Kōchi (高知市, Kōchi-shi, pronounced [koːꜜtɕi ɕi]) is the capital city of Kōchi Prefecture located on the island of Shikoku in Japan. With over 40% of the prefectural population, Kōchi is the main commercial and industrial centre and the "primate city" of the prefecture. As of 1 September 2022[update], the city had an estimated population of 320,513 in 164650 households, and a population density of 1000 persons per km². The total area of the city is 309.00 square kilometres (119.31 sq mi).
|• Mayor||Seiya Okazaki|
|• Total||309.00 km2 (119.31 sq mi)|
(September 1, 2022)
|• Density||1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+09:00 (JST)|
|City hall address||5-1-45 Honmachi, Kōchi-shi 780-0571|
Kōchi is located on the southern coast of Kōchi Prefecture, facing the Pacific Ocean to the south. The city area can be divided into three distinct geographic sections. The urban centre lies at the head of Urado Bay, in a narrow alluvial plain crossed by several rivers, notably the Kagami River and Kokubu River. The plain is bounded by mountains to the north and a range of hills to the south and west.
The northern mountains form the least densely populated part of the city, with the only settlement being along narrow river valleys. The highest point in Kōchi is Kuishi-yama at 1,176 metres (3,858 ft).
To the south of the city centre, Urado Bay cuts through the hills to its outlet into the Pacific Ocean. The land surrounding the bay and a small strip of the coastline form the third part of the city. This area, although hillier and less dense than the plain, is nevertheless a major location of housing and port-related industry.
Kōchi has a very wet humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), receiving twice as much rainfall as Shikoku's other chief cities Matsuyama and Takamatsu. It is also the most typhoon-prone of Japan's major cities owing to its location directly exposed to the open Pacific Ocean from which the storms enter the country, and has twice received over 50 cm (20 in) of rainfall in a day from a typhoon.
|Climate data for Kochi (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1886−present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.5
|Average high °C (°F)||12.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.7
|Average low °C (°F)||2.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−7.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||59.1
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)||6.0||7.5||10.5||10.4||11.1||15.1||13.7||12.9||13.2||9.0||7.3||6.4||123.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61||60||62||65||70||78||79||76||74||68||68||64||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||190.7||177.2||192.2||197.3||195.7||133.8||173.7||204.0||162.0||179.6||168.8||184.6||2,159.7|
|Source: Japan Meteorological Agency|
Per Japanese census data, the population of Kōchi increased rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, and has since leveled off.
As with all of Kōchi Prefecture, the area of Nahari was part of ancient Tosa Province. The river plain now containing the city centre was originally settled as a castle town around Kōchi Castle, the seat of the daimyō of Tosa Domain. The castle site was chosen by Yamauchi Kazutoyo in 1601 to replace the earlier seats of the Chōsokabe clan who had previously ruled in province. The city takes its name from that of the castle. As the centre of administration for the province, and the prefecture which succeeded it, the town rapidly grew to become the largest settlement of the region.
During the time of the Meiji Restoration, Kōchi became famous as a centre of pro-imperial ideology, and later for incubating democratic and human rights movements. The city was incorporated on April 1, 1889 with the establishment of the modern municipalities system..
WWII air raidEdit
Kōchi was selected as a target by the United States' XXI Bomber Command because of the city's status as a prefectural capital, and the fact that it was a centre for industry and commercial trade. On July 3, 1945 at 6:22 PM (JST) 129 aircraft took off to bomb Kōchi. 1060 tons of incendiary bombs were dropped on Kōchi, destroying 48% of the built up areas of the city, killing 401 civilians and rendering over 40,000 homeless.
On April 1, 1998, the city was designated as the first core city on Shikoku.
Kōchi contributes 15 members to the Kōchi Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is divided between the Kōchi 1st district and Kōchi 2nd districts of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.
Twin towns/sister citiesEdit
- Sister Cities
|Fresno||United States||California||February 11, 1965|
|Surabaya||Indonesia||East Java||April 17, 1997|
- Friendship city
|Wuhu||China||Anhui||April 19, 1985|
|Mokpo||South Korea||South Jeolla Province||November 9, 2012|
- Sister city
|Kitami||Okhotsk||Hokkaidō region||April 28, 1986|
- National university
- Public university
- Private university
- Kochi gakuen university
- The Open University of Japan
- Elementary and secondary education
Kōchi has 39 public elementary schools, 17 public middle schools and one public high school operated by the city government, one private and one national elementary school, and five private combined middle/high schools. The city has eight public high schools administered by the Kōchi Prefectural Department of Education. The prefecture also operates one middle school and one combined middle/high school.
Kōchi is located on the JR Shikoku's Dosan Line connecting it to northern Shikoku, and via interchanges with the Tosa Kuroshio Railway to the eastern and western parts of Kōchi Prefecture. JR's central station in Kōchi is Kōchi Station.
- Tosa-Ōtsu • Nunoshida • Tosa-Ikku • Azōno • Kōchi • Iriake • Engyōjiguchi • Asahi • Kōchi-Shōgyō-Mae • Asakura
The city also has an extensive bus network.
Japan National RouteEdit
- National Route 32
- National Route 33
- National Route 55
- National Route 56
- National Route 194
- National Route 195
- Port of Kōchi
Kōchi Castle still exists in its pre-restoration form, and is one of the main tourist attractions. Other places of interest in the city centre are the Obiyamachi (帯屋町) shopping arcade, the regular Sunday street markets which are close to a kilometre in length, and Harimaya-bashi (はりまや橋), a bridge that featured in a famous Kōchi song about the forbidden love of a Buddhist priest.
- Kōchi Castle
- Urado Castle ruins
At the mouth of Urado Bay, the remnants of Urado Castle (an earlier provincial seat) stand above Katsurahama (桂浜), a famous beach with an aquarium and statue of the Kōchi hero Sakamoto Ryōma.
Kōchi's most famous festival is the Yosakoi which is held in August. Teams of dancers dance to traditional and modern songs at various places around Kōchi. The total number of dancers is in the thousands.
- Sunday street markets
- Kōchi Castle Museum of History
- Kōchi Literary Museum
- Ryōma's Birthplace Memorial Museum
- Sakamoto Ryōma Memorial Museum
- The Museum of Art, Kōchi
|Kōchi Fighting Dogs||Baseball||Shikoku Island League Plus||Kochi Municipal Baseball Park, Kochi Prefectural Haruno Baseball Stadium||2005|
|Kochi United SC||Soccer||Japan Football League, J.League||Kochi Haruno Athletic Stadium||2018|
Kōchi Fighting Dogs
（Kochi Prefectural Haruno Baseball Stadium）
Notable people from KōchiEdit
- Nakahama Manjirō (1827–1898) was one of the first Japanese people to visit the United States and an important translator during the opening of Japan.
- Okada Izō (1832–1865) was a samurai of the late Edo period, feared as one of the four most notable assassins of the Bakumatsu period.
- Sakamoto Ryōma (1836–1867) was a leader of the movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate during the Bakumatsu period.
- Itagaki Taisuke (1837–1919) was a politician and leader of the Freedom and People's Rights Movement, which evolved into Japan's first political party.
- Tsutomu Seki (born 1930) is an astronomer who has discovered a number of comets and asteroids.
- Nobuo Uematsu (born 1959) is a video game composer, best known for scoring the majority of titles in the Final Fantasy series.
- Ryōko Hirosue (born 1980) is an actress and pop star, best known in the West for her roles in the Luc Besson-produced Wasabi and the Academy Award-winning Japanese film Departures.
- Aaron Zagory (born 1985) is a Kōchi-born former US college football player, and the starting kicker for Stanford University in 2006 and 2008.
- Sumi Shimamoto (born 1954) is an anime voice actress, best known for playing Kyoko Otonashi in Maison Ikkoku and Nausicaa in Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind.
- Noa Tsurushima (born 2001) is a model and actress, best known for portraying Is and As in Kamen Rider Zero-One.
- Tomitaro Makino (1862–1957) was a pioneering botanist, sometimes referred to as the Father of Japanese Botany.
- Kusunose Kita (1836–1920) was an advocate for Women's rights in Japan, particularly in Kochi.
- Tetsuya Nomura (born 1970) is a video game artist, designer and director who currently works for Square Enix. Famous for being a character designer for the Final Fantasy Series.
- Nakamura Kazuha (born 2003) is a member of Korean girl group Le Sserafim.
- Nonaka Shana (born 2003) is a member of Korean girl group Lapillus.
-  Archived October 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Kōchi city official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
-  Archived November 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- 気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値）. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Kōchi population statistics
- "21st Bomber Command Tactical Mission Report 247, 250, Ocr". Scribd.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "ようこそ！市長室へ" [welcome! To the Mayor's Office]. Kōchi City (in Japanese). Retrieved 29 June 2022.
- "The Twin City". Surabaya.go.id. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
-  Archived January 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Kōchi Prefectural Museum of History, map; retrieved 2011-08-09
- "The Sakamoto Ryoma Memorial Museum". Kochi-bunkazaidan.or.jp. Archived from the original on 2014-05-23. Retrieved 2013-12-09.