Core cities of Japan

A core city (中核市, Chūkakushi) is a class or category of Japanese cities. It is a local administrative division created by the national government.[1] Core cities are delegated many functions normally carried out by prefectural governments, but not as many as designated cities. To become a candidate for core city status, a city must have a population greater than 300,000 and an area greater than 100 square kilometers, although special exceptions may be made by order of the cabinet for cities with populations under 300,000 but over 200,000.[2] After the abolition of special city status on April 1, 2015, any city with a population above 200,000 may apply for core city status.[3]

SapporoHakodate, HokkaidōAsahikawa, HokkaidōAomoriHachinoheMorioka, IwateSendaiAkitaYamagata, YamagataFukushima, FukushimaKōriyama, FukushimaIwaki, FukushimaMito, IbarakiTsukuba, IbarakiUtsunomiya, TochigiMaebashi, GunmaTakasaki, GunmaIsesaki, GunmaŌta, GunmaSaitama, SaitamaKawagoe, SaitamaKumagaya, SaitamaKawaguchi, SaitamaTokorozawa, SaitamaKasukabe, SaitamaSōkaKoshigaya, SaitamaChibaFunabashi, ChibaKashiwa, ChibaHachiōji, TokyoYokohamaKawasaki, KanagawaYokosuka, KanagawaHiratsuka, KanagawaOdawara, KanagawaChigasaki, KanagawaSagamiharaAtsugi, KanagawaYamato, KanagawaNiigataNagaoka, NiigataJōetsu, NiigataToyama, ToyamaKanazawa, IshikawaFukuiKōfu, YamanashiNagano, NaganoMatsumoto, NaganoGifuShizuoka, ShizuokaHamamatsuNumazu, ShizuokaFuji, ShizuokaNagoyaToyohashi, AichiOkazaki, AichiIchinomiya, AichiKasugai, AichiToyota, AichiYokkaichi, MieŌtsu, ShigaKyotoOsakaSakai, OsakaKishiwada, OsakaToyonaka, OsakaSuitaTakatsuki, OsakaHirakata, OsakaIbaraki, OsakaYao, OsakaNeyagawa, OsakaHigashiōsaka, OsakaKobeHimeji, HyōgoAmagasakiAkashi, HyōgoNishinomiyaKakogawa, HyōgoTakarazuka, HyōgoNara, NaraWakayamaTottoriMatsue, ShimaneOkayamaKurashiki, OkayamaHiroshimaKure, HiroshimaFukuyama, HiroshimaShimonosekiTakamatsu, KagawaMatsuyama, EhimeKōchi, KōchiKitakyushuFukuokaKurume, FukuokaSagaNagasakiSasebo, NagasakiKumamotoŌitaMiyazakiKagoshimaNaha, Okinawa
(Circle click-able)

― Designated cities

― Core cities

― Special cities

Application for designation is made by a city with the approval of both the city and prefectural assemblies.

HistoryEdit

The term "core city" was created by the first clause of Article 252, Section 22 of the Local Autonomy Law of Japan.[4]

List of core citiesEdit

As of 1 April 2021, 62 cities have been designated core cities:[3]

Name Japanese Flag Emblem Area (km2) Population (2012) Date of designation Region Prefecture Map
Akashi 明石市     49.22 290,927 2018-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo  
Akita 秋田市     906.07 322,224 1997-04-01 Tōhoku Akita  
Amagasaki 尼崎市     49.77 451,353 2009-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo  
Aomori 青森市     824.61 297,348 2006-10-01 Tōhoku Aomori  
Asahikawa 旭川市     747.6 351,765 2000-04-01 Hokkaidō  
Fukui 福井市     536.41 266,612 2019-04-01 Chūbu Fukui  
Fukushima 福島市     767.72 289,355 2018-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima  
Fukuyama 福山市     518.14 462,144 1998-04-01 Chūgoku Hiroshima  
Funabashi 船橋市     85.62 610,492 2003-04-01 Kantō Chiba  
Gifu 岐阜市     203.60 412,718 1996-04-01 Chūbu Gifu  
Hachinohe 八戸市     305.56 241,613 2017-01-01 Tōhoku Aomori  
Hachiōji 八王子市     186.38 579,799 2015-04-01 Kantō Tokyo  
Hakodate 函館市     677.89 279,056 2005-10-01 Hokkaidō  
Higashiōsaka 東大阪市     61.78 508,267 2005-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Himeji 姫路市     534.43 536,218 1996-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo  
Hirakata 枚方市     65.08 407,997 2014-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Ichinomiya 一宮市     113.82 379,654 2021-04-01 Chūbu Aichi  
Iwaki いわき市     1,232.02 332,994 1999-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima  
Kagoshima 鹿児島市     547.58 607,257 1996-04-01 Kyushu Kagoshima  
Kashiwa 柏市     114.74 404,863 2008-04-01 Kantō Chiba  
Kanazawa 金沢市     468.64 462,796 1996-04-01 Chūbu Ishikawa  
Kawagoe 川越市     109.13 345,361 2003-04-01 Kantō Saitama  
Kawaguchi 川口市     61.95 561,788 2018-04-01 Kantō Saitama  
Kōchi 高知市     309.22 342,568 1998-04-01 Shikoku Kōchi  
Kōfu 甲府市     212.47 197,318 2019-04-01 Chūbu Yamanashi  
Kōriyama 郡山市     757.20 331,140 1997-04-01 Tōhoku Fukushima  
Koshigaya 越谷市     60.24 328,079 2015-04-01 Kantō Saitama  
Kurashiki 倉敷市     355.63 477,086 2002-04-01 Chūgoku Okayama  
Kure 呉市     352.80 236,595 2016-04-01 Chūgoku Hiroshima  
Kurume 久留米市     229.96 301,821 2008-04-01 Kyushu Fukuoka  
Maebashi 前橋市     311.59 338,481 2009-04-01 Kantō Gunma  
Matsue 松江市     572.99 208,160 2018-04-01 Chūgoku Shimane  
Matsumoto 松本市     978.47 239,466 2021-04-01 Chūbu Nagano  
Matsuyama 松山市     429.40 516,823 2000-04-01 Shikoku Ehime  
Mito 水戸市     217.32 269,162 2020-04-01 Kantō Ibaraki  
Miyazaki 宮崎市     643.67 402,289 1998-04-01 Kyushu Miyazaki  
Morioka 盛岡市     886.47 299,734 2008-04-01 Tōhoku Iwate  
Naha 那覇市     39.98 321,695 2013-04-01 Kyushu Okinawa  
Nagano 長野市     834.81 380,581 1999-04-01 Chūbu Nagano  
Nagasaki 長崎市     240.71 440,911 1997-04-01 Kyushu Nagasaki  
Nara 奈良市     276.84 365,421 2002-04-01 Kansai Nara  
Neyagawa 寝屋川市     24.73 238,819 2019-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Nishinomiya 西宮市     99.96 483,878 2008-04-01 Kansai Hyōgo  
Ōita 大分市     502.38 476,008 1997-04-01 Kyushu Ōita  
Okazaki 岡崎市     387.20 374,085 2003-04-01 Chūbu Aichi  
Ōtsu 大津市     464.51 339,469 2009-04-01 Kansai Shiga  
Sasebo 佐世保市     426.06 259,676 2016-04-01 Kyushu Nagasaki  
Shimonoseki 下関市     716.14 277,937 2005-10-01 Chūgoku Yamaguchi  
Suita 吹田市     36.11 357,917 2020-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Takamatsu 高松市     375.41 420,356 1999-04-01 Shikoku Kagawa  
Takasaki 高崎市     459.16 371,820 2011-04-01 Kantō Gunma  
Takatsuki 高槻市     105.31 355,840 2003-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Tottori 鳥取市     765.31 196,538 2018-04-01 Chūgoku Tottori  
Toyama 富山市     1,241.77 421,393 2005-04-01 Chūbu Toyama  
Toyohashi 豊橋市     261.86 375,804 1999-04-01 Chūbu Aichi  
Toyonaka 豊中市     36.38 390,457 2012-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Toyota 豊田市     918.32 420,680 1998-04-01 Chūbu Aichi  
Utsunomiya 宇都宮市     416.85 513,722 1996-04-01 Kantō Tochigi  
Wakayama 和歌山市     210.25 368,684 1997-04-01 Kansai Wakayama  
Yamagata 山形市     381.58 254,519 2019-04-01 Tōhoku Yamagata  
Yao 八尾市     41.71 270,735 2018-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Yokosuka 横須賀市     100.7 415,259 2001-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa  

Former core citiesEdit

Name Japanese Flag Emblem Area (km2) Population Date of designation Date of reclassification Region Prefecture Map
Hamamatsu 浜松市     1,558.06 795,350 1996-04-01 2007-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Shizuoka  
Kumamoto 熊本市     390.32 737,812 1996-04-01 2012-04-01 (Designated city) Kyushu Kumamoto  
Niigata 新潟市     726.45 807,450 1996-04-01 2007-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Niigata  
Okayama 岡山市     789.95 720,841 1996-04-01 2009-04-01 (Designated city) Chūgoku Okayama  
Sagamihara 相模原市     328.91 720,986 2003-04-01 2010-04-01 (Designated city) Kantō Kanagawa  
Sakai 堺市     149.82 833,544 1996-04-01 2006-04-01 (Designated city) Kansai Osaka  
Shizuoka 静岡市     1,411.90 697,578 1996-04-01 2005-04-01 (Designated city) Chūbu Shizuoka  

Scheduled to become a core cityEdit

Name Japanese Flag Emblem Area (km2) Population (2012) Scheduled date Region Prefecture Map
Chigasaki 茅ヶ崎市     35.71 236,222 2020-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa  
Fuji 富士市     244.95 253,455 TBD Chūbu Shizuoka  
Kishiwada 岸和田市     72.68 198,615 2020-04-01 Kansai Osaka  
Odawara 小田原市     113.79 197,413 2020-04-01 Kantō Kanagawa  
Tsukuba つくば市     283.72 216,221 TBD Kantō Ibaraki  
Tokorozawa 所沢市     72.11 342,321 TBD Kantō Saitama  
Yokkaichi 四日市市     206.44 307,599 2020 (aiming) Kansai Mie  

Cities that meet the requirements but have not yet been nominatedEdit

The following cities have populations greater than 200,000 but have not yet been nominated. (Cities planning to apply for core city status are not shown.)

Name Japanese Flag Emblem Area (km2) Population Region Prefecture Map
Ageo 上尾市     45.51 229,517 Kantō Saitama  
Chōfu 調布市     21.58 240,668 Kantō Tokyo  
Fuchū 府中市     29.43 260,891 Kantō Tokyo  
Fujisawa 藤沢市     69.57 420,254 Kantō Kanagawa  
Ichihara 市原市     368.17 274,117 Kantō Chiba  
Ichikawa 市川市     56.39 491,804 Kantō Chiba  
Machida 町田市     71.80 429,040 Kantō Tokyo  
Matsudo 松戸市     61.38 498,575 Kantō Chiba  
Tokushima 徳島市     191 258,554 Kansai Tokushima  
Tsu 津市     711.11 279,304 Kansai Mie  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Web-Japan.org, "Local self-government," p. 3; retrieved 2012-11-28.
  2. ^ 日本財団図書館(電子図書館) Revised Local Autonomy Law. nippon.zaidan.info.
  3. ^ a b 日本總務省 - 中核市・施行時特例市. soumo.go.jp (in Japanese).
  4. ^ 日本財団図書館(電子図書館) Revised Local Autonomy Law. nippon.zaidan.info.

External linksEdit