List of atheists in politics and law

There have been many atheists who have participated in politics or law. This is a list of atheists in politics and law. Living persons in this list are people whose atheism is relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as atheists.

Ivana Bacik
David Ben-Gurion
Martin Bormann
Charles Bradlaugh
Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz
Nick Clegg
Clarence Darrow
Moshe Dayan
Meghnad Desai
Gilles Duceppe
Michael Foot
Władysław Gomułka
Theodor Herzl
Erich Honecker
Enver Hoxha
Richard Leakey
Vladimir Lenin
Samora Machel
Mao Zedong
Karl Marx
Golda Meir
David Miliband
José Mujica
Benito Mussolini
Olof Palme
Thanthai Periyar
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Yitzhak Rabin
Gilbert Romme
Joseph Stalin
Pete Stark
Josip Broz Tito
Leon Trotsky
Alexis Tsipras
Jesse Ventura
Pinarayi Vijayan

Africa edit

Asia edit

Afghanistan edit

Cambodia edit

  • Pol Pot (1925–1998): Communist politician and dictator of Cambodia, which became an atheist state under his rule.[10]

China edit

India edit

Japan edit

Middle East edit

Mongolia edit

North Korea edit

Vietnam/North Vietnam edit

Oceania edit

Australia edit

New Zealand edit

Europe with Russia/USSR edit

Albania edit

Belgium edit

Czech Republic edit

Denmark edit

  • Edvard Brandes (1847–1931): Politician, critic and author, Minister of Finance 1909–1910 and 1913–1920.[72]
  • Thorvald Stauning (1873–1943): Prime minister 1924–1926 and 1929–1942.
  • Vilhelm Buhl (1881–1954): Prime minister May–November 1942 and May–November 1945.
  • Hans Hedtoft (1903–1955): Prime minister 1947–1950 and 1953–55.
  • H. C. Hansen (1906–1960): Prime minister 1955–1960.
  • Jens Otto Krag (1914–1978): Prime minister 1962–1968 and 1971–1972.[73]

Finland edit

France edit

Germany edit

Greece edit

Ireland edit

Italy edit

The Netherlands edit

Poland edit

Portugal edit

Romania edit

  • Mihai Ralea (1896–1964): Social scientist, cultural journalist, and political figure that was affiliated with Poporanism, the left-wing agrarian movement.[150]
  • Remus Cernea (1974–): Activist against discrimination based on faith and religion, an advocate of the separation of church and state.
  • Paul Georgescu (1923–1989): Romanian literary critic, journalist, fiction writer and communist political figure.[151]
  • Alexandru Drăghici (1913–1993): Communist activist and politician.[152]

Russia/Soviet Union edit

Spain edit

Non-religious politicians are very common in Spain, particularly in PSOE, Unidas Podemos, and the former Republican Left.

Sweden edit

Turkey edit

United Kingdom edit

Being non-religious has traditionally not been a barrier to success in British politics, as evidenced by at least four Prime Ministers, one Deputy Prime Minister, one First Minister of Wales, and several leaders of the Opposition being atheists since the 20th century. Non-religious views are common among British MPs and Lords, many of whom are members of the All-Party Parliamentary Humanist Group, as well as members of Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish, and London legislatures.

Other in Europe edit

North America edit

Canada edit

Costa Rica edit

Cuba edit

Mexico edit

United States edit

South America edit

Argentina edit

  • Carmen Argibay (1939–2014): Lawyer, member of the Argentine Supreme Court of Justice, the first woman to be nominated for the Court by a democratic government in Argentina.[279]
  • Che Guevara (1928–1967): Marxist revolutionary.

Guyana edit

  • Janet Jagan (1920–2009): American-born socialist politician, Prime Minister and then President of Guyana.[280]

Paraguay edit

Uruguay edit

Notes and references edit

  1. ^ Gill, Peter (2010). Body Count: How they turned AIDS into a catastrophe. London: Profile Books. ISBN 9781847651082.
  2. ^ "Although Hurley's ecumenical links stopped short of the Communist Party, Alec Erwin, today's South African Minister of Trade and Industry, recalled their friendship in anti-apartheid days, though Erwin was an atheist and "he knew of my support for the Communist cause"." Randolph Vigne, 'Obituary: Archbishop Denis Hurley, Progressive South African Prelate', The Independent (London), February 25, 2004, Pg. 34.
  3. ^ Paris Review, Interview with Gordimer Archived 2008-05-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Maikel Nabil Sanad مايكل نبيل سند: About me". 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
  5. ^ "OBITUARY: Joe Slovo". The Independent. London. 7 January 1995. Although Joe grew up in a religious household, he became an atheist while retaining respect for "the positive aspects of Jewish culture".
  6. ^ Leakey, Leakey (1983). One Life: An Autobiography. (p. 38)
  7. ^ "The Afghan King of New York : When Gay Marriage reaches the Eastern World". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  8. ^ "Afghanistan's 'coming out' for LGBT rights can pave the road to peace". Public Radio International. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
  9. ^ "Is the Next Theodor Herzl an Ex-Muslim Gay Atheist from Afghanistan? | Voice of Israel". Archived from the original on 2016-01-20. Retrieved 2016-03-13.
  10. ^ "Democratic Kampuchea was officially an atheist state, and the persecution of religion by the Khmer Rouge was matched in severity only by the persecution of religion in the communist states of Albania and North Korea, so there were not any direct historical continuities of Buddhism into the Democratic Kampuchea era." Millennialism, Persecution, and Violence: Historical Cases, p. 282
  11. ^ "No one expects China's position on Tibet to become any more negotiable than it has been. But in one revealing moment, Mr Jiang gave a glimpse of the difficulties Peking has in understanding why other countries abhor its policies in Tibet. "I myself am an atheist", he said. "During my visit to the US last year and during my previous visit to European countries, I found that although the education, science and technology have developed to a very high level and the people are now enjoying modern civilisation, still quite a number of them have a belief in Lamaism." Teresa Poole, 'Jiang keeps channels open to Dalai Lama', The Independent (London), June 28, 1998, Pg. 16.
  12. ^ Deng is quoted as saying, "Administrative means should not be applied to religion; but meanwhile, religious fanaticism should not be encouraged either, otherwise religion will be antagonistic to socialism, as well as to the interests of the people." Marxism and Religion, p. 338
  13. ^ "With revolution came a new, atheist regime – one that frowned on all religious belief." China's Catholics: Far from Rome, by Holly Williams, BBC News, December 24, 2003, (Accessed April 14, 2008)
  14. ^ "...Mao was an atheist..." Death Ritual as Political Trickster in the People's Republic of China, by A. P. Cheater, Source: The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, No. 26 (Jul., 1991), pp. 67-97 (p. 92), published by Contemporary China Center, Australian National University
  15. ^ "Mao is not only a historical figure, of course, but is part of the (tattered) web of legitimacy on which the People's Republic rests. He is part of the founding mythology of the Chinese government, the Romulus and Remus of "People's China", and that's why his portrait hangs in Tiananmen Square. Even among ordinary Chinese, Mao retains a hold on the popular imagination, and some peasants in different parts of China have started traditional religious shrines honoring him. That's the ultimate honor for an atheist – he has become a god." 'Mao': The Real Mao, Nicholas D. Kristof, The New York Times, October 23, 2005 (Accessed April 25, 2008)
  16. ^ Mao is quoted as saying, "Religion is poison. Firstly it reduces the population, because monks and nuns must stay celibate, and secondly it neglects material progress." Dalai Lama, Freedom in Exile, pp. 98-99
  17. ^ "On religion, Periyar used both lip and pen rationally and forcefully. He was convinced that people used religion only as a mask to deceive the innocent people. Periyar proclaimed himself as a vowed atheist. Puranas, shastras and smritis were the target of his vociferous condemnation. He firmly asserted that these were responsible in making the public feel hardy and superstitious. At one stage, he asserted that the meaningless religious treatises must be burnt. He believed that belief in God dampens the natural human qualities such as initiatives, perseverance and enthusiasm. Fear of God is the beginning of one's own foolishness. Periyar attacked mainly Hinduism and its gods, because they are the greatest enemy of human equality and liberty. He felt that if a person should live with self-respect he must do away with religion." Louis Antony, com/louis.pdf Political Philosophy of Periyar[permanent dead link] (pdf), Pg. 27.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ "There are religions that have very rigid rules and there are others that don't. Religion is something that I, as a person, am not interested in. I have always been an atheist. My parents were atheists. It doesn't bother me if somebody is religious. My problem is when religion is used to institutionalise other things." The Rediff Interview/ Subhasini Ali, August 8, 2001 (accessed April 21, 2008).
  20. ^ "It may be 60 years since the DMK broke away from the Dravidar Kazhagam, but some affinities run very deep, and across generations. Poet turned-politician Kanimozhi earned encomiums from DK president K Veeramani for expounding the ideals of DK founder, the late rationalist leader Periyar. The atheist in her was in full flow as she spoke at the DK's youth wing conference and posed some trenchant questions to believers and went on to express concern over the present-day youth's understanding of the Dravidian movement and its contribution. Veeramani was so impressed that he not only gave her 100 out of 100 in rationalist philosophy. And he laid claim to priority in her ideological loyalty. "You belong to us first, and then only to the DMK", he exulted." The rationalist poet, Times of India, 8 September 2008 (accessed 9 September 2008).
  21. ^ "For the AIADMK enthusiasts, there is no conflict of ideologies. Their leader, the late M. G. Ramachandran, was an atheist turned ardent Mookambikai devotee. But, for the activists of the DMK, whose leader, M. Karunanidhi, is a sworn atheist, it is a tussle between personal beliefs and the party's ideological moorings." 'Rationalism takes the back seat Archived 2008-06-05 at the Wayback Machine', The Hindu, 8 September 2002.
  22. ^ "Since Karunanidhi is an atheist he seems to believe in Janatha Janardhan rather than the Janardhan (God) found in temples and places of worship." K. B. Ganapathy, 'Jaya scored a self-goal', (accessed 9 September 2008).
  23. ^ "Not in the name of God: Why MK Stalin's atheism is par for the course". 7 May 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  24. ^ "M Karunanidhi: An atheist who ruled even as religion ruled politics". India Today. August 8, 2018. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  25. ^ "M Karunanidhi (1924-2018): An atheist who spoke of God in the smile of the poor". The Indian Express. 2018-08-08. Retrieved 2021-05-08.
  26. ^ "But Roy was an atheist and fierce priest hater..." Leonard A. Gordon (February 1968). "Portrait of a Bengal Revolutionary". The Journal of Asian Studies. 27 (2): 197–216. doi:10.2307/2051747. JSTOR 2051747. S2CID 154518042.
  27. ^ Why I am an Atheist, Bhagat Singh, October 1930.
  28. ^ "Surjeet, who always sported a white turban, was also passionately opposed to the Sikh separatist campaign that bled Punjab for a decade until 1993. An atheist, he led a spartan lifestyle and always wore simple, even crumpled clothes." M.R. Narayan Swamy and Monobina Gupta, Indo-Asian News Service: 'Harkishan Singh Surjeet – nationalist to Communist and then kingmaker', Hindustan Times, August 1, 2008 (accessed August 1, 2008).
  29. ^ PTI (13 May 2013). "Siddaramaiah takes charge as Karnataka CM, unveils Rs 4,409.81 crore bonanza for poor". Indian Express. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Nayanar's last rites continue to torment CPM in Kerala - Deccan Herald". Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  31. ^ "Manoj John Elected to International Atheist Federation". Mathrubhumi Newspaper. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  32. ^ "Atheist Alliance International". 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  33. ^ "Atheist Alliance International Gets UN Special Consultative Status".
  34. ^ "I'm an atheist, my daughter wanted a photo: Udhay Stalin on Vinayagar idol tweet". The News Minute. 24 August 2020.
  35. ^ "Kerala leaders VT Balram, MB Rajesh say their children have no religion".
  36. ^ "Tojo had entered 'Shinto' as his religion, but he had probably done so because he thought an entry of some kind was expected, and, anyway, Shinto was more a national feeling than a religion." Walt Sheldon, The Honorable Conquerors: The Occupation in Japan, 1945-1952, pp. 167-168
  37. ^ "Well, I myself am a 100% atheist. And I am increasingly worried that the Israeli-Palestinian struggle, which dominates our entire life, is assuming a more and more religious character." Uri Avnery, A War of Religions? God Forbid! Archived 2007-10-21 at the Wayback Machine, Ramallah Online February 19, 2007(?) (accessed April 28, 2008).
  38. ^ Albukhaiti, Ali (2020-12-27). "When I became a Irreligion person". Twitter (Tweet). When I became a Irreligion person, I was completely free of nervousness, and I did not look at the religious and sectarian background of the other, I look at the sophistication of his morals, and the morals that I talk about are related to his good treatment and commitment to his word, so I have nothing to do with what he wears or drinks or how he lives his private life. And I realized that religious fanaticism only sows hatred and division.
  39. ^ Zev Chafets (2008). A Match Made in Heaven: American Jews, Christian Zionists, and One Man's Exploration of the Weird and Wonderful Judeo-Evangelical Alliance. HarperCollins. p. 37. ISBN 9780060890599. "To be a realist here, you have to believe in miracles, " David Ben-Gurion once remarked. He didn't believe that literally, of course; he was an atheist. But he insisted that his officials and generals take Old Testament names.
  40. ^ a b Tariq Ali (2003). The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity (2 ed.). Verso. p. 10. ISBN 9781859844571. Ben-Gurion and Moshe Dayan were self-proclaimed atheists.
  41. ^ a b c Giulio Meotti (2011). A New Shoah: The Untold Story of Israel's Victims of Terrorism. p. 147. ISBN 9781459617414. Even atheist and socialist Israelis like David Ben-Gurion, Moshe Dayan, and Golda Meir were marked by the stories and legends of King David and the prophets. In other words, their lives had been shaped by Hebron.
  42. ^ Karen Armstrong (1997). Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 369. ISBN 9780345391681. Even a committed atheist like Ben-Gurion found its sacred position on his own emotional map more compelling than the demographic and historical facts that were staring him in the face.
  43. ^ Jonathan B. Isacoff (2006). "2". Writing the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Pragmatism And Historical Inquiry. Lexington Books. p. 54. ISBN 9780739112731. David Ben-Gurion makes an especially fascinating study as a spokesman for Jewish messianic teleology in that by most accounts he was a secular atheist.
  44. ^ Eyal Chowers (2012). The Political Philosophy of Zionism: Trading Jewish Words for a Hebraic Land. Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 9781107005945. David Ben-Gurion (1886–1973), the first prime minister of Israel and its foremost politician in the age...Though an atheist, he saw the Bible as the most important source for shaping the new Hebrew's identity...
  45. ^ Israel Shahak (1994). Jewish History, Jewish Religion: The Weight of Three Thousand Years. Pluto Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780745308197. In 1956 I eagerly swallowed all of Ben-Gurion's political and military reasons for Israel initiating the Suez War, until he (in spite of being an atheist, proud of his disregard of the commandments of Jewish religion) pronounced in the Knesset on the third day of that war, that the real reason for it is 'the restoration of the kingdom of David and Solomon' to its Biblical borders.
  46. ^ "What united them was opposition to a supposedly corrupt and pro-western administration, unfairly dominated by factions of Lebanon's Maronite Christian community. Notwithstanding his own professed atheism, Hawi, Greek Orthodox by birth, was valued as an iconic Christian figure within a coalition often painted as sectarian Muslim." Lawrence Joffe, 'Obituary: George Hawi: Lebanese communist leader who espoused Muslim-Christian dialogue', The Guardian (London)June 22, 2005, Pg. 29.
  47. ^ "Rabin was an atheist. He had nothing to do with the religious calendar. Not to mention the fact that the "Jewish" calendar is really a Babylonian one, and that its months carry the names of Babylonian gods." Uri Avnery, The Real Rabin, Ma'ariv.
  48. ^ "It has just been revealed that Thuy used to earn a living as a sorcerer [...] he travelled around the country selling magical charms, spells and cures, and spreading Communist propaganda at the same time. This information was volunteered by a Viet Cong colonel who recently came over to the South Vietnam Government side. He said they Thuy, being an atheist, clearly did not believe in his own magical powers, but had used sorcery purely as a cover for his political work." 'Party Tricks', 'The Times Diary', The Times, June 7, 1968; pg. 8; Issue 57271; col F.
  49. ^ "He became a doubter of the Christian religion at a very early age. It was the questions asked by the man Friday of Robinson Crusoe that set his analytical mind asking the why and wherefore. [...] He became an atheist at 15, much to the grief of his beloved mother and the disgust of his harsh and bigoted Wesleyan father. Often in later life, when his mother found a home under his roof, he carried the "War Cry" in one pocket and "The Free Thinker" in the other." Annie Westbrook, 'Monty Miller – An Appreciation by Angela (Annie) Westbrook', International Socialist, December 1920. Archived online at
  50. ^ "In 1886–89 Trenwith prepared for parliament in a dozen lesser forums, assuming executive positions on the Workingman's Club, the Democratic Society, the Sunday Liberation Society and the Secularist Society. Despite his avowed atheism, he edged his way into respectable circles. In 1886, he was appointed a commissioner on the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition in 1887 and took a similar post on Melbourne's International Exhibition of 1888. He also sat on the provisional committee of the Working Men's College." Bruce Scates: 'Trenwith, William Arthur (Billy) (1846–1925)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).
  51. ^ "A professed atheist, he fought for causes such as republicanism, political separation for the goldfields and miners' safety; he also opposed Asian immigration." E. Jaggard, 'Vosper, Frederick Charles Burleigh (1869–1901)', Australian Dictionary of Biography Online Edition (accessed July 16, 2008).
  52. ^ "Sir John Latham came from a religious family but from university was an avowed atheist". Sir John Latham: Judicial reasoning in defence of the Commonwealth,, 21 October 2015.
  53. ^ "Senator Lionel Murphy had been born into a Catholic family, although he was himself an avowed atheist." Jenny Hocking (2008), Gough Whitlam: A Moment in History, The Miegunyah Press, p. 422. ISBN 978-0-522-85705-4.
  54. ^ In 1996 Hayden was recognised as the Australian Humanist of the Year with the statement that "The award is made because he has shown that an avowed atheist who describes himself as a secular humanist can occupy the position of Governor-General with mounting approval." Australian Humanist, No. 41 February, 1996
  55. ^ "Being an atheist—as I am—is not a necessary pre-condition for being a humanist." in his acceptance speech for Australian Humanist of the Year, reported in Australian Humanist, No 42, May 1996
  56. ^ "I'm an avowed republican and I'm an atheist". "Anthem plans too simplistic, says WA Premier". ABC News. 27 January 2006. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  57. ^ In a 2013 interview with The Washington Post, Gillard stated: "I think it would be inconceivable for me if I were an American to have turned up at the highest echelon of American politics being an atheist, single and childless." Weymouth, Lally (3 March 2013). "Lally Weymouth interviews Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  58. ^ In her 2014 autobiography, My Story, Gillard stated, "Kevin had to be the leader in our alliance because I understood that I was not what Labor needed at that point: a woman, not married, an atheist." "Julia Gillard says Kevin Rudd was a man desperate for applause". The Australian. 24 September 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
  59. ^ "The influence of John A. Lee was reflected in his oratorical style and mannerisms, self-confidence and optimism, a sometimes scathing sense of humour, and probably his atheism." Hudson, Switzer. "Douglas, Norman Vazey 1910–1985". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  60. ^ "Preferring his second name, he began calling himself Dove-Myer. He also rejected Judaism, becoming a lifelong atheist." Edgar, John. "Robinson, Dove-Myer 1901–1989". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  61. ^ "Sadije Agolli: Dritëroi e kishte parashikuar vdekjen, pse vendosi të ikë" (in Albanian). Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  62. ^ "Gilman Bakalli: Kam marrë kërcënime nga myslimanët. Kemi frikë të kritikojmë". Gazeta Dita. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  63. ^ Sang M. Lee writes that Albania was "[o]fficially an atheist state under Hoxha..." Restructuring Albanian Business Education Infrastructure[dead link] August 2000 (Accessed June 6, 2007)
  64. ^ Kamm, Henry (1993, June 10). 'Hallelujah' is heard in the arch-atheist's temple. The New York Times (Late Edition (East Coast)), p. A4. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from National Newspaper Abstracts
  65. ^ "We Marxist-Leninists always understand clearly that religion is opium for the people. In no instance do we alter our view on this and we must not fall into the errors of 'religious socialism', etc." Enver Hoxha, Reflections on the Middle East, p. 358
  66. ^ Jackson, Patrick (5 December 2011). "Profile: Belgium's Elio Di Rupo". BBC News.
  67. ^ Koen Dillen and Frank Vanhecke, "Al bij al heb ik gelukkig geleefd. Het bewogen leven van Marie-Rose Morel", Standaard Uitgeverij, 2011, p. 146.
  68. ^ Muylaert, Jonas; Van Horenbeek, Jeroen (3 February 2017). "De Gucht: "Die kutmarokkaantjes bestaan écht"". Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  69. ^ Peeters, Tine (21 December 2018). "Rik Torfs en Siegfried Bracke: "#MeToo gaat veel te ver"". Retrieved 28 August 2019.
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  71. ^
  72. ^ "Because of his Jewish origin, his atheism, and his "European", rather than "Danish", outlook, Brandes was, from the beginning of his political career, at odds with the more moderate faction of the left coalition that formed the Left Reform Party in the late 1890s." 'Brandes, Edvard', Encyclopædia Britannica Online (accessed August 1, 2008).
  73. ^ "Folkekirken har brug for frisind". 19 August 2012.
  75. ^ "M. Clemenceau does not belong to the Socialist party, but is nevertheless a convinced atheist. He opposes zealously the idea of God, and preaches revolt against Him." Eugne Tavernier, 'The Religious Question In France. I. A French Catholic's View', The Times, November 6, 1909; p. 5; Issue 39110; col F.
  76. ^ Thurman, Judith. Introduction to Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex
  77. ^ "The meanings of the term humanism have changed significantly over the years; the use of the term in its modern sense can be found in the atheistic concept of writers such as Karl Marx and Pierre Joseph Proudhon." Burgin, David, The Humanist, Jan 1, 1994. [2]
  78. ^ "Although an atheist, Romme did not support deChristianization, nor did he regret the fall of Maximilien Robespierre." Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, by Paul R. Hanson, Scarecrow Press, 2004, p. 281 (Accessed April 15, 2008)
  79. ^ Fife, Graeme (14 November 2006). Terror. Macmillan. ISBN 9780312352240 – via Google Books.
  80. ^ Elkaïm, Olivia (5 April 2012). "François Hollande : des origines protestantes hollandaises". La Vie (in French). Retrieved 3 February 2013. (In December 2011, Hollande told the French Christian magazine La Vie that he respects all religious practices but has none of his own: "En décembre dernier, François Hollande confiait à La Vie : 'Je n'ai aucune pratique religieuse. Mais je respecte toutes les confessions. La mienne est de ne pas en avoir.'")
  81. ^ Wheeler, Edward Jewitt; Crane, Frank (1907). Current Opinion ... Current Literature Publishing Company. p. 150.
  82. ^ Anne Hidalgo, première dame Béatrice Gurrey, Le Monde, 04.04.2014
  83. ^ Lazcano, A (November 2010). "Historical development of origins research". Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2 (11): a002089. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a002089. PMC 2964185. PMID 20534710.
  84. ^ "Biografien der Abgeordneten: Sabine Jünger". Deutscher Bundestag. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  85. ^ Langmuir, Gavin I. (1990). History, Religion, and Antisemitism. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 330. ISBN 0-520-06141-1.
  86. ^ a b "Within the NSDAP (as in the German völkisch movement in general) there existed from the outset a group of old Hitler partisans who in contrast to the 'atheists' Alfred Rosenberg, Martin Bormann and others, believed in a union of National Socialism and Protestant Christianity." Martin Broszat, The Hitler State, p. 223
  87. ^ "From 1938 Martin Bormann, head of the Party Chancellery and a prominent party atheist, took a leading role in trying to sever all state financial support for the churches, and to limit their legal status and activities, but the need to mobilize church support for the war effort from September 1939 led, as it did in the Soviet Union after 1941, to a limited political truce between Church and state." Richard Overy, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, p. 286
  88. ^ "Bormann, an atheist, waged a particularly fanatical fight against the Christian Church." Karl Wilhelm Krause, Herbert Döhring, Anna Plaim, Kurt Kuch, Living with Hitler: Accounts of Hitler's Household Staff, p. 273
  89. ^ "Bormann lost the belief in God that his pious, fat Lutheran mother had drummed into him throughout his youth; he started to hate the soft, easygoing 'mealymouthed' bourgeois world into which he had been born." Charles Whiting, The Hunt for Martin Bormann: The Truth, p. 45
  90. ^ "All religion, however, is nothing but the fantastic reflection in men's minds of those external forces which control their daily life, a reflection in which the terrestrial forces assume the form of supernatural forces." Friedrich Engels, Anti-Dühring, p. 353
  91. ^ "All religions so far have been the expression of historical stages of development of individual peoples or groups of peoples. But communism is the stage of historical development which makes all existing religions superfluous and brings about their disappearance." Friedrich Engels, Principles of Communism, p. 19
  92. ^ In a 1946 interview, Göring said, "I don't believe that I will go to either heaven or hell when I die. I don't believe in the Bible or in a lot of things which religious people think." Leon Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist's Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses, p. 132
  93. ^ Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1843
  94. ^ See Walter Mühlhausen, Friedrich Ebert 1871–1925 – Reichspräsident der Weimarer Republik, pp. 977ff; Werner Keller: "Hermann Maas – Heiliggeistpfarerr und Brückenbauer" in: Gottfried Seebaß, Volker Sellin, Hans Gercke, Werner Keller, Richard Fischer (editors): Die Heiliggeistkirche zu Heidelberg 1398–1998, Umschau Buchverlag, 2001, ISBN 3-8295-6318-3, pp. 108ff.
  95. ^ Leon Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist's Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses, p. 75
  96. ^ "Apart from [Rosenberg] giving his name and replying 'No' to a question as to whether he had anything to say, this atheist did not utter a word. Despite his disbelief in God he was accompanied by a Protestant chaplain, who followed him to the gallows and stood beside him praying." Hitler's Third Reich: A Documentary History, p. 613
  97. ^ KG, VRM Mittelhessen GmbH & Co (13 September 2017). "Bundestagskandidat Ali Al-Dailami (Die Linke) wurde im Jemen geboren". (in German). Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  98. ^ "He actually had little in common with the girl. She was devout Roman Catholic, he an atheist; she came from the mild Swabian region, he from the harsh borderlands of West Prussia; she was a singer who hardly cared about politics, he a politician who knew little about music." Kurt Schumacher: A Study in Personality and Political Behavior, by Lewis J. Edinger, Stanford University Press. 1965, p. 29 (Accessed May 4, 2013)
  99. ^ Spencer, Nick. Atheists: The Origin of the Species. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
  100. ^ In a 1946 interview, Streicher said, "Christ was a Jew and God, he is supposed to have made the universe. That's a little far-fetched because if God made the world, who made God?" Leon Goldensohn, The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist's Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses, p. 256
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    Westerberg: If you mean in public, then I revealed it in connection to my candidacy as party leader for the People's Party. I got the question if I believed in God from Thomas Hempel in Radioekot (radio program) and answered no. That's when it became known, though I've never made any secret about it.
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  181. ^ "Opposition Members said that many Labour Members hate religion. Perhaps they think that those who support the new clause are atheists. Will my hon. Friend accept my assurance that it is possible to be an atheist and to admire religion? It is even possible to be an atheist and to study it, as I chose to do when I went to university." Colin Challen,
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  216. ^ "[...] Morley was an odd choice for biographer, since he was a "freethinking" atheist, and he agreed to the Gladstone family's stipulation that he should refrain from treating Gladstone's religion in any depth." Christopher Howse, 'Why Gladstone had God up his sleeve', Daily Telegraph, November 24, 2007, Pg. 29.
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  218. ^ In a heated debate in the House of Lords in which the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Carey, claimed "in my opinion, atheists are not renowned throughout the world for their commitment to the very poor, the starving and the needy", Baroness Murphy replied: "I speak as a rationalist, agnostic—I shall not say atheist in the light of the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey. It is not a particularly comfortable matter, but one reason to contribute to this debate is to stand up and be counted. I was going to remain rather calm throughout this, but I was rather offended by the comments of the noble and right reverend Lord, Lord Carey, about the role that people without faith have played in doing good in the world. He is entirely and wholly wrong. We feel just as passionately as those who have faith about ensuring that society is just. "
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  219. ^ "She died an atheist, from stomach cancer, on January 23, 1932 [...]." Brian Harrison, 'Phillips, Marion (1881–1932)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edition, January 2008 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  220. ^ "Mr. Piratin declined to take the oath, saying that he was an atheist, and elected to affirm." 'Former Communist M.P.'S Application Suspended Discharge From Bankruptcy', The Times, Saturday, Jul 12, 1952; pg. 3; Issue 52362; col C.
  221. ^ "I, too, am a republican atheist, by the way—that should be put in the record—and agree with points made by other hon. Members." Phil Sawford, House of Commons Standing Committee on Delegated Legislation (pt 3), October 29, 2001 (accessed April 24, 2008).
  222. ^ "Moreover, unless I am much mistaken, as that person is a Church Commissioner he must be a member of the Church of England, an organisation of which I was a member before I became an atheist." Brian Sedgemore, House of Commons Hansard, 13 Feb 2002: Column 247 (accessed April 24, 2008).
  223. ^ "Father Doonagh might have described this helping hand to a needy stranger as an act of Christian charity. That's probably not how the atheist Short would see it." Vincent Graff, 'Order! Order! Politics and Food Special', The Observer (England), May 25, 2008, Observer Food Monthly, Pg. 38.
  224. ^ " All MPs may reserve a particular seat in Parliament for morning prayers, which they then keep for the rest of the day. Skinner, an atheist, refuses to pray, but still likes to 'bagsy' his favourite pew. Following a complaint from the Tory Chris Grayling, the Serjeant at Arms issued him with a formal reprimand. 'Dennis told him to get stuffed, ' says a colleague. 'It's an excellent spot for heckling, and he's not going to vacate it without a fight. ' " Guy Adams, 'Pandora', The Independent (London), December 13, 2005, Features, Pg. 14.
  225. ^ "Keir Starmer: I may not believe in God, but I do believe in faith". The i. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  226. ^ "The defendant, in the witness-box, declared that the meeting was quite orderly, and there were cries of "Shame" when he was arrested. He denied the charges. Aldred said he was an Atheist and a Socialist." 'Hyde Park Speech Prosecution. Evidence For The Defence', The Times, Wednesday, Mar 04, 1925; pg. 5; Issue 43901; col G.
  227. ^ Peter Tatchell: Islamists Betray Palestine and Human Rights "They happily work with me, despite my atheism and gayness. This is the kind, gentle face of Islam that never seems to be newsworthy. "
  228. ^ "It was entirely right that Phillip Whitehead, who loved the village and had lived there since he was three, should have left it in the way that Rowsley men and women have left it for 200 years and more. It was an English funeral in an English village according to the rites of the Church of England. But it is at least a paradox that a man who was an uncompromising atheist – and so described by one of his sons during the service – should be laid to rest with the promise of resurrection and eternal life." Roy Hattersley, 'A decent send-off: Even a hardline atheist can see that the church is better than anyone at staging the last farewell', The Guardian January 16, 2006, Pg. 31.
  229. ^ "Switzerland: Blasphemy" (23 March 1925). Time. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
  230. ^ "For instance, Chrysostomos might argue that certain self-declared atheists should not be allowed to vote. It's worth recalling that a couple of years ago, the leader of the communist party AKEL Demetris Christofias said he was an atheist." Elias Hazou, 'Church elections: how it works' Archived 2008-06-06 at the Wayback Machine, Cyprus Mail archive article, September 17, 2006 (accessed May 15, 2008).
  231. ^ "The philosophical and political differences among the conspirators were expressed at the trial. This was particularly obvious between the two Cubrilović brothers. [...] Veljko was a deeply religious man, who spent the whole night before the execution reading St. John's Gospel; Vaso was an atheist, scandalising judges with his statements; [...]." 'Back to Sarajevo After 50 Years By Professor Vladimir Dedijer of Harvard', The Times, June 26, 1964; pg. 13; Issue 56048; col F.
  232. ^ "He [Chaim Maccoby] spoke out ever more vehemently against Herzl, the self-confessed atheist, and his followers, refusing to preach at one federation synagogue because it dared to host a branch of the Zionist Federation." Geoffrey Alderman, 'Maccoby, Chaim Zundel (1858–1916)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 (accessed May 2, 2008).
  233. ^ "Forty years later, nobody considers it a problem. If we want to engage in intercultural dialogue, we cannot let our Slovene, Ljubljana Muslims celebrate their holidays at sport halls. I am an atheist, but I think that every religious community should have a place of worship built by themselves." Zoran Janković, quoted in 'Mayor tells Bosnian daily building of mosque in Ljubljana "no longer a problem"', BBC Monitoring Europe – Political, May 14, 2008.
  234. ^ "Belarus president visits Vatican". BBC News. April 27, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  235. ^ "Milosevic buried in quiet ceremony in his hometown". CBC News. 2006-03-18. Retrieved 2008-04-02. There were no clergy at the ceremony because Milosevic was an avowed atheist.
  236. ^ see religion Ivica Račan
  237. ^ "Both parents were Jewish, although not observant. Towards the end of the First World War, when there was starvation in Vienna, Hedi's father sent mother and daughter to the countryside; in some villages, farmers and shopkeepers expressed their intense anti-Semitism by refusing to sell food unless the buyer could produce a Christian baptismal certificate. Hans Simon arranged for both mother and daughter to be baptised. Later on, when Hedi was 14, she was able to dispense with a religious identity altogether, choosing to become "konfessionslos" ("without religion"), in accordance with the provisions of the Austrian constitution. It was, for her, a relief: she was already a convinced atheist." Daniel Wolf, 'Obituary: Hedi Stadlen', The Independent (London), January 31, 2004, Pg. 48-49.
  238. ^ ""Veton liked good food, good wine, Faulkner, opera, La traviata, Tchaikovsky, Celtic music, jazz, blues, you name it", she said. "But he cared more about his people. He was an atheist but most Muslims still respected him", she [his wife] said, before correcting her use of the past tense. "I mean he is an atheist. His favourite novel was Faulkner's As I Lay Dying but I believe he is alive. You have to believe that."" Phil Davison, 'Kosovars wait for news of the lost hero', The Independent (London), May 20, 1999, News, Pg. 5.
  239. ^ Maryam Namazie and Fariborz Pooya (15 September 2015). "Religion and self-harm". Bread and Roses TV. Council of Ex-Muslims of Britain. Retrieved 18 September 2017. : 16:17 
  240. ^ Bill Curry and Gloria Galloway (2011-04-21). "How the leaders view religion and politics". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2012-02-21.
  241. ^ Smith, p.396
  242. ^ " Dale Jackaman doesn't believe in God. Those who do worry him, especially fundamentalists. "I'm an atheist", declares Jackaman, a former Army reservist who has served in the Middle East and now runs a computer security firm. [...] "Atheists tend not to bother anybody unless they're riled up", Jackaman said. "We're riled up now." [...] Jackaman gives the lie to the old saw that there are no atheists in foxholes. He did three tours of duty in the Middle East—two in the Golan Heights and one in Cyprus—with the Army signal corps. Far from igniting any spark of spirituality, his experience in the war-torn Middle East confirmed his belief that religious differences fan the flames of war. "It solidified my atheism", Jackaman said." No god before me Archived 2008-06-05 at the Wayback Machine, Richmond News October 23, 2007 (accessed April 22, 2008).
  243. ^ "When asked what directors she admires, Polley talks about Ingmar Bergman and Terrence Malick (she says his Thin Red Line "single-handedly brought me out of a deep depression. It shifted something in me. I'm an atheist, but it was the first time that it gave me faith in other people's faith")." Woman on the Verge Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine by Mark Pupo, Toronto Life Magazine, October 2006.
  244. ^ Noémie Mercier (2012-09-12). "Le jour où Pauline Marois est devenue Première ministre" (in French). L'Actualité. Retrieved 2012-12-06. (Page 3)
  245. ^ "Latest updates: Quebec votes 2014". Montreal Gazette. April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  246. ^ Bethune, Norman (1998). Hannant, Larry (ed.). The Politics of Passion: Norman Bethune's Writing and Art. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-0907-4. Retrieved April 21, 2012. Bethune was a communist and an atheist with a healthy contempt for his evangelical father.
  247. ^ "Nate Phelps - Ex-member of the Westboro Baptist Church and Phelps family". AND Magazine. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
  248. ^ Castro is quoted as saying, "When I was a young boy, my father taught me that to be a good Catholic, I had to confess at church if I ever had impure thoughts about a girl. That very evening I had to rush to confess my sin. And the next night, and the next. After a week, I decided religion wasn't for me." The Atheist's Bible, p. 62
  249. ^ Leycester Coltman, The Real Fidel Castro, p. 140
  250. ^ Michael C. Meyer, William L. Sherman, The Course of Mexican History (Fifth Edition), pp. 601-602
  251. ^ Pancho Villa: Intimate Recollections by People Who Knew Him, p. 34
  252. ^ Jamie Bisher, The Intelligence War in Latin America, 1914-1922, p. 185
  253. ^ "Somehow, [Calles'] illegitimacy and poverty shaped his hatred for religion and Catholicism. He became an avowed atheist." José M. Peña, Inherit the Dust from the Four Winds of Revilla: A 250-Year Historical Perspective with Emphasis on Ancient Guerrero, its People and its Land Grants, p. 230
  254. ^ David A. Shirk, Mexico's New Policies: The PAN and Democratic Change, p. 58
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  256. ^ ""You can be elected as an openly gay politician in this country, but you can't be elected as an openly atheistic one", said Lori Lipman Brown, who was hired last fall to be the Washington, D.C., lobbyist for an organization devoted to atheist causes, the Secular Coalition for America. She's believed to be the first paid lobbyist for the unbelievers in the nation's capital, the front lines of the culture wars. Now, all Brown is seeking is a constituency willing to go public. "Think of where the LGBT movement was 25 years ago", said Brown, who has worked on gay and lesbian rights issues as a legislator and attorney. "That's where atheists are today." [...] Brown, who is married and was raised a "humanistic Jew", talks about how she "came out" as an atheist several years ago, and how most atheists aren't "out yet" at work. She says atheist kids—like many gay children—are made to feel outcasts at school, and explains that she wants to erase the negative connotation to the word "atheist" just as homosexuals have reclaimed slurs like "queer" and "dyke."" Joe Garofoli, 'Atheists hoping to assert rights in religious era', San Francisco Chronicle, February 20, 2006 (accessed June 16, 2008).
  257. ^ " - This website is for sale! - Atheists Agnostics Freethinkers Rationalists Humanists State Church Separation Rally Washington Resources and Information". {{cite web}}: Cite uses generic title (help)
  258. ^ "Michigan Godless Americans Political Action Committee". Archived from the original on 2008-06-06. Retrieved 2008-05-27.
  259. ^ Hammel, Paul. "Ernie Chambers targets 'so help me God' in oaths". Omaha World-Herald. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  260. ^ "I don't believe in God because I don't believe in Mother Goose." Clarence Darrow, speech in Toronto, 1930, as quoted in Breaking the Last Taboo (1996) by James A. Haught.
  261. ^ "I say that religion is the belief in future life and in God. I don't believe in either." Clarence Darrow, 'Law is 'Horrible' says Darrow, 79', New York Times, April 19, 1936.
  262. ^ "In spite of all the yearnings of men, no one can produce a single fact or reason to support the belief in God and in personal immortality." Clarence Darrow, Sign magazine, May 1938 (from Rawson's Dictionary of American Quotations via, accessed August 1, 2008).
  263. ^ Wong, Curtis (2013-08-09). "Barney Frank's 'Pot-Smoking Atheist' Revelation Discussed On 'The Rubin Report'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  264. ^ "[Barney] Frank would not have left his safe [Massachusetts] state legislative district to go to Congress if Pope John Paul II had not opened up for him an equally liberal and tolerant district when he ordered Jesuit Father Robert Drinan to resign his seat in the House. The pope thought Drinan too liberal—and in his place he got Frank, a gay Jewish atheist." Garry Wills, "Hampered Brilliance" (a review of Barney Frank, Frank: A Life in Politics from the Great Society to Same-Sex Marriage, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 387 pp, $28.00), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXII, no. 10 (June 4, 2015), p. 8.
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  266. ^ "He also served a two-year sentence for tax evasion in the 1950s, ran for US president for the Progressive Party, made a great deal of money, and as a militant atheist once pinned down a Catholic archbishop during cross-examination, forcing him to confess he could not prove Heaven existed." Christopher Reed, 'Obituary: Vincent Hallinan, A Brawler for Justice', The Guardian (London), October 6, 1992, Pg. 33.
  267. ^ Boorstein, Michelle (9 November 2017). "This lawmaker isn't sure that God exists. Now, he's finally decided to tell people" – via
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  270. ^ Stark called himself "a Unitarian who does not believe in a supreme being" and has been identified as an atheist. Rep. Stark applauded for atheist outlook: Believed to be first congressman to declare nontheism, Associated Press, March 13, 2007 (Accessed June 15, 2007)
  271. ^ "It is long overdue for Atheistic arguments to be given a seat at the table of the marketplace of ideas in today's world. I have established this website in the hope of providing a platform for the dissemination of these arguments." Website of Eddie Tabash (Accessed April 14, 2008)
  272. ^ "Jesse Ventura". Retrieved 25 April 2012. Formerly a Lutheran, Ventura generally considers himself an atheist.
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  277. ^ "I'm an atheist, but I don't believe that science and religion are by definition incompatible." Andrew Zwicker, Reddit AMA, 13 May 2014 (accessed 9 November 2017).
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  279. ^ Interviewer: "In interviews you have described yourself as "more left than right" and "a militant atheist" in a country that is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic, and where the political left continues to be a minority. Don't you think that most of the public might take your statements as a sign that you might be biased on certain issues?"

    Argibay: "On the contrary—if one reads my declarations correctly. I believe that saying up front who one is or what one thinks is an indication of honesty, which is the first step towards impartiality. My beliefs, or lack thereof, should not interfere in the judicial decisions I take." Diana Cariboni, 'Single Woman, Atheist, Heads to Seat on High Court Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine', IPS News, January 21, 2004.
  280. ^ " She was respectfully called "bhowji" (elder brother's wife) by PPP supporters. Janet remained an atheist and did not convert to Hinduism. "I am an activist. People either hate me to infinity or love me to death", she once told an interviewer." John Cherian, 'Guiding light' (Jagan's obituary), Frontline (India), Volume 26, Issue 08, April 11–24, 2009 (accessed 7 April 2009).
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