The Interahamwe (/ˌɪntərəˈhɑːmw/ or [í.nɦêː.ɾɑ́.hɑ́.mŋe]) is a Hutu paramilitary organization active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. The Interahamwe was formed around 1990 as the youth wing of the National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND according to its French name), the then-ruling party of Rwanda, and enjoyed the backing of the Hutu Power government. The Interahamwe, led by Robert Kajuga, were the main perpetrators of the Rwandan genocide, during which an estimated 500,000 to 1,000,000 Tutsi, Twa, and moderate Hutus were killed from April to July 1994, and the term "Interahamwe" was widened to mean any civilian militias or bands killing Tutsi.[1][2]

LeadersRobert Kajuga (president)
Georges Rutaganda (vice president)
Augustin Bizimungu
Tharcisse Renzaho
Idelphonse Hategekimana
Idelphonse Nizeyimana
Protais Mpiranya
Callixte Nzabonimana
Aloys Ndimbati
Active regionsJungles of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; formerly Rwanda
IdeologyHutu Power
Hutu ultranationalism
Size100,000 (1994)
20,000 (1998)
Part ofMRND
 Zaire (1996–1997)
Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (1996–2001)
 DR Congo (1998–2003)
FDLR (2000–present)
Opponents Rwandan Patriotic Front (1994)
 Rwanda (1994–present)
AFDL (1996–1997)
 Uganda (1996–present)
Battles and warsRwandan genocide
First Congo War
Second Congo War

The Interahamwe were driven out of Rwanda after Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) victory in the Rwandan Civil War in July 1994, and are considered a terrorist organisation by many African and Western governments. The Interahamwe and splinter groups such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) continue to wage an insurgency against Rwanda from neighboring countries, where they are also involved in local conflicts and terrorism.

Etymology edit

The name Interahamwe can be translated as "those who work together" or loosely as "those who fight together" in Kinyarwanda.[3] Work was used as slang in racist radio broadcasts during the genocide—"working" meant using machetes to kill.[4] The name Interahamwe can be broken up as follows: intera is derived from the verb gutera, meaning "to work"; hamwe means "together" and is related to the word rimwe for "one".

English speakers usually pronounce it as /ˌɪntərəˈhɑːmw/, though it is pronounced [inhêːɾɑhɑ́mwe] in Kinyarwanda. However, when speaking English, Rwandans will sometimes pronounce it in the English manner. The difference can be observed by listening to Paul Rusesabagina in the Return to Rwanda feature of a Hotel Rwanda DVD, and to the translator for a survivor of the Nyarubuye massacre in "Frontline" Ghosts of Rwanda.

Organization and history edit

Robert Kajuga, a partial[5] Tutsi (unusual for this group),[6] was the president of the Interahamwe. The vice president of Interahamwe was Georges Rutaganda. The Interahamwe was formed from groups of young people of the MRND party. They carried out the Rwandan genocide against the Tutsis in 1994.

The radio station RTLM, founded by Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and his wife, was popular amongst the Interahamwe for its decidedly pro-Hutu agenda, among other things. From October 1993 to late 1994, it was used as an outlet for extremists to release ethnocentric and xenophobic propaganda targeted at the Tutsis, moderate Hutus and Belgians.[7] Often it encouraged the ongoing acts of genocide by promoting fear among the Hutus that the Tutsis would massacre them, and broadcasting the positions of Tutsis hiding or attempting to flee.[7]

Following the invasion of the Rwandan capital Kigali by the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), many Rwandan civilians and members of the Interahamwe fled to neighbouring countries, most notably to what at the time was Zaire, now Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tanzania. Sudan welcomed former Interahamwe to Juba, and in March 1998, Colonel Tharcisse Renzaho, the former prefect of Kigali, and Colonel Aloys Ntiwiragabo, the former Rwandan Presidential Guard commander, arrived in Juba from Nairobi to organize them.[8] It has been nearly impossible to bring the Interahamwe to justice because they did not wear uniforms or have a clearly organized group of followers. They were the neighbours, friends and co-workers of Tutsis. Throughout the war, members of the Interahamwe moved into camps of refugees and the internally displaced. There the victims were mixed in with the enemy making it difficult to prosecute members of the Interahamwe. But the Gacaca court was put in place to at least attempt to get the killers in jail. It has seen criticism from many different sources for being flawed with the judges having inadequate training and many different parties in the court system being corrupt. This problem has led to many innocent people being put in jail and has caused the prisons to become overcrowded.[citation needed]

During the war, millions of Rwandan Hutu refugees fled to Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), along with many members of the Interahamwe, Presidential Guard and the Rwandan Government Forces (RGF). Following the recruitment of significant numbers of Congolese Hutu the organisation took the name Armée de Libération du Rwanda (ALiR).[citation needed] With the Kagame regime still in power, members still take part in border raids from the refugee camps.

After the Rwandan genocide edit

In 1999, Interahamwe attacked and kidnapped a group of 14 tourists in Bwindi National Park, Uganda. Eight of the tourists were killed.[9] The story was featured on National Geographic, Locked Up Abroad: Uganda.[10]

Prosecution edit

Leaders of the Interahamwe have been primarily prosecuted through the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania. The tribunal has convicted at least 41 persons, often with life sentences, including former interim Prime Minister Jean Kambanda and Georges Rutaganda.[11] Fugitives have been captured and prosecuted in other countries, including Jean-Marie Vianney Mudahinyuka (a.k.a. "Zuzu"), an Interahamwe leader found hiding in Chicago, Illinois in January 2011.[12][13][14]

References edit

  1. ^ Reyntjens, Filip (21 October 2014). "Rwanda's Untold Story. A reply to "38 scholars, scientists, researchers, journalists and historians"". African Arguments. Archived from the original on 25 July 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  2. ^ Des Forges, Alison (March 1999). Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda – The Organization → The Militia. New York: Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432-171-1. Archived from the original on 2021-03-07. Retrieved 2017-12-08.
  3. ^ "Rwanda: How the genocide happened". BBC News. 17 May 2011. Archived from the original on 6 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  4. ^ Bührer, Michel (1996). Rwanda : Memoire d'un génocide. Paris: Editions UNESCO. p. 12.
  5. ^ ""Leave None to Tell the Story": Genocide in Rwanda". Human Rights Watch. 1999. Archived from the original on 2023-01-10. Retrieved 2020-01-12. The militia was directed by a national committee that included Jerry Robert Kajuga, president (himself the son of a Tutsi father and Hutu mother),
  6. ^ Vasagar, Jeevan (16 February 2005). "The hotel that saved hundreds from genocide". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 January 2023. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b "Rwanda radio transcripts". Archived from the original on 2021-07-27. Retrieved 2017-02-28.
  8. ^ Gérard Prunier, From Genocide to Continental War: The "Congolese" Conflict and the Crisis of Contemporary Africa, C. Hurst & Co, 2009, ISBN 1-85065-523-5, p. 193
  9. ^ "BBC News - Africa - Kidnap tourist tells of ordeal". Archived from the original on 10 January 2023. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Locked Up Abroad". National Geographic Channel. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Home - United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda". Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  12. ^ "ICE deports Rwandan wanted for committing war crimes during 1994 genocide". Archived from the original on 2018-12-12. Retrieved 2016-05-11.
  13. ^ Guzzardi, Will (2 February 2011). "Suspected Genocide Leader Deported From Chicago To Rwanda". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 10 January 2023. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
  14. ^ Don Terry (June 26, 2005). "The Man Called Zuzu". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 2023-01-10. Retrieved 2018-06-08.

External links edit