Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関市, Hepburn: Shimonoseki-shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. With a population of 265,684, it is the largest city in Yamaguchi Prefecture and the fifth-largest city in the Chūgoku region. It is located at the southwestern tip of Honshu facing the Tsushima Strait at the entrance to the Kanmon Straits (also known as the Straits of Shimonoseki) across from the city of Kitakyushu and the island of Kyushu. It is nicknamed the "Fugu Capital" for the locally caught pufferfish, and is the largest harvester of the pufferfish in Japan.[citation needed]

Shimonoseki
下関市
Central Shimonoseki and Kanmon Strait
Central Shimonoseki and Kanmon Strait
Flag of Shimonoseki
Official seal of Shimonoseki
Location of Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi Prefecture Ja.svg
Shimonoseki is located in Yamaguchi Prefecture
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Location in Japan
Shimonoseki is located in Japan
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki (Japan)
Coordinates: 33°57′N 130°56′E / 33.950°N 130.933°E / 33.950; 130.933Coordinates: 33°57′N 130°56′E / 33.950°N 130.933°E / 33.950; 130.933
CountryJapan
RegionChūgoku (San'yō)
PrefectureYamaguchi Prefecture
First official recorded192 AD
As city settled for AkamazekiApril 1, 1889
Current city's name changedJune 1, 1902
Government
 • MayorShintaro Maeda (since 2017)
Area
 • Total716.14 km2 (276.50 sq mi)
Population
 (October 1, 2016)
 • Total265,684
 • Density370/km2 (960/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (JST)
City hall address1-1 Nanbu, Shimonoseki-shi, Yamaguchi-ken
750-8521
ClimateCfa
Websitewww.city.shimonoseki.lg.jp
Symbols
FlowerCrinum asiaticum
TreeCamphor Laurel

HistoryEdit

The geographical position of Shimonoseki has given it historical importance. The Heike and Genji fought at Dan-no-ura near the present Kanmon Bridge. In February 1691, German explorer Engelbert Kaempfer visited the town as part of his two-year stay in Japan, and described it as having around 400 to 500 houses, and as a major port in the region for supplying ship provisions.[1] The Bombardment of Shimonoseki occurred in 1864, and the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed there in 1895, seeing a defeated China hand over Taiwan, Penghu, and Port Arthur to the victorious Japanese.

An Imperial decree in July 1899 established Shimonoseki as an open port for trading with the United States and the United Kingdom.[2]

 
Captured battery at Shimonoseki, 1864
 
Battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185

On February 13, 2005, Shimonoseki absorbed the towns of Hōhoku, Kikugawa, Toyota and Toyoura (all from Toyoura District) to create the new and expanded city of Shimonseki. Since October 1, 2005, the city has been designated as a core city by the Japanese Government.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

Shimonoseki has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is heavier in summer.

Climate data for Shimonoseki (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1883−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.1
(66.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.2
(79.2)
29.7
(85.5)
30.9
(87.6)
33.7
(92.7)
36.2
(97.2)
37.0
(98.6)
35.0
(95.0)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.2
(79.2)
37.0
(98.6)
Average high °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
10.5
(50.9)
13.7
(56.7)
18.4
(65.1)
22.7
(72.9)
25.8
(78.4)
29.7
(85.5)
31.3
(88.3)
27.8
(82.0)
23.0
(73.4)
17.5
(63.5)
12.3
(54.1)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
7.5
(45.5)
10.3
(50.5)
14.7
(58.5)
19.1
(66.4)
22.5
(72.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.9
(82.2)
24.6
(76.3)
19.7
(67.5)
14.5
(58.1)
9.5
(49.1)
17.0
(62.6)
Average low °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
4.9
(40.8)
7.4
(45.3)
11.6
(52.9)
16.2
(61.2)
20.1
(68.2)
24.2
(75.6)
25.6
(78.1)
22.2
(72.0)
16.9
(62.4)
11.8
(53.2)
7.0
(44.6)
14.4
(57.9)
Record low °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−5.5
(22.1)
0.5
(32.9)
6.5
(43.7)
9.5
(49.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.5
(63.5)
12.8
(55.0)
5.9
(42.6)
0.7
(33.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 80.0
(3.15)
75.9
(2.99)
121.2
(4.77)
130.8
(5.15)
154.2
(6.07)
253.6
(9.98)
309.4
(12.18)
190.0
(7.48)
162.6
(6.40)
83.7
(3.30)
81.9
(3.22)
69.1
(2.72)
1,712.3
(67.41)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 1
(0.4)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.3 9.1 10.1 9.6 8.7 11.3 10.7 9.1 8.5 6.1 8.0 9.0 109.5
Average snowy days (≥ 1 cm) 0.4 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Average relative humidity (%) 63 63 65 67 70 78 79 75 73 67 66 63 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 95.8 116.1 162.9 187.6 207.1 146.6 172.4 207.2 161.9 176.3 134.7 102.6 1,875.9
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[3][4]
Climate data for Toyota, Shimonoseki (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1977−present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
21.8
(71.2)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
31.4
(88.5)
32.2
(90.0)
35.7
(96.3)
36.2
(97.2)
33.9
(93.0)
30.7
(87.3)
26.0
(78.8)
23.2
(73.8)
36.2
(97.2)
Average high °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
9.8
(49.6)
13.4
(56.1)
18.6
(65.5)
23.1
(73.6)
25.9
(78.6)
29.3
(84.7)
30.7
(87.3)
27.2
(81.0)
22.3
(72.1)
16.7
(62.1)
11.2
(52.2)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
4.4
(39.9)
7.5
(45.5)
12.4
(54.3)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
25.1
(77.2)
25.9
(78.6)
22.0
(71.6)
16.1
(61.0)
10.4
(50.7)
5.4
(41.7)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.7
(35.1)
6.1
(43.0)
11.4
(52.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.6
(70.9)
22.1
(71.8)
17.8
(64.0)
10.8
(51.4)
5.0
(41.0)
0.5
(32.9)
9.3
(48.8)
Record low °C (°F) −7.9
(17.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−6.2
(20.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.0
(32.0)
5.5
(41.9)
12.0
(53.6)
14.3
(57.7)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
−6.3
(20.7)
−9.1
(15.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90.8
(3.57)
88.3
(3.48)
140.5
(5.53)
151.4
(5.96)
183.7
(7.23)
272.5
(10.73)
342.8
(13.50)
201.2
(7.92)
167.8
(6.61)
93.3
(3.67)
88.2
(3.47)
83.1
(3.27)
1,899.1
(74.77)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.3 10.7 11.6 10.0 9.5 12.4 11.6 9.9 9.5 7.7 9.3 11.1 124.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.8 107.6 156.1 182.9 206.1 137.0 152.6 189.8 151.6 169.5 134.5 103.9 1,791.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[5][6]

DemographicsEdit

Per Japanese census data, the population of Shimonoseki in 2020 is 255,051 people.[7] Shimonoseki has been conducting censuses since 1920.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 192,840—    
1925 213,109+10.5%
1930 222,702+4.5%
1935 237,248+6.5%
1940 261,549+10.2%
1945 261,982+0.2%
1950 280,949+7.2%
YearPop.±%
1955 308,799+9.9%
1960 317,029+2.7%
1965 317,146+0.0%
1970 315,603−0.5%
1975 322,300+2.1%
1980 325,478+1.0%
1985 324,585−0.3%
YearPop.±%
1990 315,643−2.8%
1995 310,717−1.6%
2000 301,097−3.1%
2005 290,693−3.5%
2010 280,987−3.3%
2015 268,517−4.4%
2020 255,051−5.0%
Shimonoseki population statistics[7]

TransportationEdit

Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International TerminalEdit

TrainsEdit

 
JR network map

BusesEdit

Regular bus services are provided by Sanden Kohtsu, as well as by group companies of Sanden Kohtsu.

  • Bus companies (A loop-line bus in the city.)
    • Sanden Kohtsu Co.,Ltd.
    • Blue Line Kohtsu Co.,Ltd.
  • Intercity bus services (arrival and departure in Shimonoseki city) go to the following destinations: Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Airport, etc.

RoadsEdit

ExpresswayEdit

Chūgoku Expressway
  • Shimonoseki interchange
  • Ozuki interchange

BypassesEdit

  • Ozuki Bypass
  • Shimonoseki-Kita Bypass

National HighwaysEdit

AirportsEdit

Shimonoseki is served by four airports outside the city.

EducationEdit

Universities and collegesEdit

 
University of East Asia

Primary and secondary schoolsEdit

The city has a North Korean school, Yamaguchi Korean Elementary and Junior High School (山口朝鮮初中級学校).[9] It formerly housed two other North Korean schools, Yamaguchi Korean High School and Shimonoseki Korean Elementary and Junior High School (下関朝鮮初中級学校).[10]

As a city of a quarter million people, it has some public schools too.[11][12]

CultureEdit

FestivalsEdit

Shimonoseki is home to many festivals that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival and Shimonoseki Bakan Festival.

  • Shimonoseki Fugu (Blowfish) Festival (February) : Haedomari Market
  • Kawatana Onsen(hot spring) Festival (April)
  • Shimonoseki Kaikyo Festival (May) : Karato, Ganryujima Island
  • Suhouteisai Festival (August) : Castle town Chofu
  • Kanmon Kaikyo Fireworks Festival (August) : Karato(Aruka Port area)
  • Shimonoseki Bakan Festival (August) : Along the street from Karato-cho to Shimonoseki Station
  • TOUR de Shimonoseki (October/November)
  • Shimonoseki Kaikyo Marathon (November)
  • Shimonoseki Fish Festival (November) : Shimonoseki Fishing Port
  • Little Busan Fest (November) : Green Mall

ArchitectureEdit

MuseumsEdit

  • Shimonoseki City Art Museum
  • Shimonoseki Chofu Museum
  • Shimonoseki City Archaeological Museum
  • Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum (Shimonoseki City Aquarium) (Kaikyo Kan)
  • Doigahama Site Anthropological Museum
  • The firefly museum of toyota town
  • The Yamagin Archive (やまぎん史料館) of the Yamaguchi Bank

MonumentsEdit

SportsEdit

Professional TeamsEdit

Sporting venuesEdit

Crime and safetyEdit

The Goda-ikka yakuza syndicate is headquartered in Shimonoseki. A designated yakuza group, the Goda-ikka is the largest yakuza syndicate in Yamaguchi Prefecture.[13]

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Shimonoseki is twinned with:[14]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaempfer, Engelbert (1729). Histoire naturelle, civile et ecclésiastique de l'Empire du Japon. Tome 2 (translated by François Naudé) (in French). The Hague. p. 176.
  2. ^ US Department of State. (1906). A digest of international law as embodied in diplomatic discussions, treaties and other international agreements (John Bassett Moore, ed.), Vol. 5, p. 759.
  3. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  4. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  5. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). JMA. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  6. ^ 観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値). JMA. Retrieved May 25, 2022.
  7. ^ a b Shimonoseki population statistics
  8. ^ オリエントフェリー運航一時休止について(お知らせ) (PDF). Archived from the original on 2016-02-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  9. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. Archived from the original on October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)().
  10. ^ ウリハッキョ一覧. Chongryon. November 6, 2005. Archived from the original on November 6, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  11. ^ 下関市内小中学校 - 山口県下関市(教育委員会) (in Japanese). City of Shimonoseki Education Committee. Retrieved 2020-01-08.
  12. ^ http://www.shimosho.ed.jp/wordpress/ Shimonoseki Commercial High School
  13. ^ "The 7th President announces the succession, The Goda-ikka, The Prefectural Police on red alert", 21 October 2009, Yamaguchi Shimbun (in Japanese)
  14. ^ "姉妹友好都市". city.shimonoseki.lg.jp (in Japanese). Shimonoseki. Retrieved 2020-04-08.

External linksEdit