminal science, he informs his mother and moral guide Annie of recent events. Hoover then meets newly-hired secretary Helen Gandy and takes her to the Library of Congress, where he demonstrates the card catalog system he created, claiming that solving crimes would be easier if every citizen were easily identifiable. Despite rejecting Hoover's awkward advances, Gandy becomes his personal secretary and confidant.

Despite his close monitoring of suspected foreign radicals, Hoover finds that the Department of Labor is unable to deport anyone without clear evidence of a crime; however, Anthony Caminetti, commissioner general of immigration, dislikes prominent anarchist Emma Goldman. By arranging to make her eligible for deportation by discredting her marriage, Hoover creates legal precedent to deport numerous other radicals. Following the Palmer Raids, Palmer loses his job due to being labelled as a scapegoat for the harsh methods adopted, and his successor, Harlan F. Stone, appoints Hoover as director of the department's Bureau of Investigation. Hoover has Gandy create a confidential file for collecting incriminating information on people in power.

With the First Red Scare over, Hoover focuses the Bureau on fighting gangsters, and it successfully pursues a string of gangster and bank robbery crimes across the Midwest, including the high profile case of John Dillinger. When the Lindbergh kidnapping captures national attention in 1932, he urges passage of the Federal Kidnapping Act, increasing the Bureau's power. He establishes the FBI Laboratory, applying forensic science techniques to the investigation, and has the registration numbers on the ransom bills monitored. Though Charles Lindbergh Jr. is found dead, these techniques lead to Bruno Richard Hauptmann being arrested, convicted, and sentenced to death for the crime; the case elevates the FBI to prominence.

Hoover hires recently-graduated attorney Clyde Tolson to the Bureau in 1930; the two develop a close personal relationship, and Hoover promotes Tolson to Associate Director. When Hoover confesses to Annie his discomfiture about being in romantic situations with women, she says she would rather he be dead than gay. When Tolson tells Hoover that he loves him, Hoover panickedly claims that he wants to marry actress Dorothy Lamour. Tolson becomes infuriated and the two fight, culminating in Tolson kissing Hoover and threatening to end their association if Hoover ever talks about another woman again. Hoover then admits his feelings for Tolson after Tolson departs, and Annie's eventual death leaves him grief-stricken.

Following an embarrassing line of questioning by Senate Appropriations Committee chair Kenneth McKellar in 1933, Hoover becomes increasingly vengeful against those who challenge his reputation and the Bureau's. He uses covert listening devices to collect compromising information which he uses to blackmail key political figures over the years, including President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, protecting his position and increasing the Bureau's power. He starts an illegal counterintelligence program to counter what he perceives as a new wave of radicals, culminating in his unsuccessful attempt to blackmail Martin Luther King Jr. into declining the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 via the FBI–King suicide letter.

Tolson suffers a stroke that severely weakens him, and Hoover's strength declines with age. Fearing that President Richard Nixon will acquire his confidential files and use them to ruin the FBI's reputation, he asks Gandy to destroy them after he dies keep them out of Nixon's hands. Tolson urges Hoover to retire and accuses him of exaggerating his involvement in major events in the Bureau's history, claiming that Hoover kept the glory for the actions of his other agents, including Hauptmann's arrest. Upon Hoover's death, Gandy destroys Hoover's files as Nixon eulogizes Hoover on television.

Cast edit

J. Edgar marked Adam Driver’s feature film debut, as gas station manager Walter Lyle. Eastwood’s son Kyle Eastwood, who composed some music for the film, appears as a member of the Stork Club band alongside trumpeter Kye Palmer, in a scene with Michael Gladis as the club owner and Amanda Schull as actress Anita Colby. Gunner Wright and David A. Cooper appear briefly as future Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Franklin D. Roosevelt, respectively, in the aftermath of the assassination attempt on A. Mitchell Palmer.

Additional minor roles were played by Kaitlyn Dever as Palmer's daughter; Jack Donner as Hoover's father; Jordan Bridges as a lawyer for the Department of Labor; Christian Clemenson as Immigration Inspector Schell; Geoff Stults as Special Agent Raymond Caffrey; Sadie Calvano as Hoover's niece; Ryan McPartlin as Lawrence Richey, secretary to President Herbert Hoover; Kahil Dotay as IRS Intelligence Unit Chief Elmer Lincoln Irey; David Clennon as Senator Friendly of the Appropriations Committee; Manu Intiraymi as gangster Alvin Karpis; Emily Alyn Lind as actress Shirley Temple; Gerald Downey as an FBI agent; Austin Basis as a bank teller; Eric Matheny as Hoover's doctor; Aaron Lazar as David T. Wilentz, prosecutor in Hauptmann's trail; and Maxine Weldon as Hoover's maid.

Production edit

Brian Grazer had been considering making a film about Hoover, and approached Dustin Lance Black to write the screenplay.[5] Black began working on it in 2008, producing several drafts over a two year period.[5] Warner Bros. Pictures wanted to keep the budget down, so producers Grazer and Robert Lorenz brought in Clint Eastwood, known for his efficient filmmaking, to direct and co-produce.[5] Eastwood was able to shoot the film in 39 days and complete it under budget, for a total of $35 million.[5]

Unnamed sources cited by The Hollywood Reporter claimed that Leonardo DiCaprio dropped his usual fee from $20 million to $2 million to star in the film.[5] For scenes in which he played the aged Hoover, DiCaprio had to spend up to six hours having makeup applied.[5] Charlize Theron was originally slated to play Helen Gandy, but dropped out of the project to do Snow White and the Huntsman.[6] Eastwood considered Amy Adams before finally selecting Naomi Watts for the role.[6]

Though much of the film is set in Washington, D.C., only a few scenes were shot there, including the interior of the Library of Congress and the view from the balcony of Hoover's former office.[5] The exterior of the courthouse in Warrenton, Virginia was used to represent the Hunterdon County Courthouse in Flemington, New Jersey, where Richard Hauptmann's trial took place.[5] Scenes set inside the courthouse were filmed at the Old Orange County Courthouse in Santa Ana, California.[5] Scenes of the Lindbergh estate were shot in The Plains, Virginia, while Arlington County, Virginia was filmed for some historic neighborhoods.[5]

Most of the film was shot in and around Los Angeles.[5] Sets representing the hallways of the United States Department of Justice and several offices were built on Stage 16 at the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank.[5] The Cicada Restaurant, near Pershing Square, stood in for New York's Stork Club, while the Park Plaza Hotel served as both the men's department of Garfinckel's department store and the United States Senate chamber.[5] The Pico House represented a train station for a scene depicting the Kansas City massacre.[5] Some interior restaurant scenes were filmed at the Smoke House Restaurant, across the street from the Warner Bros. Studios.[5]

Reception edit

Critical response edit

On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 43% based on 247 reviews, with an average rating of 5.72/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "Leonardo DiCaprio gives a predictably powerhouse performance, but J. Edgar stumbles in all other departments: cheesy makeup, poor lighting, confusing narrative, and humdrum storytelling."[7] Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average rating to reviews, gives the film a normalized score of 59 out of 100, based on 42 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[8] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "B" on an A+ to F scale.[9]

Roger Ebert awarded the film three and a half out of four stars and wrote that the film is "fascinating" and "masterful". He praised DiCaprio's performance as a "fully-realized, subtle and persuasive performance, hinting at more than Hoover ever revealed, perhaps even to himself".[10] Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review, writing, "This surprising collaboration between director Clint Eastwood and Milk screenwriter Dustin Lance Black tackles its trickiest challenges with plausibility and good sense, while serving up a simmeringly caustic view of its controversial subject's behavior, public and private."[11]

David Denby in The New Yorker magazine also liked the film, calling it a "nuanced account" and calling "Eastwood's touch light and sure, his judgment sound, the moments of pathos held just long enough."[12] J. Hoberman of The Village Voice wrote: "Although hardly flawless, Eastwood's biopic is his richest, most ambitious movie since Letters from Iwo Jima and Flags of Our Fathers."[13]

Peter Debruge of Variety gave the film a mixed review: "Any movie in which the longtime FBI honcho features as the central character must supply some insight into what made him tick, or suffer from the reality that the Bureau's exploits were far more interesting than the bureaucrat who ran it – a dilemma J. Edgar never rises above."[14]

David Edelstein of New York Magazine reacted negatively to the film and said: "It's too bad J. Edgar is so shapeless and turgid and ham-handed, so rich in bad lines and worse readings." He praised DiCaprio's performance: "There's something appealingly straightforward about the way he physicalizes Hoover's inner struggle, the body always slightly out of sync with the mind that vigilantly monitors every move."[15]

Box office edit

The film opened limited in 7 theaters on November 9, grossing $52,645,[16] and released wide on November 11, grossing $11.2 million in its opening weekend,[17] approximating the $12 million figure projected by the Los Angeles Times for the film's opening weekend in the United States and Canada.[2] J. Edgar went on to gross over $84.9 million worldwide and over $37.3 million at the domestic box office.[18] Breakdowns of audience demographics for the movie showed that ticket buyers were nearly 95% over the age of 25 and slightly over 50% female.

Accolades edit

List of awards and nominations for J. Edgar
Date of ceremony Award Category Recipient(s) Result
January 27, 2012 AACTA Awards[19] Best Actor – International Leonardo DiCaprio Nominated
December 11, 2011 American Film Institute[20] Top 10 Films J. Edgar Won
January 12, 2012 Broadcast Film Critics Association[21] Best Actor Leonardo DiCaprio Nominated
January 15, 2012 Golden Globe Awards[22] Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Nominated
December 1, 2011 National Board of Review[23] Top Ten Films J. Edgar Won
December 18, 2011 Satellite Awards[24] Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama Leonardo DiCaprio Nominated
January 29, 2012 Screen Actors Guild Awards[25] Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role Nominated
Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Armie Hammer Nominated

Historicity edit

In an interview on All Things Considered, Yale University history professor Beverly Gage, who later published a biography of Hoover, stated that the film accurately conveys that Hoover came to the FBI as a reformer seeking "to clean it up, to professionalize it," and to introduce scientific methods to its investigation, eventually including such practices as fingerprinting and bloodtyping. She praises DiCaprio for conveying the tempo of Hoover's speech. However, she notes that the film's central narrative device in which Hoover dictates his memoirs to FBI agents chosen as writers, is fictitious: "He didn't ever have the sort of formal situation that you see in the movie where he was dictating a memoir to a series of young agents, and that that is the official record of the FBI."[26]

Historian Aaron J. Stockham of the Waterford School, whose dissertation was on the relationship of the FBI and the US Congress during the Hoover years, wrote on the History News Network of George Mason University, "J. Edgar portrays Hoover as the man who successfully integrated scientific processes into law enforcement investigations.... There is no doubt, from the historical record, that Hoover was instrumental in creating the FBI's scientific reputation."[27] Stockham notes that Hoover probably did not write the FBI–King suicide letter to Martin Luther King Jr., as the film portrays: "While such a letter was written, Hoover almost certainly delegated it to others within the Bureau."[27]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "J. Edgar (15)". British Board of Film Classification. November 16, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Kaufman, Amy (November 10, 2011). "Movie Projector: 'Immortals' poised to conquer box office". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, 2011.
  3. ^ "J. Edgar (2011)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  4. ^ Ford, Alan (March 15, 2010). "Clint Eastwood to Direct J. Edgar Hoover Biopic". FilmoFilia.com. Retrieved December 26, 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "J. Edgar". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved January 18, 2022.
  6. ^ a b Schwartz, Terri (January 11, 2011). "Ed Westwick In, Charlize Theron Out Of Clint Eastwood's 'J. Edgar'" Archived January 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. MTV.com. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
  7. ^ "J. Edgar (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved May 28, 2022.
  8. ^ "J. Edgar Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  9. ^ "J. Edgar". CinemaScore. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  10. ^ "J. Edgar movie review & film summary (2011) | Roger Ebert".
  11. ^ McCarthy, Todd (November 3, 2011). "J. Edgar: Film Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
  12. ^ Denby, David (November 14, 2011). "The Man in Charge". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
  13. ^ Hoberman, J. (November 9, 2011). "Great Man Theories: Clint Eastwood on J. Edgar". Village Voice. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
  14. ^ Debruge, Peter (November 4, 2011). "J. Edgar - Film Review". Variety. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
  15. ^ Edelstein, David (November 6, 2011). "First Word Problems". New York. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  16. ^ "Daily Box Office Results for November 9, 2011". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  17. ^ "Weekend Box Office Results for November 11–13, 2011". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  18. ^ "J. Edgar (2011) - Box Office Mojo". www.boxofficemojo.com.
  19. ^ "AACTA - Winners and Nominees - 2011". Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA). Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  20. ^ "'Bridesmaids,' 'Tree of Life,' 'Hugo' in AFI's top 10 films of 2011". Los Angeles Times. December 11, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2011.
  21. ^ "2012 Critics' Choice Movie Awards Noms: Hugo And The Artist Dominate The Field". The Fab Life. December 13, 2011. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  22. ^ Fuller, Bonnie. "69th Annual Golden Globe Awards — Full List Of Nominees". Hollywood Life. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  23. ^ "National Board of Review Announces 2011 Awards; HUGO Takes Top Prize". WeAreMovieGeeks.com. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  24. ^ "From WAR HORSE to THE MYSTERIES OF LISBON: Satellite Award Nominations 2011". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  25. ^ O'Connell, Sean (December 14, 2011). "Screen Actors Guild nominations revealed". HollywoodNews.com. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
  26. ^ "Fact-Checking Clint Eastwood's 'J. Edgar' Biopic". All Things Considered. December 8, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
  27. ^ a b Stockham, Aaron J. (December 12, 2011). ""J. Edgar" Fails to Deliver the Historical Goods". History News Network. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2012.

External links edit