The javelin throw is a track and field event where the javelin, a spear about 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in length, is thrown as far as possible. The javelin thrower gains momentum by running within a predetermined area. Javelin throwing is an event of both the men's decathlon and the women's heptathlon.
|Men||Jan Železný 98.48 m (323 ft 1 in) (1996)|
|Women||Barbora Špotáková 72.28 m (237 ft 1+1⁄2 in) (2008)|
|Men||Andreas Thorkildsen 90.57 m (297 ft 1+1⁄2 in) (2008)|
|Women||Osleidys Menéndez 71.53 m (234 ft 8 in) (2004)|
|World Championship records|
|Men||Jan Železný 92.80 m (304 ft 5+1⁄2 in) (2001)|
|Women||Osleidys Menéndez 71.70 m (235 ft 2+3⁄4 in) (2005)|
The javelin throw was added to the Ancient Olympic Games as part of the pentathlon in 708 BC. It included two events, one for distance and the other for accuracy in hitting a target. The javelin was thrown with the aid of a thong (ankyle in Greek) that was wound around the middle of the shaft. Athletes held the javelin by the ankyle, and when they released the shaft, the unwinding of the thong gave the javelin a spiral trajectory.
Throwing javelin-like poles into targets was revived in Germany and Sweden in the early 1870s. In Sweden, these poles developed into the modern javelin, and throwing them for distance became a common event there and in Finland in the 1880s. The rules continued to evolve over the next decades; originally, javelins were thrown with no run-up, and holding them by the grip at the center of gravity was not always mandatory. Limited run-ups were introduced in the late 1890s, and soon developed into the modern unlimited run-up.: 435–436
Sweden's Eric Lemming, who threw his first world best (49.32 meters) in 1899 and ruled the event from 1902 to 1912, was the first dominant javelin thrower.: 436, 441 : 478 When the men's javelin was introduced as an Olympic discipline at the 1906 Intercalated Games, Lemming won by almost nine metres and broke his own world record; Sweden swept the first four places, as Finland's best throwers were absent and the event had yet to become popular in any other country.: 437 Though challenged by younger talents, Lemming repeated as Olympic champion in 1908 and 1912; his eventual best mark (62.32 m, thrown after the 1912 Olympics) was the first javelin world record to be officially ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations.: 436–441 
In the late 19th and early 20th century, most javelin competitions were two-handed; the implement was thrown with the right hand and separately with the left hand, and the best marks for each hand were added together. Competitions for the better hand only were less common, though not unknown. At the Olympics, a both-hands contest was held only once, in 1912; Finland swept the medals, ahead of Lemming.: 441 After that, this version of the javelin rapidly faded into obscurity, together with similar variations of the shot and the discus; Sweden's Yngve Häckner, with his total of 114.28 m from 1917, was the last official both-hands world record holder.
Another early variant was the freestyle javelin, in which holding the javelin by the grip at the center of gravity was not mandatory; such a freestyle competition was held at the 1908 Olympics, but was dropped from the program after that.: 478 Hungary's Mór Kóczán used a freestyle end grip to break the 60-meter barrier in 1911, a year before Lemming and Julius Saaristo first did so with a regular grip.: 440 : 214
The first known women's javelin marks were recorded in Finland in 1909. Originally, women threw the same implement as men; a lighter, shorter javelin for women was introduced in the 1920s. Women's javelin throw was added to the Olympic program in 1932; Mildred "Babe" Didrikson of the United States became the first champion.: 479
For a long time, javelins were made of solid wood, typically birch, with a steel tip. The hollow, highly aerodynamic Held javelin, invented by American thrower Bud Held and developed and manufactured by his brother Dick, was introduced in the 1950s; the first Held javelins were also wooden with steel tips, but later models were made entirely of metal.: 478–479  These new javelins flew further, but were also less likely to land neatly point first; as a response to the increasingly frequent flat or ambiguously flat landings, experiments with modified javelins started in the early 1980s. The resulting designs, which made flat landings much less common and reduced the distances thrown, became official for men starting in April 1986 and for women in April 1999, and the world records (then 104.80 m by Uwe Hohn, and 80.00 m by Petra Felke) were reset. The current (as of 2017[update]) men's world record is held by Jan Železný at 98.48 m (1996); Barbora Špotáková holds the women's world record at 72.28 m (2008).
Of the 69 Olympic medals that have been awarded in the men's javelin, 32 have gone to competitors from Norway, Sweden or Finland. Finland is the only nation to have swept the medals at a currently recognized official Olympics, and has done so twice, in 1920 and 1932, in addition to its 1912 sweep in the two-handed javelin; in 1920 Finland swept the first four places, which is no longer possible as only three entrants per country are allowed. Finland has, however, never been nearly as successful in the women's javelin.: 479
The javelin throw has been part of the decathlon since the decathlon was introduced in the early 1910s; the all-around, an earlier ten-event contest of American origin, did not include the javelin throw. The javelin was also part of some (though not all) of the many early forms of women's pentathlon and has always been included in the heptathlon after it replaced the pentathlon in 1981.
Rules and competitions Edit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2022)
The size, shape, minimum weight, and center of gravity of the javelin are all defined by World Athletics rules. In international competition, men throw a javelin between 2.6 and 2.7 m (8 ft 6 in and 8 ft 10 in) in length and 800 g (28 oz) in weight, and women throw a javelin between 2.2 and 2.3 m (7 ft 3 in and 7 ft 7 in) in length and 600 g (21 oz) in weight. The javelin has a grip, about 150 mm (5.9 in) wide, made of cord and located at the javelin's center of gravity (0.9 to 1.06 m (2 ft 11 in to 3 ft 6 in)) from the javelin tip for the men's javelin and 0.8 to 0.92 m (2 ft 7 in to 3 ft 0 in) from the javelin tip for the women's javelin.
Unlike the other throwing events (shot put, discus, and hammer), the technique used to throw the javelin is dictated by World Athletics rules and "non-orthodox" techniques are not permitted. The javelin must be held at its grip and thrown overhand, over the athlete's shoulder or upper arm. Further, the athlete is prohibited from turning completely around or starting with their back facing the direction of the throw. This prevents athletes from attempting to spin and hurl the javelin sidearm in the style of a discus throw. This rule was put in place when a group of athletes began experimenting with a spin technique referred to as "free style". On 24 October 1956, Pentti Saarikoski threw 99.52 m (326 ft 6 in) using the technique holding the end of the javelin. Officials were so afraid of the out of control nature of the technique that the practice was banned through these rule specifications.
Instead of being confined to a circle, javelin throwers have a runway 4 m (13 ft) wide and at least 30 m (98 ft) in length, ending in an 8 m (26 ft) radius throwing arc from which their throw is measured; athletes typically use this distance to gain momentum in a "run-up" to their throw. Like the other throwing events, the competitor may not leave the throwing area (the runway) until after the implement lands. The need to come to a stop behind the throwing arc limits both how close the athlete can come to the line before the release as well as the maximum speed achieved at the time of release.
The javelin is thrown towards a 28.96º circular sector that is centered on the center point of the throwing arc. The angle of the throwing sector (28.96º) provides sector boundaries that are easy to construct and lay out on a field. A throw is only legal if the tip of the javelin lands within this sector and first strikes the ground with its tip before any other part. The distance of the throw is measured from the throwing arc to the point where the tip of the javelin landed, rounded down to the nearest centimeter.
Competition rules are similar to other throwing events: a round consists of one attempt by each competitor in turn, and competitions typically consist of three to six rounds. The competitor with the longest single legal throw (over all rounds) is the winner; in case of a tie, the competitors' second-longest throws are also considered. Competitions involving large numbers of athletes sometimes use a cut whereby all competitors compete in the first three rounds but only those who are currently among the top eight or have achieved some minimum distances are permitted to attempt to improve on their distance in additional rounds (typically three).
Javelin redesigns Edit
On 1 April 1986, the men's javelin (800 grams (1.76 lb)) was redesigned by the governing body (the IAAF Technical Committee). They decided to change the rules for javelin design because of the increasingly frequent flat landings and the resulting discussions and protests when these attempts were declared valid or invalid by competition judges. The world record had also crept up to a potentially dangerous level, 104.80 m (343.8 ft) by Uwe Hohn. With throws exceeding 100 meters, it was becoming difficult to safely stage the competition within the confines of a stadium infield. The javelin was redesigned so that the centre of gravity was moved 4 cm (1.6 in) forward. In addition, the surface area in front of centre of gravity was reduced, while the surface area behind the centre of gravity was increased. This had an effect similar to that produced by the feathers on an arrow. The javelin turns into the relative wind. This relative wind appears to originate from the ground as the javelin descends, thus the javelin turns to face the ground. As the javelin turns into the wind less lift is generated, reducing the flight distance by around 10% but also causing the javelin to stick in the ground more consistently. In 1999, the women's javelin (600 grams (1.32 lb)) was similarly redesigned.
Modifications that manufacturers made to recover some of the lost distance, by increasing tail drag (using holes, rough paint or dimples), were forbidden at the end of 1991 and performances made using implements with such modifications removed from the record books. Seppo Räty had achieved a world record of 96.96 m (318.1 ft) in 1991 with such a design, but this record was nullified.
Weight rules by age group Edit
|U14||400 g (14 oz)|
|U16||600 g (1 lb 5 oz)||500 g (1 lb 2 oz)|
|U18||700 g (1 lb 9 oz)|
|Junior (U20)||800 g (1 lb 12 oz)||600 g (1 lb 5 oz)|
|50–74||500 g (1 lb 2 oz)|
|50–59||700 g (1 lb 9 oz)|
|60–69||600 g (1 lb 5 oz)|
|70–79||500 g (1 lb 2 oz)|
|75+||400 g (14 oz)|
|80+||400 g (14 oz)|
Technique and training Edit
Unlike other throwing events, javelin allows the competitor to build speed over a considerable distance. In addition, the core and upper body strength is necessary to deliver the implement, javelin throwers benefit from the agility and athleticism typically associated with running and jumping events. Thus, the athletes share more physical characteristics with sprinters than with others, although they still need the skill of heavier throwing athletes.
Traditional free-weight training is often used by javelin throwers. Metal-rod exercises and resistance band exercises can be used to train a similar action to the javelin throw to increase power and intensity. Without proper strength and flexibility, throwers can become extremely injury prone, especially in the shoulder and elbow. Core stability can help in the transference of physical power and force from the ground through the body to the javelin. Stretching and sprint training are used to enhance the speed of the athlete at the point of release, and subsequently, the speed of the javelin. At release, a javelin can reach speeds approaching 113 km/h (70 mph).
The javelin throw consists of three separate phases: the run-up, the transition, and the delivery. During each phase, the position of the javelin changes while the thrower changes his or her muscle recruitment. In the run-up phase as Luann Voza states, "your arm is bent and kept close to your head, keeping the javelin in alignment with little to no arm movement". This allows the thrower's bicep to contract, flexing the elbow. In order for the javelin to stay up high, the thrower's deltoid flexes. In the transition phase, the thrower's "back muscles contract" as "the javelin is brought back in alignment with the shoulder with the thrower's palm up". This, according to Voza, "stretches your pectoral, or chest, muscles. From there, a stretch reflex, an involuntary contraction of your chest, helps bring your throwing arm forward with increased force". During the final phase, the rotation of the shoulders initiates the release, which then "transfers movement through the triceps muscles, wrists and fingers to extend the throwing arm forward to release the javelin".
In 1994, Michael Torke composed Javelin, commissioned by the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games in celebration of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra's 50th anniversary season, in conjunction with the 1996 Summer Olympics.
Javelin throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €5 Finnish 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005 to commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics. On the obverse of the coin, a javelin thrower is depicted. On the reverse, legs of hurdle runners with the Helsinki Olympic Stadium tower in the background can be seen.
All-time top 25 (current models) Edit
|Tables show data for two definitions of "Top 25" - the top 25 distances and the top 25 athletes:|
|- denotes top performance for a repeat athlete in the top 25 distances|
|- denotes lesser performances, still in the top 25 distances, by a repeat athlete|
|- denotes top performance (only) for other top 25 athletes who fall outside the top 25 distances|
|1||1||98.48 m (323 ft 1 in)||Jan Železný||Czech Republic||25 MAY 1996||Jena|
|2||2||97.76 m (320 ft 8+3⁄4 in)||Johannes Vetter||Germany||06 SEP 2020||Chorzów|||
|3||96.29 m (315 ft 10+3⁄4 in)||Vetter #2||29 MAY 2021||Chorzów|
|4||95.66 m (313 ft 10 in)||Železný #2||29 AUG 1993||Sheffield|
|5||95.54 m (313 ft 5+1⁄4 in) A||Železný #3||06 APR 1993||Pietersburg|
|6||94.64 m (310 ft 5+3⁄4 in)||Železný #4||31 MAY 1996||Ostrava|
|7||94.44 m (309 ft 10 in)||Vetter #3||11 JUL 2017||Luzern|
|8||94.20 m (309 ft 1⁄2 in)||Vetter #4||19 MAY 2021||Ostrava|
|9||94.02 m (308 ft 5+1⁄2 in)||Železný #5||26 MAR 1997||Stellenbosch|
|3||10||93.90 m (308 ft 3⁄4 in)||Thomas Röhler||Germany||05 MAY 2017||Doha|||
|11||93.88 m (308 ft 0 in)||Vetter #5||18 AUG 2017||Thum|
|12||93.59 m (307 ft 1⁄2 in)||Vetter #6||26 JUN 2021||Kuortane|
|13||93.20 m (305 ft 9+1⁄4 in)||Vetter #7||21 MAY 2021||Dessau|
|4||14||93.09 m (305 ft 4+3⁄4 in)||Aki Parviainen||Finland||26 JUN 1999||Kuortane|
|5||15||93.07 m (305 ft 4 in)||Anderson Peters||Grenada||13 MAY 2022||Doha|||
|16||92.80 m (304 ft 5+1⁄2 in)||Železný #6||12 AUG 2001||Edmonton|
|6||17||92.72 m (304 ft 2+1⁄4 in)||Julius Yego||Kenya||26 AUG 2015||Beijing|||
|18||92.70 m (304 ft 1+1⁄2 in)||Vetter #8||11 MAR 2018||Leiria|
|7||19||92.61 m (303 ft 10 in)||Sergey Makarov||Russia||30 JUN 2002||Sheffield|
|8||20||92.60 m (303 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||Raymond Hecht||Germany||14 AUG 1996||Zürich|
|21||92.42 m (303 ft 2+1⁄2 in)||Železný #7||28 MAY 1997||Ostrava|
|22||92.41 m (303 ft 2 in)||Parviainen #2||24 JUN 2001||Vaasa|
|23||92.28 m (302 ft 9 in)||Železný #8||09 SEP 1995||Monaco|
|Hecht #2||14 AUG 1996||Zürich|
|25||92.14 m (302 ft 3+1⁄2 in)||Vetter #9||29 JUN 2021||Luzern|
|9||92.06 m (302 ft 1⁄4 in)||Andreas Hofmann||Germany||02 JUN 2018||Offenburg|||
|10||91.69 m (300 ft 9+3⁄4 in)||Konstadinós Gatsioúdis||Greece||24 JUN 2000||Kuortane|
|11||91.59 m (300 ft 5+3⁄4 in)||Andreas Thorkildsen||Norway||02 JUN 2006||Oslo|
|12||91.53 m (300 ft 3+1⁄2 in)||Tero Pitkämäki||Finland||26 JUN 2005||Kuortane|
|13||91.46 m (300 ft 3⁄4 in)||Steve Backley||United Kingdom||25 JAN 1992||Auckland|||
|14||91.36 m (299 ft 8+3⁄4 in)||Cheng Chao-tsun||Chinese Taipei||26 AUG 2017||Taipei|||
|15||91.29 m (299 ft 6 in)||Breaux Greer||United States||21 JUN 2007||Indianapolis|
|16||90.88 m (298 ft 1+3⁄4 in)||Jakub Vadlejch||Czech Republic||13 MAY 2022||Doha|||
|17||90.82 m (297 ft 11+1⁄2 in)||Kimmo Kinnunen||Finland||26 AUG 1991||Tokyo|
|18||90.73 m (297 ft 8 in)||Vadims Vasiļevskis||Latvia||22 JUL 2007||Tallinn|
|19||90.61 m (297 ft 3+1⁄4 in)||Magnus Kirt||Estonia||22 JUN 2019||Kuortane|||
|20||90.60 m (297 ft 2+3⁄4 in)||Seppo Räty||Finland||20 JUL 1992||Nurmijärvi|
|21||90.44 m (296 ft 8+1⁄2 in)||Boris Henry||Germany||09 JUL 1997||Linz|
|22||90.18 m (295 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Arshad Nadeem||Pakistan||07 AUG 2022||Birmingham|||
|23||90.16 m (295 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||Keshorn Walcott||Trinidad and Tobago||09 JUL 2015||Lausanne|
|24||89.94 m (295 ft 3⁄4 in)||Neeraj Chopra||India||30 JUN 2022||Stockholm|||
|25||89.83 m (294 ft 8+1⁄2 in)||Oliver Helander||Finland||14 JUN 2022||Turku|||
- Correct as of September 2023.
|1||1||72.28 m (237 ft 1+1⁄2 in)||Barbora Špotáková||Czech Republic||13 SEP 2008||Stuttgart|
|2||2||71.70 m (235 ft 2+3⁄4 in)||Osleidys Menéndez||Cuba||14 AUG 2005||Helsinki|
|3||71.58 m (234 ft 10 in)||Špotáková #2||02 SEP 2011||Daegu|
|4||71.54 m (234 ft 8+1⁄2 in)||Menéndez #2||01 JUL 2001||Rethymno|
|5||71.53 m (234 ft 8 in)||Menéndez #3||27 AUG 2004||Athens|
|6||71.42 m (234 ft 3+3⁄4 in)||Špotáková #3||21 AUG 2008||Beijing|
|3||7||71.40 m (234 ft 3 in)||Maria Andrejczyk||Poland||09 MAY 2021||Split|||
|4||8||70.53 m (231 ft 4+3⁄4 in)||Mariya Abakumova||Russia||01 SEP 2013||Berlin|
|5||9||70.20 m (230 ft 3+3⁄4 in)||Christina Obergföll||Germany||23 JUN 2007||Munich|
|10||70.03 m (229 ft 9 in)||Obergföll #2||14 AUG 2005||Helsinki|
|11||69.82 m (229 ft 3⁄4 in)||Menéndez #4||29 AUG 2001||Beijing|
|12||69.81 m (229 ft 1⁄4 in)||Obergföll #3||31 AUG 2008||Elstal|
|13||69.75 m (228 ft 10 in)||Abakumova #2||25 AUG 2013||Elstal|
|14||69.57 m (228 ft 2+3⁄4 in)||Obergföll #4||08 SEP 2011||Zürich|
|15||69.55 m (228 ft 2 in)||Špotáková #4||09 AUG 2012||London|
|16||69.53 m (228 ft 1+1⁄4 in)||Menéndez #5||06 AUG 2001||Edmonton|
|6||17||69.48 m (227 ft 11+1⁄4 in)||Trine Hattestad||Norway||28 JUL 2000||Oslo|
|18||69.45 m (227 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Špotáková #5||22 JUL 2011||Monaco|
|7||19||69.35 m (227 ft 6+1⁄4 in)||Sunette Viljoen||South Africa||09 JUN 2012||New York City|
|20||69.34 m (227 ft 5+3⁄4 in)||Abakumova #3||16 MAR 2013||Castellón|
|8||21||69.19 m (227 ft 0 in)||Christin Hussong||Germany||30 MAY 2021||Chorzów|||
|22||69.15 m (226 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Špotáková #6||31 MAY 2008||Zaragoza|
|23||69.09 m (226 ft 8 in)||Abakumova #4||16 AUG 2013||Moscow|
|24||69.05 m (226 ft 6+1⁄2 in)||Obergföll #5||18 AUG 2013||Moscow|
|25||68.94 m (226 ft 2 in)||Abakumova #5||29 AUG 2013||Zürich|
|9||68.92 m (226 ft 1+1⁄4 in)||Kathryn Mitchell||Australia||11 APR 2018||Gold Coast|||
|10||68.43 m (224 ft 6 in)||Sara Kolak||Croatia||06 JUL 2017||Lausanne|||
|11||68.34 m (224 ft 2+1⁄2 in)||Steffi Nerius||Germany||31 AUG 2008||Elstal|
|12||68.11 m (223 ft 5+1⁄4 in)||Kara Winger||United States||02 SEP 2022||Brussels|||
|13||67.98 m (223 ft 1⁄4 in)||Lü Huihui||China||02 AUG 2019||Shenyang|||
|14||67.70 m (222 ft 1+1⁄4 in)||Kelsey-Lee Barber||Australia||09 JUL 2019||Lucerne|||
|15||67.69 m (222 ft 3⁄4 in)||Katharina Molitor||Germany||30 AUG 2015||Beijing|||
|16||67.67 m (222 ft 0 in)||Sonia Bisset||Cuba||06 JUL 2005||Salamanca|
|17||67.51 m (221 ft 5+3⁄4 in)||Mirela Manjani||Greece||30 SEP 2000||Sydney|
|18||67.47 m (221 ft 4+1⁄4 in)||Tatsiana Khaladovich||Belarus||07 JUN 2018||Oslo|||
|19||67.40 m (221 ft 1+1⁄2 in)||Nikola Ogrodníková||Czech Republic||26 MAY 2019||Offenburg|||
|Maggie Malone||United States||17 JUL 2021||East Stroudsburg|
|21||67.38 m (221 ft 3⁄4 in)||Haruka Kitaguchi||Japan||08 SEP 2023||Brussels|||
|22||67.32 m (220 ft 10+1⁄4 in)||Linda Stahl||Germany||14 JUN 2014||New York City|
|23||67.30 m (220 ft 9+1⁄2 in)||Vera Rebrik||Russia||19 FEB 2016||Sochi|
|24||67.29 m (220 ft 9 in)||Hanna Hatsko-Fedusova||Ukraine||26 JUL 2014||Kirovohrad|
|Liu Shiying||China||15 SEP 2020||Shaoxing|||
Annulled marks Edit
- In 2011, Mariya Abakumova threw 71.99 metres. This performance was annulled due to doping offences.
All-time top 5 (dimpled models 1990–1991) Edit
Marks set using dimpled rough-tailed javelins manufactured by several companies were nullified effective 20 September 1991.: 208–209
|1||96.96||Seppo Räty (FIN)||2 June 1991||Punkalaidun|||
|2||91.36||Steve Backley (GBR)||15 September 1991||Sheffield|
|3||90.84||Raymond Hecht (GER)||8 September 1991||Gengenbach|
|4||90.82||Kimmo Kinnunen (FIN)||26 August 1991||Tokyo|
|5||90.72||Jan Železný (TCH)||10 July 1991||Lausanne|
All-time top 15 (old models) Edit
|1||104.80||Uwe Hohn (GDR)||21 July 1984||Berlin|
|2||99.72||Tom Petranoff (USA)||15 May 1983||Westwood|
|3||96.72||Ferenc Paragi (HUN)||23 April 1980||Tata|
|Detlef Michel (GDR)||9 June 1983||Berlin|
|5||95.80||Bob Roggy (USA)||29 August 1982||Stuttgart|
|6||95.10||Brian Crouser (USA)||5 August 1985||Eugene|
|7||94.58||Miklós Németh (HUN)||26 July 1976||Montreal|
|8||94.22||Michael Wessing (FRG)||3 August 1978||Oslo|
|9||94.20||Heino Puuste (URS)||5 June 1983||Birmingham|
|10||94.08||Klaus Wolfermann (FRG)||5 May 1973||Leverkusen|
|11||94.06||Duncan Atwood (USA)||26 July 1985||Eugene|
|12||93.90||Hannu Siitonen (FIN)||6 June 1973||Helsinki|
|13||93.84||Pentti Sinersaari (FIN)||27 January 1979||Auckland|
|14||93.80||Jānis Lūsis (URS)||6 July 1972||Stockholm|
|15||93.70||Viktor Yevsyukov (URS)||17 July 1985||Kyiv|
|1||80.00||Petra Felke (GDR)||8 September 1988||Potsdam|
|2||77.44||Fatima Whitbread (GBR)||28 August 1986||Stuttgart|
|3||74.76||Tiina Lillak (FIN)||13 June 1983||Tampere|
|4||74.20||Sofia Sakorafa (GRE)||26 September 1982||Hania|
|5||73.58||Tessa Sanderson (GBR)||26 June 1983||Edinburgh|
|6||72.70||Anna Verouli (GRE)||20 May 1984||Hania|
|7||72.16||Antje Kempe (GDR)||5 May 1984||Celje|
|8||72.12||Trine Hattestad (NOR)||10 July 1993||Oslo|
|9||71.88||Antoaneta Todorova (BUL)||15 August 1981||Zagreb|
|10||71.82||Ivonne Leal (CUB)||30 August 1985||Leverkusen|
|11||71.40||Natalya Shikolenko (BLR)||5 June 1994||Sevilla|
|12||71.00||Silke Renk (GDR)||25 June 1988||Rostock|
|13||70.76||Beate Koch (GDR)||22 June 1989||Rostock|
|14||70.42||Zhang Li (CHN)||6 August 1990||Tianjin|
|15||70.20||Karen Forkel (GER)||9 May 1991||Halle|
Olympic medalists Edit
World Championships medalists Edit
Season's bests Edit
A new model was introduced in 1986, and all records started fresh.
A new model was introduced in 1999 and all records started fresh.
See also Edit
- Jukola, Martti (1935). Huippu-urheilun historia (in Finnish). Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö.
- Kanerva, Juha; Tikander, Vesa. Urheilulajien synty (in Finnish). Teos. ISBN 9789518513455.
- "12th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Berlin 2009" (PDF). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2009. pp. Pages 546, 559. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- Vélez Blasco, Miguel. "Part III: Llançaments – Tema 12 Javelina" (PDF) (in Catalan). Institut Nacional d'Educació Física de Catalunya / Federació Catalana d'Atletisme. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015.
- Hymans, Richard; Matrahazi, Imre. "IAAF World Records Progression" (PDF) (2015 ed.). International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Javelin Throw – Introduction". IAAF. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
- "Track: A Salute to the Javelin And Its Practitioners—One of Whom, Bud Held, Is Showing Those Finns A Thing Or Two". Sports Illustrated. 6 June 1955. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Bremicher, Erick. "Why did the senior javelin specification have to be changed?". Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- IAAF Scoring Tables for Combined Events, pp. 7–10.
- Pentti Saarikosk
- "Laying Out Sector Angles for the Track and Field Throwing Events" (PDF). USA Track & Field Pacific Northwest. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
- "Javelin Throw". worldathletics.org. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
- "Physics: Javelin Designs, what's the significance? – World of Javelin". worldofjavelin.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
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- Mariya Abakumova, from Russia, was disqualified in 2016, after retesting. Sayers was later confirmed as the bronze medalist.
- Original bronze medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples
- Original gold medalist Russian Mariya Abakumova was later disqualified for failing retests of samples