12 Years a Slave (film)
12 Years a Slave is a 2013 biographical period drama film and an adaptation of the 1853 slave memoir Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup, a New York State-born free African-American man who was kidnapped in Washington, D.C. by two conmen in 1841 and sold into slavery. Northup was put to work on plantations in the state of Louisiana for 12 years before being released. The first scholarly edition of Northup's memoir, co-edited in 1968 by Sue Eakin and Joseph Logsdon, carefully retraced and validated the account and concluded it to be accurate. Other characters in the film were also real people, including Edwin and Mary Epps, and Patsey.
|12 Years a Slave|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Steve McQueen|
|Screenplay by||John Ridley|
|Based on||Twelve Years a Slave|
by Solomon Northup
|Music by||Hans Zimmer|
|Edited by||Joe Walker|
|Box office||$187.7 million|
The film was directed by Steve McQueen. The screenplay was written by John Ridley. Chiwetel Ejiofor stars as Solomon Northup. Michael Fassbender, Benedict Cumberbatch, Paul Dano, Paul Giamatti, Lupita Nyong'o, Sarah Paulson, Brad Pitt, and Alfre Woodard are all featured in supporting roles. Principal photography took place in New Orleans, Louisiana, from June 27 to August 13, 2012. The locations used were four historic antebellum plantations: Felicity, Bocage, Destrehan, and Magnolia. Of the four, Magnolia is nearest to the actual plantation where Northup was held.
12 Years a Slave was named the best film of 2013 by several media outlets and critics, and earned over $187 million on a production budget of $22 million. The film received nine Academy Award nominations, winning three: Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actress for Nyong'o. The Best Picture win made McQueen the first black British producer to ever receive the award and the first black British director of a Best Picture winner. The film was awarded the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama, and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts recognized it with the Best Film and the Best Actor award for Ejiofor. 12 Years a Slave was later named the 44th greatest film since 2000 in a BBC poll of 177 critics.
In 1841, Solomon Northup is a free African-American man working as a violinist, living with his wife and two children in Saratoga Springs, New York. Two white men, Brown and Hamilton, offer him short-term employment as a musician if he will travel with them to Washington, D.C. However, once they arrive they drug Northup and deliver him to a slave pen run by a man named Burch. Northup proclaims that he is a free man, only to be savagely beaten with a wooden paddle and then a leather belt.
Northup is later shipped to New Orleans along with other captive African Americans. He is told by the others that if he wants to survive in the South, he must adapt to being a slave and not tell anyone he is a free man. A slave trader named Theophilus Freeman gives Northup the identity of "Platt", a runaway slave from Georgia, and sells him to plantation owner William Ford. Ford takes a liking to Northup and gives him a violin. However, tension grows between Northup and plantation carpenter John Tibeats which ends with Northup savagely beating and whipping Tibeats. Tibeats and his group try to hang Northup. Although they are not successful, Northup is left on the noose for hours before he is finally cut down. To save Northup's life, Ford sells him to another slave owner named Edwin Epps. In the process, Northup attempts to explain that he is actually a free man, but Ford tells him he is too afraid and that he cannot help him now.
Edwin Epps, unlike Ford, is ruthless and sadistic. Northup meets Patsey, a favored slave who can pick over 500 pounds of cotton a day, twice the usual quota. Epps regularly rapes Patsey while Mrs. Epps abuses and humiliates her out of jealousy. Sometime later, cotton worms destroy Epps's cotton. Unable to work his fields, Epps leases his slaves to a neighboring plantation for the season. While there, Northup gains the favor of the plantation's owner, Judge Turner, who allows him to play the fiddle at a neighbor's wedding anniversary celebration and to keep his earnings. When Northup returns to Epps, he uses the money to pay a white field hand and former overseer, Armsby, to mail a letter to his friends in New York. Armsby agrees and accepts Northup's saved money, but immediately betrays him to Epps. In the middle of the night, a drunken Epps wakes Northup and questions him menacingly about the letter while holding a knife to Northup's stomach. Northup is narrowly able to convince Epps that Armsby is lying and Epps relents. Afterwards, Northup mournfully burns the letter to prevent Epps from finding it. Some time later, Patsey is caught by Epps going to a neighboring plantation in order to acquire soap, as Mrs. Epps won't let her have any. In retaliation, Epps orders Northup to whip Patsey to near death. After the incident, Northup destroys his violin in a rage.
Northup begins working on the construction of a gazebo with a Canadian laborer named Samuel Bass. Bass is unsettled by the brutal way that Epps treats his slaves and expresses his opposition to American slavery, earning Epps's enmity. Northup overhears the conversation and decides to reveal his kidnapping to Bass. Once again, Northup asks for help in getting a letter to Saratoga Springs. Although Bass is hesitant at first because of the risks, he agrees to send it. One day, the local sheriff arrives in a carriage with another man. The sheriff asks Northup a series of questions to confirm that his answers match the facts of his life in New York. Northup recognizes the sheriff's companion as Mr. Parker, a shopkeeper he knew in Saratoga. Parker has come to free him, and the two embrace, though an enraged Epps furiously protests the circumstances and tries to prevent Northup from leaving. Northup gives an emotional farewell to Patsey and rides off to his freedom.
After being enslaved for 12 years, Northup is restored to freedom and returned to his family, leaving behind the other slaves. As he walks into his home, he sees his wife with their son and daughter (fully grown) and her husband, who present him with his grandson and namesake, Solomon Northup Staunton. Northup apologizes for his long absence while his family comforts him. The film's epilogue displays a series of graphics recounting Northup's unsuccessful suits against Brown, Hamilton, and Burch, along with the 1853 publication of Northup's slave narrative memoir, Twelve Years a Slave. The memoir describes his role in the abolitionist movement and the mystery surrounding details of his death and burial.
- Chiwetel Ejiofor as Solomon Northup / Platt
- Michael Fassbender as Edwin Epps
- Lupita Nyong'o as Patsey
- Sarah Paulson as Mary Epps
- Paul Dano as John Tibeats
- Benedict Cumberbatch as William Ford
- Alfre Woodard as Mistress Harriet Shaw
- Brad Pitt as Samuel Bass
- Adepero Oduye as Eliza
- Garret Dillahunt as Armsby
- Scoot McNairy as Merrill Brown
- Taran Killam as Abram Hamilton
- Christopher Berry as Burch
- Chris Chalk as Clemens Ray
- Rob Steinberg as Mr. Parker
- Paul Giamatti as Theophilus Freeman
- Michael K. Williams as Robert
- Bryan Batt as Judge Turner
- Bill Camp as Ebenezer Radburn
- Tom Proctor as Biddee
- Jay Huguley as Sheriff
- Storm Reid as Emily
After meeting screenwriter John Ridley at a Creative Artists Agency screening of Hunger in 2008, director Steve McQueen got in touch with Ridley about his interest in making a film about "the slave era in America" with "a character that was not obvious in terms of their trade in slavery." Developing the idea back and forth, the two did not strike a chord until McQueen's partner, Bianca Stigter, found Solomon Northup's 1853 memoir Twelve Years a Slave. McQueen later told an interviewer:
I read this book, and I was totally stunned. At the same time, I was pretty upset with myself that I didn't know this book. I live in Amsterdam where Anne Frank is a national hero, and for me, this book read like Anne Frank's diary but written 97 years before – a firsthand account of slavery. I basically made it my passion to make this book into a film.
After a lengthy development process, during which Brad Pitt's production company Plan B Entertainment backed the project, which eventually helped get some financing from various film studios, the film was officially announced in August 2011 with McQueen to direct and Chiwetel Ejiofor to star as Solomon Northup, a free African-American who was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Deep South. McQueen compared Ejiofor's conduct "of class and dignity" to that of Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte. In October 2011, Michael Fassbender (who starred in McQueen's previous films Hunger and Shame) joined the cast. In early 2012, the rest of the roles were cast, and filming was scheduled to begin at the end of June 2012.
To capture the language and dialects of the era and regions in which the film takes place, dialect coach Michael Buster assisted the cast in altering their speech. The language has a literary quality related to the style of writing of the day and the strong influence of the King James Bible. Buster explained:
We don't know what slaves sounded like in the 1840s, so I just used rural samples from Mississippi and Louisiana [for actors Ejiofor and Fassbender]. Then for Benedict [Cumberbatch], I found some real upper-class New Orleanians from the '30s. And then I also worked with Lupita Nyong'o, who is Kenyan but she did her training at Yale. So she really shifted her speech so she could do American speech.
After both won Oscars at the 86th Academy Awards, it was reported that McQueen and Ridley had been in an ongoing feud over screenplay credit. McQueen reportedly had asked Ridley for shared credit, which he declined. McQueen appealed to Fox Searchlight, which sided with Ridley. Neither thanked the other during their respective acceptance speeches at the event. Since the event, Ridley has noted his regret for not mentioning McQueen and denied the feud. He spoke favorably of working with McQueen, and explained that his sole screenplay credit was due to the rules of the Writers Guild of America. McQueen has not commented on the alleged feud.
With a production budget of $22 million, principal photography began in New Orleans, Louisiana, on June 27, 2012. After seven weeks, filming concluded on August 13, 2012. As a way to keep down production costs, a bulk of the filming took place around the greater New Orleans area – mostly south of the Red River country in the north of the state, where the historic Northup was enslaved. Among locations used were four historic antebellum plantations: Felicity, Bocage, Destrehan, and Magnolia. Magnolia, a plantation in Schriever, Louisiana, is just a few miles from one of the historic sites where Northup was held. "To know that we were right there in the place where these things occurred was so powerful and emotional," said actor Chiwetel Ejiofor. "That feeling of dancing with ghosts – it's palpable." Filming also took place at the Columns Hotel and Madame John's Legacy in the French Quarter of New Orleans.
Cinematographer Sean Bobbitt, the film's primary camera operator, shot 12 Years a Slave on 35 mm film with a 2.35:1 widescreen aspect ratio using both an Arricam LT and ST. "Particularly for a period piece, film gives the audience a definite sense of period and quality," said Bobbitt. "And because of the story's epic nature, widescreen clearly made the most sense. Widescreen means a big film, an epic tale – in this case an epic tale of human endurance."
The filmmakers avoided the desaturated visual style that is typical of a more gritty documentary aesthetic. Deliberately drawing visual comparisons in the filming to the works of Spanish painter Francisco Goya, McQueen explained:
When you think about Goya, who painted the most horrendous pictures of violence and torture and so forth, and they're amazing, exquisite paintings, one of the reasons they're such wonderful paintings is because what he's saying is, 'Look – look at this.' So if you paint it badly or put it in the sort of wrong perspective, you draw more attention to what's wrong with the image rather than looking at the image.
To accurately depict the time period of the film, the filmmakers conducted extensive research that included studying artwork from the era. With eight weeks to create the wardrobe, costume designer Patricia Norris collaborated with Western Costume to compile costumes that would illustrate the passage of time while also being historically accurate. Using an earth tone color palette, Norris created nearly 1,000 costumes for the film. "She [Norris] took earth samples from all three of the plantations to match the clothes," McQueen said, "and she had the conversation with Sean [Bobbitt] to deal with the character temperature on each plantation, there was a lot of that minute detail." The filmmakers also used some pieces of clothing discovered on set that were worn by slaves.
The musical score to 12 Years a Slave was composed by Hans Zimmer, with original on-screen violin music written and arranged by Nicholas Britell and performed by Tim Fain. The film also features a few pieces of western classical and American folk music such as Franz Schubert's "Trio in B-flat, D471" and John and Alan Lomax's arrangement of "Run, Nigger, Run". A soundtrack album, Music from and Inspired by 12 Years a Slave, was released digitally on November 5 and received a physical format release on November 11, 2013, by Columbia Records. In addition to Zimmer's score, the album features music inspired by the film by artists such as John Legend, Laura Mvula, Alicia Keys, Chris Cornell, and Alabama Shakes. Legend's cover of "Roll, Jordan, Roll" debuted online three weeks prior to the soundtrack's release.
African-American history and culture scholar Henry Louis Gates Jr. was a consultant on the film, and researcher David Fiske, co-author of Solomon Northup: The Complete Story of the Author of Twelve Years a Slave, provided some material used to market the film. Nevertheless, news and magazine articles around the time of the film's release described a scholar alleging some license that Northup could have taken with his book, and liberties that McQueen definitely took with Northup's original, for dramatic, modernizing, or other reasons.
Scott Feinberg wrote in The Hollywood Reporter about a September 22 article in The New York Times that "dredged up and highlighted a 1985 essay by another scholar, James Olney, that questioned the 'literal truth' of specific incidents in Northup's account and suggested that David Wilson, the white amanuensis to whom Northup had dictated his story, had taken the liberty of sprucing it up to make it even more effective at rallying public opinion against slavery." According to Olney, when abolitionists invited an ex-slave to share his experience in slavery at an antislavery convention, and when they subsequently funded the appearance of that story in print, "they had certain clear expectations, well understood by themselves and well understood by the ex-slave, too."
Noah Berlatsky wrote in The Atlantic about a scene in McQueen's adaptation. Shortly after Northup's kidnapping, he is sent on a slave ship. One of the sailors attempts to rape a female slave, but is stopped by a male slave. "The sailor unhesitatingly stabs and kills [the male slave]," he wrote, stating that "this seems unlikely on its face—slaves are valuable, and the sailor is not the owner. And, sure enough, the scene is not in the book."
Forrest Wickman of Slate wrote of Northup's book giving a more favorable account of the author's onetime master, William Ford, than the McQueen film. In Northup's own words, "There never was a more kind, noble, candid, Christian man than William Ford," adding that Ford's circumstances "blinded [Ford] to the inherent wrong at the bottom of the system of Slavery." The movie, however, according to Wickham, "frequently undermines Ford." McQueen undercuts Christianity itself as well, in an effort to update the ethical lessons from Northup's story for the 21st century, by holding the institutions of Christianity up to the light for their ability to justify slavery at the time. Northup was a Christian of his time, writing of his former master being "blinded" by "circumstances" that in retrospect meant a racist acceptance of slavery despite being a Christian, a position untenable to Christians now and to Christian abolitionists of the 19th century but not contradictory to Northup himself. Valerie Elverton Dixon in The Washington Post characterized the Christianity depicted in the movie as "broken".
Emily West, an associate professor of history at the University of Reading who specializes in the history of slavery in the U.S., said she had "never seen a film represent slavery so accurately". Reviewing the film for History Extra, the website of BBC History Magazine, she said: "The film starkly and powerfully unveiled the sights and sounds of enslavement – from slaves picking cotton as they sang in the fields, to the crack of the lash down people's backs. We also heard a lot about the ideology behind enslavement. Masters such as William Ford and Edwin Epps, although very different characters, both used an interpretation of Christianity to justify their ownership of slaves. They believed the Bible sanctioned slavery, and that it was their 'Christian duty' to preach the scriptures to their slaves."
The visual blog Information is Beautiful deduced that, while taking creative licence into account, the film was 88.1% accurate when compared to real-life events, summarizing: "While there are a touch of dramatic license here [and] there, the most gut-wrenching scenes really happened".
12 Years a Slave premiered at the Telluride Film Festival on August 30, 2013; it was later screened at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival on September 6, the New York Film Festival on October 8, the New Orleans Film Festival on October 10, and the Philadelphia Film Festival on October 19. On November 15, 2011, Summit Entertainment announced it had secured a deal to distribute 12 Years a Slave to international markets. In April 2012, a few weeks before principal photography, New Regency Productions agreed to co-finance the film. Because of a distribution pact between 20th Century Fox and New Regency, Fox Searchlight Pictures acquired the film's United States distribution rights. However, instead of paying for the distribution rights, Fox Searchlight made a deal in which it would share box-office proceeds with the financiers of the independently financed film. 12 Years a Slave was commercially released on October 18, 2013 in the United States for a limited release of 19 theaters, with a wide release in subsequent weeks. The film was initially scheduled to be released in late December 2013, but "some exuberant test screenings" led to the decision to move up the release date. The film was distributed by Entertainment One in the United Kingdom.
Due to both the film's explicit nature and award contender status, 12 Years a Slave's financial success was being watched closely. Many analysts compared the film's content to other drama films of a similar vein such as Schindler's List (1993) and The Passion of the Christ (2004), which became box office successes despite their respective subject matters. "It may be a tough subject matter, but when handled well ... films that are tough to sit through can still be commercially successful," said Phil Contrino of Boxoffice Magazine. Despite its content, the film's critical success has assisted its domestic distribution by Fox Searchlight that began with a limited release aimed primarily towards art house and African-American patrons. The film's release was gradually widened in subsequent weeks, similarly to how the studio had successfully done in years prior with films such as Black Swan and The Descendants. International release dates for 12 Years a Slave were largely delayed to early 2014 in order to take advantage of the attention created by awards seasons.
During its marketing campaign, 12 Years a Slave received unpaid endorsements by celebrities such as Kanye West and P. Diddy. In a video posted by Revolt, Combs urged viewers to see 12 Years a Slave by stating: "This movie is very painful but very honest, and is a part of the healing process. I beg all of you to take your kids, everybody to see it. ... You have to see this so you can understand, so you can just start to understand."
Following its cinematic release in theaters, the Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on March 4, 2014. Special features for the DVD include; a Closed Caption option, The Team – Meet the Creative Minds Assembled by Director Steve McQueen and Bring Solomon Northup's Journey to Life bonus selection, and The Score – Follow Film Composer Hans Zimmer Creating His Dramatic Score feature. In supplemental fashion, a widescreen hi-definition Blu-ray Disc version of the film was also released on the same day. Special features include; a historical portrait from Director Steve McQueen's documentary feature, cast and crew interviews, The Team special feature, and The Score selection. An additional viewing option for the film in the media format of Video on demand has been made available as well.
12 Years a Slave earned $187.7 million, including $56.7 million in the United States. During its opening limited release in the United States, 12 Years a Slave debuted with a weekend total of $923,715 on 19 screens for a $48,617 per-screen average. The following weekend, the film entered the top ten after expanding to 123 theatres and grossing an additional $2.1 million. It continued to improve into its third weekend, grossing $4.6 million at 410 locations. The film release was expanded to over 1,100 locations on November 8, 2013. In 2014, 12 Years a Slave was the 10th most-illegally downloaded movie, with 23.653 million such downloads, according to Variety.
Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 95% of critics gave the film a positive rating, based on 355 reviews with an average score of 8.91/10, with the site's consensus stating, "It's far from comfortable viewing, but 12 Years a Slave's unflinchingly brutal look at American slavery is also brilliant – and quite possibly essential – cinema." Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film a weighted average score of 96 out of 100 based on 57 reviews from mainstream critics, considered to be "universal acclaim". It is currently one of the site's highest-rated films, as well as the best-reviewed film of 2013. CinemaScore reported that audiences gave the film an "A" grade.
Richard Corliss of TIME wrote: "McQueen's film is closer in its storytelling particulars to such 1970s exploitation-exposés of slavery as Mandingo and Goodbye, Uncle Tom. Except that McQueen is not a schlockmeister sensationalist but a remorseless artist". Corliss draws parallels with Nazi Germany, saying, "McQueen shows that racism, aside from its barbarous inhumanity, is insanely inefficient. It can be argued that Nazi Germany lost the war both because it diverted so much manpower to the killing of Jews and because it did not exploit the brilliance of Jewish scientists in building smarter weapons. So the slave owners dilute the energy of their slaves by whipping them for sadistic sport and, as Epps does, waking them at night to dance for his wife's cruel pleasure." Gregory Ellwood of HitFix gave the film an "A-" rating, stating, "12 Years is a powerful drama driven by McQueen's bold direction and the finest performance of Chiwetel Ejiofor's career." He continued by praising the performances of Fassbender and Nyong'o, citing Nyong'o as "the film's breakthrough performance [that] may find Nyong'o making her way to the Dolby Theater next March". He also admired the film's "gorgeous" cinematography and the musical score, as "one of Hans Zimmer's more moving scores in some time". Paul MacInnes of The Guardian scored the film five out of five stars, writing, "Stark, visceral and unrelenting, 12 Years a Slave is not just a great film but a necessary one."
Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly praised it as "a new movie landmark of cruelty and transcendence" and as "a movie about a life that gets taken away, and that's why it lets us touch what life is". He also commented very positively about Ejiofor's performance, while further stating, "12 Years a Slave lets us stare at the primal sin of America with open eyes, and at moments it is hard to watch, yet it's a movie of such humanity and grace that at every moment, you feel you're seeing something essential. It is Chiwetel Ejiofor's extraordinary performance that holds the movie together, and that allows us to watch it without blinking. He plays Solomon with a powerful inner strength, yet he never soft-pedals the silent nightmare that is Solomon's daily existence." Peter Travers of Rolling Stone, gave the film a four-star rating and said: "you won't be able to tuck this powder keg in the corner of your mind and forget it. What we have here is a blistering, brilliant, straight-up classic." He later named the film the best movie of 2013.
Manohla Dargis wrote, in her review for The New York Times, "the genius of 12 Years a Slave is its insistence on banal evil, and on terror, that seeped into souls, bound bodies and reaped an enduring, terrible price". The Daily Telegraph's Tim Robey granted the film a maximum score of five stars, stating that "it's the nobility of this remarkable film that pierces the soul", while praising Ejiofor and Nyong'o's performances. Tina Hassannia of Slant Magazine said that "using his signature visual composition and deafening sound design, Steve McQueen portrays the harrowing realism of Northup's experience and the complicated relationships between master and slave, master and master, slave and slave, and so on". David Simon, the creator of the TV series The Wire, highly praised the movie, commenting that "it marks the first time in history that our entertainment industry, albeit with international creative input, has managed to stare directly at slavery and maintain that gaze".
The film, however, was not without its criticisms. Stephanie Zacharek of The Village Voice was more critical of the film. While praising Ejiofor's work, she stated: "It's a picture that stays more than a few safe steps away from anything so dangerous as raw feeling. Even when it depicts inhuman cruelty, as it often does, it never compromises its aesthetic purity." Peter Malamud Smith of Slate criticized the story, saying, "12 Years a Slave is constructed as a story of a man trying to return to his family, offering every viewer a way into empathizing with its protagonist. Maybe we need a story framed on that individual scale in order to understand it. But it has a distorting effect all the same. We're more invested in one hero than in millions of victims; if we're forced to imagine ourselves enslaved, we want to imagine ourselves as Northup, a special person who miraculously escaped the system that attempted to crush him." Describing this as "the hero problem", Malamud Smith concluded his review explaining, "We can handle 12 Years a Slave. But don't expect 60 Years a Slave any time soon. And 200 Years, Millions of Slaves? Forget about it." Ignatiy Vishnevetsky of The A.V. Club opined that McQueen is "essentially tone-deaf when it comes to performance, and skirts by on casting". The film "lacks a necessary emotional continuity. I don't think it's something the movie is denying in the way it intentionally denies so many other conventions; it's still structured around an ending that's supposed to function as a release, but because it can't organize that sense of catharsis it so badly needs, it just feels as though McQueen is scurrying for an exit. Also: The cast is wildly uneven."
Some critics identified the 12 Years a Slave as an example of the white savior narrative in film. Timothy Sneed said in U.S. News & World Report the year after the film was released, "Doubts still lingered about its ability to truly bring about a newfound racial consciousness among a national, mainstream audience ... The film also was a period piece that featured a happy ending ushered in by a 'white savior' in the form of Brad Pitt's character." At The Guardian, black Canadian author Orville Lloyd Douglas said he would not be seeing 12 Years a Slave, explaining: "I'm convinced these black race films are created for a white, liberal film audience to engender white guilt and make them feel bad about themselves. Regardless of your race, these films are unlikely to teach you anything you don't already know."
12 Years a Slave has received numerous awards and nominations. It earned three Academy Awards, including Best Picture. It won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. The film also won the BAFTA Award for Best Film, while Ejiofor received the Best Actor award. In addition, the motion picture has been named as one of the best films of 2013 by various ongoing critics, appearing on 100 critics' top-ten lists in which 25 had the film in their number-one spot. This is both the most of any film released in its production year.
- 1st – Peter Travers, Rolling Stone
- 1st – Owen Gleiberman, Entertainment Weekly
- 1st – Tom Brook, BBC
- 1st – Ann Hornaday, The Washington Post
- 1st – Eric Kohn, Indiewire
- 1st – Manohla Dargis, The New York Times
- 1st – Bill Goodykoontz, Arizona Republic
- 1st – Scott MacDonald, The A.V. Club
- 1st – TV Guide
- 1st – Yahoo! Movies
- 1st – Jake Coyle, Associated Press
- 1st – Lisa Kennedy, Denver Post
- 1st – Brian D. Johnson, Maclean's
- 1st – Mike Scott, Times-Picayune
- 1st – Randy Myers, San Jose Mercury News
- 1st – Katey Rich, Variety
- 1st – Keith Phipps, The Dissolve
- 1st – Rafer Guzmán, Newsday
- 1st – Bob Fischbach, Omaha World-Herald
- 1st – Steve Persall, Tampa Bay Times
- 1st – Bruce R. Miller, Sioux City Journal
- 1st – Wesley Morris, Grantland
- 1st – Genevieve Valentine, Philadelphia Weekly
- 1st – David Chen, Slashfilm
- 2nd – A. O. Scott, The New York Times
- 2nd – Lou Lumenick, New York Post
- 2nd – Peter Debruge, Variety
- 2nd – Joe Neumaier, New York Daily News
- 2nd – Luke Wulfensmith, Freelance
- 2nd – Sasha Stone, Awards Daily
- 2nd – Glenn Sumi, NOW Magazine
- 2nd – Andrew O'Hehir, Salon
- 2nd – James Rocchi, Cinephiled
- 2nd – Stephen Schaefer, Boston Herald
- 2nd – Ty Burr, Boston Globe
- 2nd – Michael Phillips, Chicago Tribune
- 2nd – Christopher Orr, The Atlantic
- 2nd – Sam Adams, The A.V. Club
- 2nd – Barbara Vancheri, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
- 2nd – David Ehrlich, Film.com
- 2nd – Film School Rejects
- 2nd – Connie Ogle, Miami Herald
- 2nd – Chris Vognar, Dallas Morning News
- 2nd – Joe Reid, The Wire
- 2nd - Andrew Saladino, NothingButFilm
- 3rd – Chris Nashawaty, Entertainment Weekly
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – David Denby, The New Yorker
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Steven Rea, Philadelphia Inquirer
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Stephen Whitty, The Star-Ledger
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Joe Williams, St. Louis Post-Dispatch
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Calvin Wilson, St. Louis Post-Dispatch
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – James Verniere, Boston Herald
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically, not ranked) – Kenneth Turan, Los Angeles Times
- "12 Years a Slave (15)". Fox Searchlight Pictures. British Board of Film Classification. February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- "12 Years a Slave (2013)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
- "2013 Feature Film Production Report" (PDF). Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Toplin, Robert Brent (1969). "Twelve Years a Slave (review)". Civil War History. 15 (1): 66. doi:10.1353/cwh.1969.0065.
- "Sign of the times". The Hindu. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
- Lacob, Jace (March 2, 2014). "'12 Years A Slave' Wins Best Picture Oscar At 86th Annual Academy Awards". BuzzFeed. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Baftas: Gravity and 12 Years a Slave share glory". BBC News. February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
- "The 21st Century's 100 greatest films". BBC. August 23, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
- Chitwood, Adam (August 2, 2012). "Set Photo Confirms Beasts of the Southern Wild Star Quvenzhane Wallis Has Joined Steve McQueen's Twelve Years a Slave". Collider.com. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
- Billington, Alex (June 26, 2012). "Beasts Star Dwight Henry Also in McQueen's Twelve Years a Slave". Collider.com. Retrieved December 8, 2014.
- Thompson, Anne (October 16, 2013). "John Ridley Talks Writing '12 Years a Slave' and Directing Hendrix Biopic 'All Is by My Side'". IndieWire. Snagfilms. Archived from the original on October 13, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "'12 Years A Slave' Was A Film That 'No One Was Making'". NPR. October 24, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Sneider, Jeff (August 17, 2011). "McQueen tallying '12 Years' at Plan B". Variety.
- Truitt, Brian (June 18, 2013). "First look: 'Twelve Years a Slave'". USA Today. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
- Kroll, Justin (October 12, 2011). "Duo team on 'Slave'". Variety.
- Sneider, Jeff (May 24, 2012). "Thesps join McQueen's 'Slave' cast". Variety.
- Kroll, Justin (June 5, 2012). "Giamatti, Paulson join 'Slave'". Variety. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
- Scott, Mike (October 28, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave': Five cool things to know about the New Orleans-shot historical epic". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Lytal, Cristy (September 28, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave' dialect coach Michael Buster speaks up". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Sneider, Jeff. "Oscars: '12 Years a Slave' Screenplay Rift Between Steve McQueen, John Ridley Boils Over". TheWrap. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
- Sacks, Ethan (March 10, 2014). "'12 Years a Slave' screenwriter John Ridley: I regret not mentioning director Steve McQueen in Oscar speech". Daily News. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Child, Ben (March 10, 2014). "12 Years a Slave's John Ridley regrets not thanking Steve McQueen at Oscars". The Guardian. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Schmidlin, Charlie (March 5, 2014). "John Ridley Says He's "Grateful" For Steve McQueen, Claims Feud With '12 Years A Slave' Director Is Nonexistent". The Playlist. Indiewire. Archived from the original on March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Walker, Tim (March 4, 2014). "'12 Years A Slave' Oscar tarnished by feud over screenplay". The Independent. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Gettell, Oliver (March 10, 2014). "'12 Years a Slave' writer John Ridley denies Steve McQueen feud". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Fuller, Graham (April 10, 2012). "Steve McQueen's 'Twelve Years a Slave' Set to Shine Light on Solomon Northup's Ordeal". Art+Auction. Louise Blouin Media. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Scott, Mike (May 3, 2012). "Brad Pitt to shoot '12 Years a Slave' adaptation in New Orleans". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Smith, Nigel M. (August 13, 2012). "'Twelve Years a Slave' Star Paul Giamatti Hints at What to Expect From Steve McQueen's Next Project". indieWire. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Horn, John (October 18, 2013). "Steve McQueen films '12 Years a Slave' on familiar territory". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Scott, Mike (September 9, 2013). "Following in the real footsteps of '12 Years a Slave' figure Solomon Northup: Mike's Movie Mailbag". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Sacks, Ethan (October 13, 2013). "No ordinary movie, '12 Years a Slave' is a brutal and honest depiction of America's gravest mistake". Daily News. New York. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Torbett, Melanie (October 20, 2013). "'Twelve Years a Slave' movie has Cenla roots". The Town Talk. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Giardina, Carolyn (October 17, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave' Cinematographer Sean Bobbitt: Not Letting the Audience Off the Hook". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Goldrich, Robert (October 18, 2013). "The Road To Oscar, Part 1: Backstories on 12 Years A Slave And Nebraska". Shoot. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Desowitz, Bill (October 18, 2013). "Immersed in Movies: Cinematographer Sean Bobbitt Talks '12 Years a Slave'". IndieWire. Snagfilms. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Goodsell, Luke (October 17, 2013). "Interview: Steve McQueen and Chiwetel Ejiofor talk 12 Years a Slave". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Cooper, Jennifer (October 20, 2013). "Oscar Watch: 5 Things to Know About 12 Years a Slave". E!. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- "Pick of the Week: "12 Years A Slave"". Costume Designers Guild. October 18, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Abrams, Bryan (October 8, 2013). "The U.S. Premiere of 12 Years a Slave at the New York Film Festival". The Credits. Motion Picture Association of America. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Marsh, Calum (October 16, 2013). "Director's Cut: Steve McQueen ('12 Years a Slave')". film.com. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- "Columbia Records to Release '12 Years a Slave' Soundtrack". Film Music Reporter. October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "12 Years a Slave (2013) – Soundtrack.Net". Soundtrack.net. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "'12 Years a Slave' Soundtrack Details". Film Music Reporter. October 18, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Jagernauth, Kevin (October 22, 2013). "Inspired By '12 Years A Slave' Soundtrack Features John Legend, Cody Chestnutt, Chris Cornell & More". IndieWire. Snagfilms. Archived from the original on October 27, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- "John Legend's 'Roll Jordan Roll' Debuts From '12 Years A Slave'". Huffington Post. October 24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Cieply, Michael (September 22, 2013). "An Escape From Slavery, Now a Movie, Has Long Intrigued Historians". The New York Times. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Feinberg, Scott (October 23, 2013). "Oscar Whisper Campaigns: The Slurs Against '12 Years,' 'Captain Phillips,' 'Gravity' and 'The Butler'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
- Berlatsky, Noah (October 28, 2013). "How 12 Years a Slave Gets History Right: By Getting It Wrong". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- Wickman, Forrest (October 17, 2013). "How Accurate Is 12 Years a Slave?". Slate. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- Dixon, Valerie Elverton (November 15, 2013). "In 12 Years a Slave, a broken Christianity". The Washington Post.
- "Movies & TV: 12 Years a Slave". Christianity Today. October 18, 2013.
- "Historian at the Movies: 12 Years a Slave reviewed". History Extra. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
- "Based on a True True Story? Scene-by-scene Breakdown of Hollywood Films". Information Is Beautiful. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
- Hammond, Pete (August 31, 2013). "Telluride: '12 Years A Slave' Ignites The Festival, But Fox Searchlight Plans To Take It Slow". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Bailey, Cameron. "12 Years a Slave | tiff.net". Toronto International Film Festival. Toronto International Film Festival Inc. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Brooks, Brian (August 30, 2013). "McQueen's "12 Years A Slave" Will Have U.S. Debut at NYFF51". Film Society of Lincoln Center. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "NOFF Announces Opening Closing Night Films". New Orleans Film Society. August 8, 2013. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- "22nd Philadelphia Film Festival Announces Film Additions and Scheduling Changes". Philadelphia Film Society. October 14, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- McNary, Dave (November 15, 2011). "Summit inks int'l deals on 2 pics". Variety. Penske Business Media. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Masters, Kim (October 27, 2013). "Paramount, Brad Pitt Company Feuding Over '12 Years a Slave' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Weston, Hillary (March 28, 2013). "Steve McQueen's 'Twelve Years a Slave' to be Released by Fox Searchlight This December". BlackBook. McCarthy, LLC. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Horn, John (October 25, 2013). "Unflinching '12 Years a Slave' poses monumental marketing challenge". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "Where to see 12 Years a Slave". Fox Searchlight Pictures. October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- Fleming, Mike (June 27, 2013). "New Regency Moves '12 Years A Slave' Up to an October 18 Platform Bow". Deadline Hollywood.
- "12 Years a Slave". Uk.EOneFilms.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Ryan, Joal (October 18, 2013). "12 Years a Slave Could Win Best Picture, but About the Box Office ..." E!. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Horn, John (October 29, 2013). "In first wider weekend, '12 Years a Slave' reaches key audiences". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Cunningham, Todd (October 17, 2013). "Can '12 Years a Slave' Translate Oscar Buzz into Box Office?". TheWrap. The Wrap News Inc. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Cieply, Michael (October 28, 2013). "The International Fate of '12 Years': Steve McQueen's Film Is a Box-Office Test Case". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Kaufman, Amy (October 23, 2013). "Like Kanye West, Sean 'Diddy' Combs backs '12 Years a Slave' [Video]". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- Lewis, Hilary (October 24, 2013). "Diddy Praises '12 Years a Slave': 'The Truth Has Finally Almost Been Told' (Video)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 25, 2013.
- "12 Years a Slave – DVD Widescreen". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- "12 Years a Slave Blu-Ray". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- "12 Years a Slave Instant Video Format". Amazon.com. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
- Subers, Ray (October 20, 2013). "Weekend Report: 'Gravity' Wins Again, 'Carrie' Leads Weak Newcomers". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Mendelson, Scott (October 27, 2013). "Weekend Box Office: 'Jackass: Bad Grandpa' Tops With $32 Million". Forbes. Forbes publishing. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Subers, Ray (November 3, 2013). "Weekend Report: 'Ender' Wins Box Office 'Game,' 'Thor' Mighty Overseas". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Todd Spangler (December 28, 2014). "Top 20 Most Pirated Movies of 2014 Led by 'Wolf of Wall Street,' 'Frozen,' 'Gravity'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
- "12 Years a Slave (2013)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
- "12 Years a Slave Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 13, 2019.
- "Specialty Box Office: '12 Years A Slave' Triumphs In Limited Debut; 'All Is Lost,' 'Kill Your Darlings' Open Solid". Deadline Hollywood. October 20, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Corliss, Richard (September 9, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave' and 'Mandela': Two Tales of Racism Survived". TIME. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- Ellwood, Gregory (August 31, 2013). "Review: Powerful 12 Years a Slave won't turn away from the brutality of slavery". HitFix. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
- MacInnes, Paul (September 7, 2013). "12 Years a Slave: Toronto film festival – first look review". The Guardian. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
- Gleiberman, Owen (September 7, 2013). "Toronto 2013: '12 Years a Slave' is a landmark of cruelty and transcendence". Entertainment Weekly. CNN. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- Travers, Peter (October 17, 2013). "'12 Years a Slave' Review". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media LLC. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Dargis, Manohla (October 17, 2013). "The Blood and Tears, Not the Magnolias: '12 Years a Slave' Holds Nothing Back in Show of Suffering". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Robey, Tim (October 17, 2013). "12 Years A Slave, first review". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Hassannia, Tina (September 9, 2013). "Toronto International Film Festival 2013: 12 Years a Slave Review". Slant Magazine. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- "Slavery, a film narrative and the empty myth of original intent". DavidSimon.com. October 29, 2013. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Zacharek, Stephanie (October 16, 2013). "12 Years a Slave Prizes Radiance Over Life". The Village Voice. Voice Media Group. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- Malamud Smith, Peter (October 20, 2013). "We Can Be Heroes: 12 Years a Slave, Schindler's List, and the hero problem in American movies". Slate. Retrieved October 28, 2013.
- "What didn't deserve to make our Best Films Of The Decade So Far list?". www.avclub.com. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- McCoy, Dorian L.; Rodricks, Dirk J. (2015). Critical Race Theory in Higher Education: 20 Years of Theoretical and Research Innovations. ASHE Higher Education Report. John Wiley & Sons. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-119-11203-7.
Critics contended it was yet another film showcasing a White savior with Pitt (who also produced the film) positioning himself as such.
- Sneed, Timothy (July 18, 2014). "A Year After Trayvon Martin, Who Is Leading the Race Conversation?". U.S. News & World Report.
- Lloyd Douglas, Orville (September 12, 2013). "Why I won't be watching The Butler and 12 Years a Slave". The Guardian. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- "12 Years a Slave' Claims Best Picture Oscar". March 2, 2014.
- "2014 Golden Globe Awards". The Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on March 30, 2015. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Jason Dietz, "2013 Film Critic Top Ten Lists" Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Metacritic, December 8, 2013.