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Shimonoseki (下関市, Shimonoseki-shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Shimonoseki is the biggest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture. It is at the southwestern tip of Honshu, facing the Tsushima Strait and also Kitakyushu across the Kanmon Straits.

Shimonoseki

下関市
Downtown Shimonoseki
Downtown Shimonoseki
Flag of Shimonoseki
Flag
Location of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Location of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Shimonoseki is located in Japan
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Location in Japan
Coordinates: 33°57′N 130°56′E / 33.950°N 130.933°E / 33.950; 130.933Coordinates: 33°57′N 130°56′E / 33.950°N 130.933°E / 33.950; 130.933
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'yō)
PrefectureYamaguchi Prefecture
Government
 • MayorShintaro Maeda (since 2017)
Area
 • Total716.14 km2 (276.50 sq mi)
Population
(October 1, 2016)
 • Total265,684
 • Density370/km2 (960/sq mi)
Symbols
 • TreeCamphor Laurel
 • FlowerCrinum asiaticum
Time zoneUTC+9 (JST)
City hall address1-1 Nanbu, Shimonoseki-shi, Yamaguchi-ken
750-8521
Websitewww.city.shimonoseki.lg.jp

Nicknamed the "Fugu Capital," it is known for the locally caught pufferfish and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan.

As of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 265,684 and a population density of 370 persons per km². The total area is 716.14 km².

Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864
Battle of Dannoura in 1185

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Heike and Genji fought at Dan-no-ura near the present Kanmonkyo Bridge.

The city prior to 1902 was commonly known as Bakan (馬關) and formally Akamagaseki (赤間關).[citation needed]

On February 13, 2005, Shimonoseki absorbed the towns of Hōhoku, Kikugawa, Toyota and Toyoura (all from Toyoura District) to create the new and expanded city of Shimonseki. Since October 1, 2005, the city has been designated as a core city by the Japanese Government.[citation needed]

The geographical position of Shimonoseki has given it historical importance, especially with the Bombardment of Shimonoseki in 1864 and the Treaty of Shimonoseki, where a defeated China handed over Taiwan, Penghu, and Port Arthur to the victorious Japanese in 1895.

An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Shimonoseki as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[1]

On January 7, 2006, the wooden station building at Shimonoseki station, which had dated back to 1942, was destroyed in a fire, the cause of which is suspected to be arson.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

Shimonoseki has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is heavier in summer.

Climate data for Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
9.0
(48.2)
12.3
(54.1)
17.4
(63.3)
21.5
(70.7)
24.7
(76.5)
28.8
(83.8)
30.3
(86.5)
26.8
(80.2)
21.8
(71.2)
16.6
(61.9)
11.4
(52.5)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
6.0
(42.8)
8.9
(48)
13.7
(56.7)
17.8
(64)
21.3
(70.3)
25.6
(78.1)
27.0
(80.6)
23.5
(74.3)
18.3
(64.9)
13.3
(55.9)
8.5
(47.3)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.5
(38.3)
5.9
(42.6)
10.6
(51.1)
14.8
(58.6)
18.7
(65.7)
23.3
(73.9)
24.6
(76.3)
20.8
(69.4)
15.4
(59.7)
10.5
(50.9)
5.9
(42.6)
13.1
(55.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 73.5
(2.894)
76.8
(3.024)
108.5
(4.272)
158.4
(6.236)
161.3
(6.35)
278.5
(10.965)
264.2
(10.402)
126.8
(4.992)
179.7
(7.075)
95.1
(3.744)
78.7
(3.098)
58.2
(2.291)
1,659.7
(65.343)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 5
(2)
5
(2)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
12
(4.8)
Average relative humidity (%) 65 66 68 73 75 80 82 78 76 70 69 66 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.7 106.1 165.9 176.0 200.7 159.0 183.0 213.2 164.4 177.6 132.2 100.0 1,867.8
Source: NOAA (1961-1990)[2]

EconomyEdit

Major companies and institutesEdit

 
Port of Shimonoseki (Hanano-cho Port Area)
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Shimonoseki Shipyard and Machinery Works
  • Yamaguchi Financial Group, Inc.
  • Hayashikane Sangyo Co., Ltd.
  • Chofu Seisakusho Co., Ltd.
  • Harakosan Co., Ltd.
  • Minato-Yamaguchi Co., Ltd.

TransportationEdit

Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International TerminalEdit

TrainsEdit

 
JR network map

BusesEdit

Regular bus services are provided by Sanden Kohtsu, as well as by group companies of Sanden Kohtsu.

  • Bus companies (A loop-line bus in the city.)
    • Sanden Kohtsu Co.,Ltd.
    • Blue Line Kohtsu Co.,Ltd.
  • Intercity bus services (arrival and departure in Shimonoseki city) go to the following destinations: Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Airport, etc.

RoadsEdit

ExpresswayEdit

Chūgoku Expressway
  • Shimonoseki interchange
  • Ozuki interchange

BypassesEdit

  • Ozuki Bypass
  • Shimonoseki-Kita Bypass

National HighwaysEdit

AirportsEdit

Shimonoseki is served by four airports outside the city.

EducationEdit

Universities and collegesEdit

 
University of East Asia

Primary and secondary schoolsEdit

The city has a North Korean school, Yamaguchi Korean Elementary and Junior High School (山口朝鮮初中級学校).[4] It formerly housed two other North Korean schools, Yamaguchi Korean High School and Shimonoseki Korean Elementary and Junior High School|下関朝鮮初中級学校}}.[5]

As a city of a quarter million people, it has some public schools too.[6][7]

CultureEdit

Regional specialtiesEdit

Specialty productsEdit

FestivalsEdit

Shimonoseki is home to many festivals that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival and Shimonoseki Bakan Festival.

  • Shimonoseki Fugu (Blowfish) Festival (February) : Haedomari Market
  • Kawatana Onsen(hot spring) Festival (April)
  • Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival (May) : Karato, Ganryujima Island
  • Suhouteisai Festival (August) : Castle town Chofu
  • Kanmon Kaikyo Fireworks Festival (August) : Karato(Aruka Port area)
  • Shimonoseki Bakan Festival (August) : Along the street from Karato-cho to Shimonoseki Station
  • TOUR de Shimonoseki (October/November)
  • Shimonoseki Kaikyo Marathon (November)
  • Shimonoseki Fish Festival (November) : Shimonoseki Fishing Port
  • Little Busan Fest (November) : Green Mall

ArchitectureEdit

MuseumsEdit

  • Shimonoseki City Art Museum
  • Shimonoseki Chofu Museum
  • Shimonoseki City Archaeological Museum
  • Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum (Shimonoseki City Aquarium) (Kaikyo Kan)
  • Doigahama Site Anthropological Museum
  • The firefly museum of toyota town
  • The Yamagin Archive (やまぎん史料館) of the Yamaguchi Bank

SportsEdit

Professional TeamsEdit

Sporting venuesEdit

Crime and safetyEdit

The Goda-ikka yakuza syndicate is headquartered in Shimonoseki. A designated yakuza group, the Goda-ikka is the largest yakuza syndicate in Yamaguchi Prefecture.[8]

Twin citiesEdit

Shimonoseki has one Japanese and six international sister cities:[9]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  2. ^ "Shimonoseki Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  3. ^ オリエントフェリー運航一時休止について(お知らせ) (PDF). Archived from the original on 2016-02-07.
  4. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. Retrieved October 14, 2015. (Archive).
  5. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. November 6, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  6. ^ http://kam.edu.city.shimonoseki.yamaguchi.jp/~kyouiku/下関市内小中学校/ list of elementary and junior high schools
  7. ^ http://www.shimosho.ed.jp/wordpress/ Shimonoseki Commercial High School
  8. ^ "The 7th President announces the succession, The Goda-ikka, The Prefectural Police on red alert", 21 October 2009, Yamaguchi Shimbun (in Japanese)
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-05-16. Retrieved 2007-06-16.

External linksEdit