Hotel Rwanda is a 2004 drama film directed by Terry George. It was adapted from a screenplay co-written by George and Keir Pearson, and stars Don Cheadle and Sophie Okonedo as hotelier Paul Rusesabagina and his wife Tatiana. Based on the Rwandan genocide, which occurred during the spring of 1994, the film documents Rusesabagina's efforts to save the lives of his family and more than a thousand other refugees by providing them with shelter in the besieged Hôtel des Mille Collines. Hotel Rwanda explores genocide, political corruption, and the repercussions of violence.
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Terry George|
|Edited by||Naomi Geraghty|
|Distributed by||MGM Distribution Co.|
|Box office||$33.9 million|
The film was a co-production between United Artists and Lions Gate Films, and was commercially distributed by United Artists theatrically and by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for home media. Hotel Rwanda premiered in theatres in limited release in the United States on 22 December 2004 and in wide release on 4 February 2005, grossing more than $23 million in domestic ticket sales. It earned an additional $10 million in business through international release to top out at a combined total of nearly $34 million in gross revenue.
In April 1994, tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi peoples lead to genocide in Rwanda, where corruption and bribes between politicians are routine. Paul Rusesabagina, manager of the Hôtel des Mille Collines, is Hutu, but his wife Tatiana is Tutsi. Their marriage is a source of friction with Hutu extremists, including Georges Rutaganda, a goods supplier to the hotel who is also the local leader of Interahamwe, a brutal Hutu militia.
As the political situation in the country worsens following the assassination of the president, Paul and his family observe neighbors being killed, initiating the early stages of the genocide. Paul curries favor with people of influence, bribing them with money and alcohol, seeking to maintain sufficient influence to keep his family safe. When civil war erupts and a Rwandan Army officer threatens Paul and his neighbors, Paul barely negotiates their safety and brings them to the hotel. Upon returning with them, he finds his receptionist Gregoire occupying the Presidential suite threatening to rat them out if he is put back to work.
More evacuees arrive at the hotel from the overburdened UN refugee camp, the Red Cross, and various orphanages, among which Tatiana desperately searches for her brother, sister-in-law, and two nieces. As the situation becomes more violent, Paul must divert the Hutu soldiers, care for the refugees, protect his family, and maintain the appearance of a functioning hotel. He eventually gains the protection of the Rwandan army general Augustin Bizimungu, who threatens Gregoire back to work.
Low on supplies, Paul and Gregoire drive to collect hotel supplies from Georges Rutaganda and witnesses Tutsi hostages being treated violently by the Hutu militia. Georges explains to Paul that the "rich cockroaches'" money is going to be valueless because all of the Tutsis will be dead. Paul expresses disbelief that the Hutu extremists will wipe out all of the Tutsis, but Georges replies: "Why not? We are halfway there already."
They return to the hotel through the dark and thick fog, on a road that Georges recommends. At one point, Paul believes they have gone off the road and tells Gregoire to stop. When Paul exits the vehicle, he sees the riverside road is full of bodies and realizes that Georges was correct in his estimation that half the Tutsis are already dead.
The UN peacekeeping forces, led by Canadian Colonel Oliver, are unable to take assertive action against the Interahamwe because the peacekeepers are forbidden to intervene in the conflict and prevent the genocide. The foreign nationals are evacuated, but the Rwandans are left behind. When the UN forces attempt to evacuate a group of refugees, including Paul's family, Gregoire betrays them by informing the Interahamwe of the evacuation, and they are ambushed and forced to turn back.
In a last-ditch effort to save the refugees, Paul pleads with General Bizimungu for assistance. However, when Paul's bribes no longer work, he blackmails the general with threats of him being tried as a war criminal if he doesn't help. Soon afterward, Paul's family and the hotel refugees are finally able to leave the besieged hotel in a UN convoy. They travel through retreating masses of refugees and militia to reach safety behind Tutsi rebel lines and are reunited with their nieces.
The end title cards explain that Paul saved at least 1,200 Tutsi and Hutu refugees. He and his family, who adopted the two nieces, moved to Belgium, but Tatiana's brother Thomas and his wife were never found. The genocide came to an end in July 1994 when the Tutsi rebels drove the Hutu militia and the Interahamwe across the border into the Congo. At least one million people died in the genocide.
- Don Cheadle as Paul Rusesabagina
- Sophie Okonedo as Tatiana Rusesabagina
- Nick Nolte as Colonel Oliver, loosely based on General Roméo Dallaire
- Joaquin Phoenix as Jack Daglish
- Fana Mokoena as General Augustin Bizimungu
- Cara Seymour as Pat Archer
- David O'Hara as Dave Flemming
- Tony Kgoroge as Gregoire
- Desmond Dube as Dube
- Hakeem Kae-Kazim as Georges Rutaganda
- Leleti Khumalo as Fedens
- Antonio Lyons as Thomas Mirama
- Mosa Kaiser as Elys Rusesabagina
- Mduduzi Mabaso as a Hutu lieutenant
- Jean Reno as Mr. Tillens (uncredited)
- Eugene Wanangwa Khumbanyiwa as Hotel Staff (uncredited)
The film is set in 1994 during the Rwandan Genocide, in which an estimated 800,000 people, mainly Tutsi, were killed by Hutu extremists. During that year, Rwanda's population of seven million was composed of two major groups: Hutu (approximately 85%), and Tutsi (14%). In the early 1990s, Hutu extremists within Rwanda's political elite blamed the entire Tutsi minority population for the country's economic and political problems. Tutsi civilians were also accused of supporting a Tutsi-dominated rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front.
On 6 April 1994, a plane carrying President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down. Following that incident, the genocide began. Hutu extremists belonging to the Interahamwe militia launched plans to destroy the entire Tutsi civilian population. Tutsi and people suspected of being Tutsi were killed in their homes and as they tried to flee the country. It is estimated that some 200,000 people participated in the perpetration of the Rwandan genocide. Hotelier Paul Rusesabagina of the Belgian owned luxury Hôtel des Mille Collines, used his power and influence to personally save both Tutsi and Hutu refugees. Rusesabagina regularly bribed Rwandan Hutu soldiers and kept militias outside the hotel's property during the hundred days of killing. Following the carnage, Rusesabagina survived along with his wife, four children, two adopted nieces; as well as most of the refugees he sheltered.
Sharing his thoughts about the lack of international intervention during the crisis, director George commented, "It's simple, ... African lives are not seen as valuable as the lives of Europeans or Americans." Attempting to share the horrors of the genocide, George sought to tell the story of Rusesabagina, portrayed as a humanitarian during the relentless acts of violence. However, Rusesabagina has since come under criticism from allegations that he extorted money from hotel guests for rooms and food. It was also reported that the UN headquarters in Kigali received information that Rusesabagina had provided a Rwandan army commander with a list of hotel guests and their room numbers. UN observers managed to change the room numbers of those most threatened. The character of the Canadian Lieutenant-General is based on Senator Roméo Dallaire, now retired from the Canadian Armed Forces. He recounted his own experiences in his biography, Shake Hands with the Devil. The book was later adapted into two feature films; a documentary, and a 2007 dramatic motion picture.
George stated that it was important to craft the film for a mass-market audience, using the question of whether the film is "going to play in Peoria? Will it be understood? Is it main stream [sic] enough?"
Principal filming was shot on location in Kigali, Rwanda, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Paul Rusesabagina was consulted during the writing of the film. Although the character of Colonel Oliver played by Nolte is fictional in nature, the role was inspired by the UN force commander for UNAMIR, Roméo Dallaire. Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni, then-Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana, and Rwandan Patriotic Front leader (now president) Paul Kagame appear in archive television footage in the film.
The producers of the film partnered with the United Nations Foundation to create the International Fund for Rwanda, which supported United Nations Development Programme initiatives assisting Rwandan survivors. "The goal of the film is not only to engage audiences in this story of genocide but also to inspire them to help redress the terrible devastation," said George.
The original motion picture soundtrack for Hotel Rwanda was released by the Commotion label on 11 January 2005. It features songs written by Wyclef Jean and Deborah Cox, among others. The music for the film was composed by Rupert Gregson-Williams, Andrea Guerra, and the Afro Celt Sound System, while being edited by Michael Connell.
|Hotel Rwanda: Music From The Film|
|Film score by |
Afro Celt Sound System and Rupert Gregson-Williams
|1.||"Mama Ararira Pt. 1/Mama Ararira We!, Pt. 2"||3:41|
|6.||"Umqombothi (African Beer)"||4:53|
|7.||"The Road to Exile"||4:47|
|11.||"Ne Me Laisse Pas Seule Ici"||3:33|
|13.||"Olugendo Lw'e Bulaya"||5:54|
Hotelier Paul Rusesabagina's real life experience encouraged director George to produce the film. A paperback novel published by Newmarket Press, entitled Hotel Rwanda: Bringing the True Story of an African Hero to Film, released on 7 February 2005, dramatizes the events of the Rwandan Genocide in 1994, as depicted in the film, and expands on the ideas of how Rusesabagina sheltered and saved more than 1,200 people in the hotel he managed in Kigali by summarizing three years of research, articles that chronicle the historical events, and the ensuing aftermath. A brief history and timeline, the making of the film, and the complete screenplay written by Keir Pearson and Terry George are covered in thorough detail.
Following its cinematic release in theatres, the film was released in VHS video format on 12 April 2005, marking the final United Artists film released on the format. The Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was also released on DVD in the United States on 12 April 2005. Special features for the DVD include; "A Message for Peace: Making Hotel Rwanda" documentary, "Return to Rwanda" documentary, Selected scenes commentary by Don Cheadle, Audio commentary by director Terry George and real-life subject of the film–Paul Rusesabagina, along with select commentary by musician Wyclef Jean. Supplementally, the Blu-ray Disc edition of the film, featuring special documentaries along with selected scenes and audio commentary, was released in the United States on 10 May 2011. The film is available in other media formats such as Video on demand as well.
Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received universally positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes reported that 91% of 194 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 7.95/10 and the consensus calling it a "sobering and heartfelt tale about massacre that took place in Rwanda while most of the world looked away." At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, the film received a score of 79 based on 40 reviews.
Michael Rechtshaffen, writing in The Hollywood Reporter, said actor "Cheadle impressively carries the entire picture, delivering the kind of note-perfect performance that's absolutely deserving of Oscar consideration." Roger Ebert in the Chicago Sun-Times called it a "riveting drama", while exclaiming "The film works not because the screen is filled with meaningless special effects, formless action and vast digital armies, but because Cheadle, Nolte and the filmmakers are interested in how two men choose to function in an impossible situation. Because we sympathize with these men, we are moved by the film." In the San Francisco Chronicle, Mick LaSalle wrote that the film was a "harrowing experience", and that "it documents for a mass audience what it was like. It's useful, in that it shows how it can happen. It's even hopeful, in that it shows that it's possible—not guaranteed, but possible—for people to maintain their humanity in the face of unhinged barbarism." Claudia Puig of USA Today, said the film was "one of the year's most moving and powerful films, anchored by a magnificent performance by Don Cheadle." She declared, "Hotel Rwanda emerges as an African version of Schindler's List." The film however, was not without its detractors. Dave Sterrit of The Christian Science Monitor, felt that although the subject matter was crucially important, he commented that "the movie dilutes its impact with by-the-numbers filmmaking, and Cheadle's one-note performance displays few of his acting gifts." Left equally unimpressed was Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly. Commenting on the character significance of the U.N. personnel, she said it was "a bad day for narrative, if not for diplomacy, when there is only one 3-D character among the entire U.N. lot, clad in their blue helmets, and that role is rasped by Nick Nolte with moral remorse rather than his more usual hint of dissolution." In her overall summation, she wrote "Hotel Rwanda is a strange history lesson that leaves us more overlectured than properly overwhelmed." Michael Atkinson of The Village Voice, added to the negativity by saying the film was "told to us secondhand, or glimpsed in distant scuffles" and "Like the majority of movies about the last century of holocausts, Hotel Rwanda is as earnest and tasteful as its creators. To capture the white-hot terror of social calamity, someone a little more lawless and fierce might be called for."
Writing for The New York Times, Stephen Holden said the film was "a political thriller based on fact that hammers every button on the emotional console." He commended how the film "offers a devastating picture of media-driven mass murder left unchecked" while also praising "Mr. Cheadle's magnificent, understated portrayal". James Berardinelli writing for ReelViews, called the film "powerful" and noted that it didn't "pull as many punches as its detractors would have us believe." Berardinelli also said the film was "brutal and shocking when it needs to be, but it also has great emotional scope and power. We find ourselves enmeshed in Paul's struggle, sharing his despair at the warfare tearing apart his country, his frustration and anger at the U.N.'s inability to act, and, eventually, his hope for a better tomorrow." Describing some pitfalls, Jeff Vice of the Deseret News said the "decision by the filmmakers to show things from that limited viewpoint—to show how isolated and fearful the characters were of the chaos going on around them—the film feels a little dishonest and diminished. It's never quite as effective as "The Killing Fields" or "Schindler's List" in that the film's overall impact is not as great and it doesn't linger in the memory." Vice however was quick to admit "Hotel Rwanda does have its share of powerful moments; in particular, a scene in which Paul and another hotel employee unknowingly—due to fog—drive into a mass grave." He also expressed satisfaction with the acting saying, "Cheadle brings a needed intensity to the film; his character's fear and compassion are quite vivid. Nolte is also good in his limited screen time, as is Joaquin Phoenix, who plays a news cameraman."
Eleanor R. Gillespie of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, stated that Hotel Rwanda was an "unforgettable film" as well as being "a doubly unforgettable performance by Don Cheadle." Although mentioning "The parallels with Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List are obvious", she praised individual cinematic elements that made the film unique, such as "the revelation of a dark, bumpy road paved with thousands of corpses. Or in a little girl's heartwrenching plea, 'Please don't let them kill me. I promise I won't be Tutsi anymore'." She concluded her review with Cheadle's noteworthy performance, saying he gave "one of the best performances (if not the best) of last year—an Oscar-worthy portrait of a man who kept his head clear and his humanity intact in the midst of a man-made hell." Similarly, David Ansen wrote in Newsweek that "two performances carry the film. Cheadle, in his richest role since "Devil in a Blue Dress", burrows deep inside this complex man, who discovers in himself a strength he never knew he possessed, as he faces the disillusionment of all the "civilized" notions he believes in. As his strong, committed wife, Tatiana, Sophie Okonedo, barely resembling the saucy hooker she played in "Dirty Pretty Things", is a revelation." However, in the Arizona Daily Star, Phil Villarreal was not moved by the lead acting of Cheadle or Nolte. He thought the characters were "cardboardish" and went further saying the "uplifting moments of rescue seem antiseptic and set up." Critic Leonard Maltin though, wrote that Hotel Rwanda was a "Powerful film" which he thought avoided being "overly didactic by focusing on one compelling character, believably brought to life by Cheadle." In Reel Power: Hollywood Cinema and American Supremacy, drawing on the work of journalist Keith Harmon Snow and writer Edward S. Herman, author Matthew Alford called the film "sensitive, humane and powerful" but noted that it was "striking how the history of bloodshed has been spun in line with Western interests".
Top ten listsEdit
Hotel Rwanda was listed on many critics' top ten lists for 2004.
- 1st – Richard Roeper, Ebert & Roeper
- 3rd – Claudia Puig, USA Today
- 3rd – Stephanie Zacharek, Salon.com
- 6th – Ruthie Stein, San Francisco Chronicle
- 8th – Lawrence Toppman, Salon.com
- 8th – Mick LaSalle & Carla Meyer, San Francisco Chronicle
- 9th – Roger Ebert, Chicago Sun-Times
- 10th – Desson Thomson, Washington Post
- 10th – Lawrence Toppman, Charlotte Observer
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Carrie Rickey, Philadelphia Inquirer
- Top 10 (listed alphabetically) – Carina Chocano, Los Angeles Times
The film was nominated and won several awards in 2004–06. Various critics included the film on their lists of the top 10 best films of 2004. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times named it ninth best, Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle named it eighth best, and Desson Thomson of The Washington Post named it tenth best. The film is also listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 most inspirational movies of all time.
|77th Academy Awards||Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress||Sophie Okonedo||Nominated|
|Best Original Screenplay||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Nominated|
|American Film Institute Awards 2004||Top Audience Award||————||Won|
|Discover Screenwriting Award 2004||Discover Screenwriting Award||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Nominated|
|2005 Berlin International Film Festival||Out of Competition||————||Won|
|2005 Bet Awards||Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Black Reel Awards of 2005||Best Actor in a Drama||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Drama||Sophie Okonedo||Won|
|59th British Academy Film Awards||Best Original Screenplay||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Nominated|
|Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards 2004||Best Picture||————||Nominated|
|Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Awards 2005||Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|2005 David Di Donatello Awards||Best Foreign Film||————||Nominated|
|2005 18th European Film Awards||Best Composer||Rupert Gregson-Williams, Andrea Guerra||Won|
|62nd Golden Globe Awards||Best Picture – Drama||————||Nominated|
|Best Actor – Drama||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Best Original Song||Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean||Nominated|
|Golden Satellite Awards 2004||Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama||Don Cheadle||Won|
|Best Motion Picture Drama||————||Won|
|Best Original Song||Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean||Won|
|Best Original Screenplay||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Nominated|
|2006 Grammy Awards||Best Song Written For Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media||Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean||Nominated|
|2005 Humanitas Prize||Humanitas Prize||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Won|
|2005 3rd Irish Film & Television Awards||Best Director||Terry George||Won|
|Best Script for Film||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Won|
|31st Japan Academy Prize Ceremony||Best Foreign Language Film||————||Nominated|
|London Film Critics Circle Awards 2005||Best British Director||Terry George||Nominated|
|Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Best British Supporting Actress||Sophie Okonedo||Nominated|
|2005 Movieguide Awards||Most Inspiring Movie Acting||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|2005 36th NAACP Image Awards||Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Outstanding Motion Picture||————||Nominated|
|Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture||Sophie Okonedo||Nominated|
|2006 Nastro d'Argento Silver Ribbon Award||Best Score||Andrea Guerra||Nominated|
|2004 National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Awards||Top Ten Films||————||Won|
|Online Film Critics Society Awards 2004||Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|2004 Political Film Society Awards||Exposé||————||Nominated|
|Producers Guild of America Awards 2004||Stanley Kramer Award||————||Won|
|2006 Robert Awards||Best Non-American Film||Terry George||Nominated|
|San Diego Film Critics Society Awards 2004||Body of Work||Don Cheadle||Won|
|11th Screen Actors Guild Awards||Best Ensemble Acting||————||Nominated|
|Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress||Sophie Okonedo||Nominated|
|Southeastern Film Critics Association Awards 2004||Best Picture||————||Nominated|
|2004 Toronto International Film Festival||People's Choice Award||Terry George||Won|
|Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Awards 2004||Best Actor||Don Cheadle||Nominated|
|World Soundtrack Awards 2005||Best Original Song Written for a Film||Jerry Duplessis, Andrea Guerra, Wyclef Jean||Nominated|
|Writers Guild of America Awards 2004||Best Original Screenplay||Keir Pearson, Terry George||Nominated|
The film premiered in cinemas on 22 December 2004, in limited release throughout the US During its limited opening weekend, the film grossed $100,091 in business showing at 7 locations. Its official wide release was screened in theatres on 4 February 2005. Opening in a distant 14th place, the film earned $2,316,416 showing at 823 cinemas. The film Boogeyman soundily beat its competition during that weekend opening in first place with $19,020,655. The film's revenue dropped by 11.8% in its second week of release, earning $2,043,249. For that particular weekend, the romantic comedy Hitch unseated Boogeyman to open in first place with $43,142,214 in revenue, while Hotel Rwanda remained in 14th place not challenging a top ten position. During its final weekend in release, the film opened in 62nd place grossing $23,176 in business. The film went on to top out domestically at $23,530,892 in total ticket sales through an 18-week theatrical run. Internationally, the film took in an additional $10,351,351 in box office business for a combined worldwide total of $33,882,243. For 2004 as a whole, the film would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 99.
- 2004 in film
- Hutu Power – a racist and ethnic supremacist ideology propounded by Hutu extremists in Rwanda
- Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines – a Rwandan radio station which played a significant role during the Genocide against the Tutsi
- The Red Sea Diving Resort – a 2019 film, based on the true-life rescue efforts of the Operation Brothers, about a group of international agents who used a deserted holiday retreat in Sudan to smuggle refugees to Israel
- "Hotel Rwanda". The Numbers. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Burr, Ty (7 January 2005). "Hotel Rwanda Movie Review: Cheadle brings quiet power to 'Rwanda'". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Terry George. (2004). Hotel Rwanda [Motion picture]. United States: United Artists.
- "Rwanda: How the genocide happened". BBC News. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Genocide in Rwanda". unitedhumanrights.org. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Rwanda genocide: Kagame 'cleared of Habyarimana crash'". BBC News. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Stefan Lovgren (9 December 2004). "'Hotel Rwanda' Portrays Hero Who Fought Genocide". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Linda Melvern (17 November 2011). "Hotel Rwanda – without the Hollywood ending". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Paul T. Boghosian (20 April 2017). "Director Terry George Speaks about 'The Promise'". Armenian Mirror-Spectator. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- Gonzalez, Ed (6 May 2005). "Shake Hands With the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "United Nations welcomes establishment of international fund for Rwanda". United Nations. 4 April 2005. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "United Nations Foundation Overview" (PDF). United Nations Foundation. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda (2004)". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- "Original Soundtrack Hotel Rwanda". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Hotel Rwanda Bringing the True Story of An African Hero to Film. Newmarket Press. 7 February 2005. ISBN 978-1-55704-670-3. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2010..
- "Hotel Rwanda VHS Format". Amazon.com. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda Widescreen DVD". Barnes & Noble. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda: Blu-ray". BarnesandNoble.com. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Hotel Rwanda: VOD Format". Amazon.com. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- Hotel Rwanda. Metacritic. CNET Networks. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
- Arnold, William (6 January 2005). An unforgettable Tale of Heroism and Hope. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Rechtshaffen, Michael (22 December 2004). "Hotel Rwanda". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Ebert, Roger (21 December 2004). Hotel Rwanda. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Lasalle, Mick (7 January 2005). Amid a massacre, an ordinary man stands tall to protect others. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Puig, Claudia (21 December 2004). Haunting 'Hotel Rwanda'. USA Today. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Sterrit, David (14 January 2005). Hotel Rwanda (PG-13). The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Schwarzbaum, Lisa (1 February 2005). Hotel Rwanda (2004). Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Atkinson, Michael (14 December 2004). Cheadle survives a timid account of the Rwandan genocide. The Village Voice. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Holden, Stephen (22 December 2004). Holding a Moral Center as Civilization Fell. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Berardinelli, James (December 2004). Hotel Rwanda. ReelViews. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Vice, Jeff (10 February 2005). Hotel Rwanda. Deseret News. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Foundas, Scott (15 September 2004). Hotel Rwanda. Variety. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Gillespie R. Eleanor, (December 2004). Hotel Rwanda Archived 24 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Ansen, David (20 December 2004). Hotel Rwanda: A Hero Will Rise. Newsweek. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Villarreal, Phil (19 January 2005). Hotel Rwanda. Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Maltin, Leonard (5 August 2008). Leonard Maltin's 2009 Movie Guide. Signet. p. 632. ISBN 978-0-452-28978-9.
- Alford, Reel Power, p. 158
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Hotel Rwanda: Awards & Nominations". MSN Movies. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda (2004)". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Metacritic: 2004 Film Critic Top Ten Lists". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "AFI's 100 years 100 cheers: America's Most Inspiring Movies". American Film Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
- "Nominees & Winners for the 77th Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "AFI Fest 2004 November 4–14". AFI.com. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "4th Discover Screenwriting Award". American Screenwriters Association. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Hotel Rwanda". Berlin International Film Festival. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "BET Awards 2005". BET.com. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Hotel Rwanda". Black Reel Awards. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "British Academy of Film and Television Arts". BAFTA.org. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "The 10th Critics' Choice Awards Winners And Nominees". BFCA.org. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Awards". dfwfilmcritics.net. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Nominees – Candidates". daviddidonatello.it. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "European Film Awards 2005". europeanfilmawards.eu. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Hotel Rwanda". GoldenGlobes.org. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "2005 (January)". International Press Academy. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "2005 48th Annual Grammy Awards". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Past Winners". humanitasprize.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Winners 2005". The Irish Film & Television Academy. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Japan Academy Prize – Nominees and Winners". japan-academy-prize.jp. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Hotel Rwanda". The Critics' Circle. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Awards". MovieguideAwards.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "36th NAACP Image Awards". Emmys.com. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Awards for 2004". National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 13 August 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "2005 Online Film Critics Society Awards". Alt Film Guide. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- "Previous Political Film Society Award Winners". Political Film Society. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Precious to Be Honored with 2010 Stanley Kramer Award". National Board of Review. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Robert Awards History". Scope.dk. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Pages". San Diego Film Critics Society. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "11th Annual SAG Awards Nominees". Screen Actors Guild Awards. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "Top Ten Films of 2004". Southeastern Film Critics Association. Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Awards 2004". Toronto International Film Festival. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- "2004 WAFCA Awards". Washington DC Area Film Critics Association. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "History – 2005". World Soundtrack Academy. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Awards Winners". Writers Guild Awards. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- "February 4–6, 2005 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "February 11–13, 2005 Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Hotel Rwanda Weekend Summary". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Domestic Total Gross". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
- Barnett, Michael (2003). Eyewitness to a Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8867-2.
- Chishugi, Leah (2010). A Long Way from Paradise: Surviving the Rwandan Genocide. Virago Press. ISBN 978-1-84408-657-3.
- Cruden, Alex (2010). Rwandan Genocide (Perspectives on Modern World History). Greenhaven Press. ISBN 978-0-7377-5007-2.
- Destexhe, Alain (1995). Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1873-5.
- Gourevitch, Philip (1999). We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories from Rwanda. Picador. ISBN 978-0-312-24335-7.
- Ilibagiza, Immaculee (2009). Led By Faith: Rising from the Ashes of the Rwandan Genocide. Hay House. ISBN 978-1-4019-1888-0.
- Keane, Fergal (1997). Season of Blood: A Rwandan Journey. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-024760-2.
- Kroslak, Daniela (2007). The Role of France in the Rwandan Genocide. Hurst & Company. ISBN 978-1-85065-882-5.
- Laband, John (2006). Daily Lives of Civilians in Wartime Africa: From Slavery Days to Rwandan Genocide. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-33540-2.
- Lawrence, Tracey (2009). My Father, Maker of the Trees: How I Survived the Rwandan Genocide. Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-8010-1320-1.
- Melvern, Linda (2006). Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-542-5.
- O'Halloran, Kevin (2010). Pure Massacre: Aussie Soldiers Reflect on the Rwandan Genocide. Big Sky Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9803251-8-8.
- Prunier, Gerard (2008). Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537420-9.
- Taylor, Christopher (2001). Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85973-278-6.
- Twagilimana, Aimable (2003). The Debris of Ham: Ethnicity, Regionalism, and the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-7618-2585-2.
- Wallis, Andrew (2007). Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France's Role in the Rwandan Genocide. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-247-9.
- Waugh, Colin (2004). Paul Kagame and Rwanda: Power, Genocide and the Rwandan Patriotic Front. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1941-8.
- Willoquet-Maricondi, Paula (2010). Framing the World: Explorations in Ecocriticism and Film (Under the Sign of Nature). University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-3005-3.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hotel Rwanda|