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The Shikoku Pilgrimage (四国遍路, Shikoku Henro) or Shikoku Junrei (四国巡礼) is a multi-site pilgrimage of 88 temples associated with the Buddhist monk Kūkai (Kōbō Daishi) on the island of Shikoku, Japan. A popular and distinctive feature of the island's cultural landscape, and with a long history, large numbers of pilgrims, known as henro (遍路), still undertake the journey for a variety of ascetic, pious, and tourism-related purposes.[1] The pilgrimage is traditionally completed on foot, but modern pilgrims use cars, taxis, buses, bicycles, or motorcycles. The standard walking course is approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) long and can take anywhere from 30 to 60 days to complete.

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Map of the 88 temples along the Shikoku Pilgrimage
Pilgrims at Zentsū-ji, Temple 75 and the birthplace of Kūkai
An aruki-henro or walking pilgrim, marked out by his distinctive sedge hat, white shirt, and kongō-zue. The henro-michi route passes through the countryside and a number of cities.
Osuɡata.jpg

In addition to the 88 "official" temples of the pilgrimage, there are over 20 bangai — temples not considered part of the official 88. To complete the pilgrimage, it is not necessary to visit the temples in order; in some cases it is even considered lucky[citation needed] to travel in reverse order. Henro (遍路) is the Japanese word for pilgrim,[2] and the inhabitants of Shikoku call the pilgrims o-henro-san (お遍路さん), the o () being an honorific and the san (さん) a title similar to "Mr." or "Mrs.". They are often recognizable by their white clothing, sedge hats, and kongō-zue or walking sticks. Alms or osettai are frequently given. Many pilgrims begin and complete the journey by visiting Mount Kōya in Wakayama Prefecture, which was settled by Kūkai and remains the headquarters of Shingon Buddhism. The 21 kilometres (13 mi) walking trail up to Koya-san still exists, but most pilgrims use the train.

Contents

HistoryEdit

BackgroundEdit

Pilgrimages have played an important part in Japanese religious practice since at least the Heian period. Typically centred upon holy mountains, particular divinities, or charismatic individuals, they are usually to Buddhist sites although those to the shrines of Kumano and Ise are notable exceptions.[1][3]

Kōbō DaishiEdit

Kūkai, born at Zentsū-ji (Temple 75) in 774, studied in China, and upon his return was influential in the promotion of esoteric Buddhism. He established the Shingon retreat of Kōya-san, was an active writer, undertook a programme of public works, and during visits to the island of his birth is popularly said to have established or visited many of its temples and to have carved many of their images. He is posthumously known as Kōbō Daishi.[4][5]

DevelopmentEdit

The legends and cult of Kōbō Daishi, such as the episode of Emon Saburō, were maintained and developed by the monks of Kōya-san who travelled to expound Shingon and were active, along with other hijiri, in Shikoku.[6] In the Edo period, the policy of tochi kinbaku (土地緊縛) restricted and regulated the movement of ordinary people. Pilgrims were required to obtain travel permits, follow the main paths, and pass through localities within a certain time limit, with the book of temple stamps or nōkyō-chō helping to provide proof of passage.[7]

PracticeEdit

StagesEdit

Shikoku literally means "four provinces", those of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, reorganised during the Meiji period into the prefectures of Tokushima, Kōchi, Ehime, and Kagawa. The pilgrim's journey through these four provinces is likened to a symbolic path to enlightenment, with temples 1–23 representing the idea of awakening (発心, hosshin), 24–39 austerity and discipline (修行, shugyō), 40–65 attaining enlightenment (菩提, bodai), and 66–88 entering nirvana (涅槃, nehan).[8]

EquipmentEdit

The pilgrim's traditional costume comprises a white shirt (白衣, oizuru), conical Asian hat (すげ笠, suge-kasa), and staff (金剛杖, kongō-zue). This may be supplemented by a ceremonial stole (輪袈裟, wagesa). The henro also carries a bag (ずだ袋, zuda-bukuro) containing name slips (納札, osame-fuda), prayer beads (数珠, juzu) (also known as nenju (念珠)), a booklet (納経帳, nōkyō-chō) to collect stamps/seals (朱印, shuin), incense sticks (線香, senkō), and coins used as offerings (お賽銭, o-saisen). The more religiously-minded henro may also carry a book of sutras (経本, kyōbon) and go-eika (ご詠歌) set with a bell.[9]

RitesEdit

Upon arrival at each temple the henro washes before proceeding to the Hondō. After offering coins, incense, and the osame-fuda, the Heart Sutra (般若心経, Hannya Shingyō) is chanted along with repetition of the Mantra of the main image (本尊, honzon) and the Mantra of Light (光明真言, Kōmyō Shingon). After kigan and ekō prayers, the henro proceeds to the shrine of Kobo Daishi (大師堂, Daishidō). Coins and a fuda are similarly offered, and again the Heart Sutra is chanted, along with repetition of the Gohōgō Mantra, namu-Daishi-henjō-kongō.[9]

Imitative versionsEdit

Attesting to the popularity of the Shikoku pilgrimage, from the eighteenth century a number of smaller imitative versions have been established.[3] These include a 150 kilometres (93 mi) circuit on Shōdo Island northeast of Takamatsu;[10] a 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) course on the grounds of Ninna-ji in Kyoto;[11] a route on the Chita Peninsula near Nagoya;[12] and circuits in Edo and Chiba Prefecture.[3] Outside Japan, another version is on the Hawai'ian island of Kaua'i.[13]

TemplesEdit

Collectively, the 88 temples are known as Shikoku Hachijūhakkasho (四国八十八箇所) or simply the Hachijūhakkasho (八十八箇所).

No. Temple Honzon (main image) Location Coordinates Image
1 Ryōzen-ji (霊山寺) Shaka Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09′35″N 134°30′09″E / 34.159803°N 134.502592°E / 34.159803; 134.502592 (Ryōzen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #1))  
2 Gokuraku-ji (極楽寺) Amida Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09′20″N 134°29′25″E / 34.155556°N 134.490278°E / 34.155556; 134.490278 (Gokuraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #2))  
3 Konsen-ji (金泉寺) Shaka Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°08′51″N 134°28′07″E / 34.147436°N 134.468544°E / 34.147436; 134.468544 (Konsen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #3))  
4 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Dainichi Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°09′05″N 134°25′51″E / 34.151306°N 134.430889°E / 34.151306; 134.430889 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #4))  
5 Jizō-ji (地蔵寺) Enmei Jizō Bosatsu Itano, Tokushima 34°08′14″N 134°25′55″E / 34.137222°N 134.431944°E / 34.137222; 134.431944 (Jizō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #5))  
6 Anraku-ji (安楽寺) Yakushi Nyorai Kamiita, Tokushima 34°07′05″N 134°23′18″E / 34.118056°N 134.388389°E / 34.118056; 134.388389 (Anraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #6))  
7 Jūraku-ji (十楽寺) Amida Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°07′15″N 134°22′41″E / 34.12075°N 134.377925°E / 34.12075; 134.377925 (Jūraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #7))  
8 Kumadani-ji (熊谷寺) Senjū Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°07′22″N 134°20′24″E / 34.122778°N 134.34°E / 34.122778; 134.34 (Kumadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #8))  
9 Hōrin-ji (法輪寺) Shaka Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°06′16″N 134°20′02″E / 34.104378°N 134.333814°E / 34.104378; 134.333814 (Hōrin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #9))  
10 Kirihata-ji (切幡寺) Senjū Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°06′28″N 134°18′15″E / 34.10775°N 134.304278°E / 34.10775; 134.304278 (Kirihata-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #10))  
11 Fujii-dera (藤井寺) Yakushi Nyorai Yoshinogawa, Tokushima 34°03′06″N 134°20′55″E / 34.051667°N 134.3485°E / 34.051667; 134.3485 (Fujii-dera (Shikoku Pilgrimage #11))  
12 Shōsan-ji (焼山寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Kamiyama, Tokushima 33°59′06″N 134°18′37″E / 33.985028°N 134.31025°E / 33.985028; 134.31025 (Shōsan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #12))  
13 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Jūichimen Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°02′17″N 134°27′46″E / 34.038117°N 134.462683°E / 34.038117; 134.462683 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #13))  
14 Jōraku-ji (常楽寺) Miroku Bosatsu Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03′01″N 134°28′32″E / 34.050333°N 134.475639°E / 34.050333; 134.475639 (Jōraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #14))  
15 Awa Kokubun-ji (阿波国分寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03′20″N 134°28′25″E / 34.055611°N 134.473611°E / 34.055611; 134.473611 (Awa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #15))  
16 Kannon-ji (観音寺) Senjū Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°04′06″N 134°28′28″E / 34.068472°N 134.474344°E / 34.068472; 134.474344 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #16))  
17 Ido-ji (井戸寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°05′07″N 134°29′08″E / 34.085167°N 134.485444°E / 34.085167; 134.485444 (Ido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #17))  
18 Onzan-ji (恩山寺) Yakushi Nyorai Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°59′10″N 134°34′42″E / 33.986°N 134.57825°E / 33.986; 134.57825 (Onzan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #18))  
19 Tatsue-ji (立江寺) Jizō Bosatsu Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°58′04″N 134°36′21″E / 33.967861°N 134.605806°E / 33.967861; 134.605806 (Tatsue-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #19))  
20 Kakurin-ji (鶴林寺) Jizō Bosatsu Katsuura, Tokushima 33°54′50″N 134°30′20″E / 33.913861°N 134.505611°E / 33.913861; 134.505611 (Kakurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #20))  
21 Tairyūji (太龍寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Anan, Tokushima 33°52′57″N 134°31′19″E / 33.882528°N 134.521889°E / 33.882528; 134.521889 (Tairyūji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #21))  
22 Byōdō-ji (Tokushima) (平等寺) Yakushi Nyorai Anan, Tokushima 33°51′07″N 134°34′58″E / 33.851833°N 134.582778°E / 33.851833; 134.582778 (Byōdō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #22))  
23 Yakuō-ji (薬王寺) Yakushi Nyorai Minami, Tokushima 33°43′56″N 134°31′39″E / 33.732306°N 134.527583°E / 33.732306; 134.527583 (Yakuō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #23))  
24 Hotsumisaki-ji (最御崎寺) Kokūzō Bosatsu Muroto, Kōchi 33°14′56″N 134°10′33″E / 33.249008°N 134.175739°E / 33.249008; 134.175739 (Hotsumisaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #24))  
25 Shinshō-ji (津照寺) Jizō Bosatsu Muroto, Kōchi 33°17′16″N 134°08′54″E / 33.287806°N 134.14825°E / 33.287806; 134.14825 (Shinshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #25))  
26 Kongōchō-ji (金剛頂寺) Yakushi Nyorai Muroto, Kōchi 33°18′26″N 134°07′22″E / 33.307222°N 134.122861°E / 33.307222; 134.122861 (Kongōchō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #26))  
27 Kōnomine-ji (神峰寺) Jūichimen Kannon Yasuda, Kōchi 33°28′03″N 133°58′29″E / 33.467611°N 133.974778°E / 33.467611; 133.974778 (Kōnomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #27))  
28 Dainichi-ji (大日寺) Dainichi Nyorai Kōnan, Kōchi 33°34′39″N 133°42′19″E / 33.577583°N 133.705389°E / 33.577583; 133.705389 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #28))  
29 Tosa Kokubun-ji (土佐国分寺) Senjū Kannon Nankoku, Kōchi 33°35′55″N 133°38′26″E / 33.598694°N 133.640417°E / 33.598694; 133.640417 (Tosa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #29))  
30 Zenrakuji (善楽寺) Amida Nyorai Kōchi, Kōchi 33°35′31″N 133°34′39″E / 33.591917°N 133.577556°E / 33.591917; 133.577556 (Zenrakuji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #30))  
31 Chikurin-ji (竹林寺) Monju Bosatsu Kōchi, Kōchi 33°32′48″N 133°34′39″E / 33.546611°N 133.577472°E / 33.546611; 133.577472 (Chikurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #31))  
32 Zenjibu-ji (禅師峰寺) Jūichimen Kannon Nankoku, Kōchi 33°31′36″N 133°36′41″E / 33.526694°N 133.611389°E / 33.526694; 133.611389 (Zenjibu-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #32))  
33 Sekkei-ji (雪蹊寺) Yakushi Nyorai Kōchi, Kōchi 33°30′03″N 133°32′35″E / 33.500833°N 133.543083°E / 33.500833; 133.543083 (Sekkei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #33))  
34 Tanema-ji (種間寺) Yakushi Nyorai Haruno, Kōchi 33°29′30″N 133°29′15″E / 33.491722°N 133.487583°E / 33.491722; 133.487583 (Tanema-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #34))  
35 Kiyotaki-ji (清滝寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tosa, Kōchi 33°30′45″N 133°24′34″E / 33.5125°N 133.4095°E / 33.5125; 133.4095 (Kiyotaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #35))  
36 Shōryū-ji (青竜寺) Fudō Myōō Tosa, Kōchi 33°25′34″N 133°27′03″E / 33.426°N 133.450806°E / 33.426; 133.450806 (Shōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #36))  
37 Iwamoto-ji (岩本寺) Five Buddhas Shimanto, Kōchi 33°12′29″N 133°08′05″E / 33.207972°N 133.134611°E / 33.207972; 133.134611 (Iwamoto-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #37))  
38 Kongōfuku-ji (金剛福寺) Senjū Kannon Tosashimizu, Kōchi 32°43′34″N 133°01′07″E / 32.726028°N 133.018556°E / 32.726028; 133.018556 (Kongōfuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #38))  
39 Enkōji (延光寺) Yakushi Nyorai Sukumo, Kōchi 32°57′41″N 132°46′27″E / 32.961306°N 132.774056°E / 32.961306; 132.774056 (Enkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #39))  
40 Kanjizai-ji (観自在寺) Yakushi Nyorai Ainan, Ehime 32°57′53″N 132°33′51″E / 32.964667°N 132.564056°E / 32.964667; 132.564056 (Kanjizai-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #40))  
41 Ryūkōji (竜光寺) Jūichimen Kannon Uwajima, Ehime 33°17′43″N 132°35′55″E / 33.295194°N 132.5985°E / 33.295194; 132.5985 (Ryūkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #41))  
42 Butsumoku-ji (佛木寺) Dainichi Nyorai Uwajima, Ehime 33°18′38″N 132°34′53″E / 33.310583°N 132.581472°E / 33.310583; 132.581472 (Butsumoku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #42))  
43 Meiseki-ji (明石寺) Senjū Kannon Seiyo, Ehime 33°22′09″N 132°31′08″E / 33.369222°N 132.518972°E / 33.369222; 132.518972 (Meiseki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #43))  
44 Daihō-ji (大宝寺) Jūichimen Kannon Kumakōgen, Ehime 33°39′39″N 132°54′43″E / 33.660889°N 132.912083°E / 33.660889; 132.912083 (Daihō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #44))  
45 Iwaya-ji (ja) (岩屋寺) Fudō Myōō Kumakōgen, Ehime 33°39′31″N 132°58′51″E / 33.658667°N 132.980722°E / 33.658667; 132.980722 (Iwaya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #45))  
46 Jōruri-ji (浄瑠璃寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45′13″N 132°49′09″E / 33.753556°N 132.819111°E / 33.753556; 132.819111 (Jōruri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #46))  
47 Yasaka-ji (八坂寺) Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45′29″N 132°48′46″E / 33.757944°N 132.812861°E / 33.757944; 132.812861 (Yasaka-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #47))  
48 Sairin-ji (西林寺) Jūichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°47′37″N 132°48′50″E / 33.793722°N 132.813944°E / 33.793722; 132.813944 (Sairin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #48))  
49 Jōdo-ji (浄土寺) Shaka Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49′00″N 132°48′31″E / 33.816667°N 132.808528°E / 33.816667; 132.808528 (Jōdo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #49))  
50 Hanta-ji (繁多寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49′41″N 132°48′16″E / 33.828139°N 132.804556°E / 33.828139; 132.804556 (Hanta-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #50))  
51 Ishite-ji (石手寺) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°50′52″N 132°47′47″E / 33.847861°N 132.796472°E / 33.847861; 132.796472 (Ishite-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #51))  
52 Taisan-ji (太山寺) Jūichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53′06″N 132°42′54″E / 33.885083°N 132.714972°E / 33.885083; 132.714972 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #52))  
53 Enmyō-ji (圓明寺) Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53′30″N 132°44′23″E / 33.89175°N 132.739667°E / 33.89175; 132.739667 (Enmyō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #53))  
54 Enmei-ji (延命寺) Fudō Myōō Imabari, Ehime 34°04′01″N 132°57′50″E / 34.066833°N 132.964°E / 34.066833; 132.964 (Enmei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #54))  
55 Nankōbō (南光坊) Daitsū-chishō Butsu Imabari, Ehime 34°04′08″N 132°59′45″E / 34.06875°N 132.99575°E / 34.06875; 132.99575 (Nankōbō (Shikoku Pilgrimage #55))  
56 Taisan-ji (泰山寺) Jizō Bosatsu Imabari, Ehime 34°03′00″N 132°58′28″E / 34.050111°N 132.974583°E / 34.050111; 132.974583 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #56))  
57 Eifuku-ji (栄福寺) Amida Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01′46″N 132°58′42″E / 34.029472°N 132.978472°E / 34.029472; 132.978472 (Eifuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #57))  
58 Senyū-ji (仙遊寺) Senjū Kannon Imabari, Ehime 34°00′47″N 132°58′38″E / 34.013194°N 132.977361°E / 34.013194; 132.977361 (Senyū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #58))  
59 Iyo Kokubun-ji (伊予国分寺) Yakushi Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01′34″N 133°01′32″E / 34.026167°N 133.025444°E / 34.026167; 133.025444 (Iyo Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #59))  
60 Yokomine-ji (横峰寺) Dainichi Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°50′16″N 133°06′40″E / 33.837861°N 133.111139°E / 33.837861; 133.111139 (Yokomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #60))  
61 Kōon-ji (香園寺) Dainichi Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°53′37″N 133°06′12″E / 33.893528°N 133.103306°E / 33.893528; 133.103306 (Kōon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #61))  
62 Hōju-ji (宝寿寺) Jūichimen Kannon Saijō, Ehime 33°53′50″N 133°06′54″E / 33.897333°N 133.114944°E / 33.897333; 133.114944 (Hōju-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #62))  
63 Kichijō-ji (吉祥寺) Bishamonten Saijō, Ehime 33°53′46″N 133°07′45″E / 33.896056°N 133.129167°E / 33.896056; 133.129167 (Kichijō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #63))  
64 Maegami-ji (前神寺) Amida Nyorai Saijō, Ehime 33°53′25″N 133°09′38″E / 33.890222°N 133.160667°E / 33.890222; 133.160667 (Maegami-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #64))  
65 Sankaku-ji (三角寺) Jūichimen Kannon Shikokuchūō, Ehime 33°58′04″N 133°35′11″E / 33.967639°N 133.5865°E / 33.967639; 133.5865 (Sankaku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #65))  
66 Unpen-ji (雲辺寺) Senjū Kannon Miyoshi, Tokushima 34°02′07″N 133°43′25″E / 34.035222°N 133.723722°E / 34.035222; 133.723722 (Unpen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #66))  
67 Daikō-ji (大興寺) Yakushi Nyorai Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°06′08″N 133°43′09″E / 34.102194°N 133.719167°E / 34.102194; 133.719167 (Daikō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #67))  
68 Jinne-in (神恵院) Amida Nyorai Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08′02″N 133°38′50″E / 34.133986°N 133.647333°E / 34.133986; 133.647333 (Jinne-in (Shikoku Pilgrimage #68))  
69 Kannon-ji (観音寺) Shō Kannon Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08′04″N 133°38′51″E / 34.1345°N 133.647528°E / 34.1345; 133.647528 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #69))  
70 Motoyama-ji (本山寺) Batō Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°08′23″N 133°41′39″E / 34.139667°N 133.694056°E / 34.139667; 133.694056 (Motoyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #70))  
71 Iyadani-ji (弥谷寺) Senjū Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°13′47″N 133°43′27″E / 34.229722°N 133.724261°E / 34.229722; 133.724261 (Iyadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #71))  
72 Mandara-ji (曼荼羅寺) Dainichi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′10″N 133°45′01″E / 34.219389°N 133.750278°E / 34.219389; 133.750278 (Mandara-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #72))  
73 Shusshakaji (出釈迦寺) Shaka Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′24″N 133°45′01″E / 34.223306°N 133.750219°E / 34.223306; 133.750219 (Shusshakaji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #73))  
74 Kōyama-ji (甲山寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′59″N 133°45′57″E / 34.233194°N 133.765764°E / 34.233194; 133.765764 (Kōyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #74))  
75 Zentsū-ji (善通寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°13′30″N 133°46′27″E / 34.225111°N 133.774139°E / 34.225111; 133.774139 (Zentsū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #75))  
76 Konzō-ji (金倉寺) Yakushi Nyorai Zentsūji, Kagawa 34°15′00″N 133°46′52″E / 34.250097°N 133.781014°E / 34.250097; 133.781014 (Konzō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #76))  
77 Dōryū-ji (道隆寺) Yakushi Nyorai Tadotsu, Kagawa 34°16′36″N 133°45′46″E / 34.27675°N 133.762694°E / 34.27675; 133.762694 (Dōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #77))  
78 Gōshō-ji (郷照寺) Amida Nyorai Utazu, Kagawa 34°18′24″N 133°49′28″E / 34.306694°N 133.824583°E / 34.306694; 133.824583 (Gōshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #78))  
79 Tennō-ji (天皇寺) Jūichimen Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°18′41″N 133°52′58″E / 34.311472°N 133.882861°E / 34.311472; 133.882861 (Tennō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #79))  
80 Sanuki Kokubun-ji (讃岐国分寺) Jūichimen & Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°18′11″N 133°56′39″E / 34.303139°N 133.944167°E / 34.303139; 133.944167 (Sanuki Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #80))  
81 Shiromine-ji (白峯寺) Senjū Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°20′01″N 133°55′36″E / 34.333528°N 133.926764°E / 34.333528; 133.926764 (Shiromine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #81))  
82 Negoro-ji (根香寺) Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°20′40″N 133°57′38″E / 34.3445°N 133.960556°E / 34.3445; 133.960556 (Negoro-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #82))  
83 Ichinomiya-ji (一宮寺) Shō Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°17′12″N 134°01′36″E / 34.286611°N 134.026583°E / 34.286611; 134.026583 (Ichinomiya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #83))  
84 Yashima-ji (屋島寺) Jūichimen & Senjū Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21′29″N 134°06′05″E / 34.357917°N 134.10125°E / 34.357917; 134.10125 (Yashima-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #84))  
85 Yakuri-ji (八栗寺) Shō Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21′36″N 134°08′22″E / 34.359889°N 134.139528°E / 34.359889; 134.139528 (Yakuri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #85))  
86 Shido-ji (志度寺) Jūichimen Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°19′28″N 134°10′47″E / 34.324306°N 134.179639°E / 34.324306; 134.179639 (Shido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #86))  
87 Nagao-ji (長尾寺) Shō Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°16′00″N 134°10′18″E / 34.266706°N 134.171719°E / 34.266706; 134.171719 (Nagao-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #87))  
88 Ōkubo-ji (大窪寺) Yakushi Nyorai Sanuki, Kagawa 34°11′29″N 134°12′24″E / 34.191408°N 134.206733°E / 34.191408; 134.206733 (Ōkubo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #88))  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Reader, Ian (1999). "34. Legends, Miracles and Faith in Kōbō Daishi and the Shikoku Pilgrimage". In Tanabe, George J. Religions of Japan in Practice. Princeton University Press. pp. 360–9. ISBN 0-691-05789-3.
  2. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press , p. 318. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0
  3. ^ a b c Kitagawa, Joseph M. (1987). On Understanding Japanese Religion. Princeton University Press. pp. 127–136. ISBN 0-691-10229-5.
  4. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). Kūkai: Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.
  5. ^ Miyazaki, Tateki (2004). Shikoku henro hitori aruki dōgyō-ninin. Matsuyama.
  6. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 42ff. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0.
  7. ^ Kouamé, Nathalie (1997). "Shikoku's Local Authorities and Henro during the Golden Age of the Pilgrimage". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Nanzan University. 24 (3/4): 413–425. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014.
  8. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52f. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0.
  9. ^ a b Miyata, Taisen (2006). The 88 Temples of Shikoku Island, Japan. Koyasan Buddhist Temple, Los Angeles. pp. 15–18.
  10. ^ "Shodoshima Guide Book". Organization for the Promotion of Tourism in Shikoku. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Hachijūhakkasho". Ninna-ji. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  12. ^ "Chita Hachijūhakkasho". Chita 88. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  13. ^ "Lawai International Center". Retrieved 27 December 2014.

Further readingEdit

  • Statler, Oliver (1983). Japanese Pilgrimage. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-688-01890-4.
  • McLachlan, Craig (1997). Tales of a Summer Henro. Tokyo: Yohan Publications. ISBN 4-89684-257-X.
  • Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2876-3.
  • Dempster, Lisa (2009). Neon Pilgrim'. Footscray West, Vic.: Aduki Independent Press. ISBN 0-9803351-7-5.
  • Lewis-Kraus, Gideon (2012). A Sense of Direction. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 978-1-59448-725-5.
  • Sibley, Robert C. (2013). The Way of the 88 Temples: Journeys on the Shikoku Pilgrimage. Charlelottesville: University of Virginia Press. ISBN 978-0-8139-3472-3.

External linksEdit