1874 and 1875 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1874 and 1875 for Representatives to the 44th Congress, occurring in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's second term with a deep economic depression underway. It was an important turning point, as the Republicans lost heavily and the Democrats gained control of the House. It signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction, which Democrats opposed. Historians emphasize the factors of economic depression and attacks on the Grant administration for corruption as key factors in the vote.[2]

1874 and 1875 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1872 & 1873 November 3, 1874[a] 1876 & 1877 →

All 292 seats in the United States House of Representatives[b]
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Michael C. Kerr - Brady-Handy.jpg James G. Blaine - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Michael Kerr James G. Blaine
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana 3rd Maine 3rd
Last election 88 seats 195 seats
Seats won 180[1] 103[1]
Seat change Increase 92 Decrease 92
Popular vote 3,061,888 2,766,257
Percentage 49.12% 44.38%
Swing Increase 7.12% Decrease 8.47%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Monopoly Reform
Last election 0 seats 0 seats
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Increase 1 Increase 1
Popular vote 79,816 9,546
Percentage 1.28% 0.15%
Swing New New

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 1 seat[c]
Seats won 4[d][e]
Seat change Increase 3
Popular vote 276,554
Percentage 4.44%
Swing Increase 2.19%

House044ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1874 elections for 44th Congress

Speaker before election

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

Michael Kerr
Democratic

With the election following the Panic of 1873, Grant's Republican Party was crushed in the elections, losing their majority and almost half their seats to the Democratic Party. This was the first period of Democratic control since the pre-war era. The economic crisis and the inability of Grant to find a solution led to his party's defeat. This was the second-largest swing in the history of the House (only behind the 1894 elections), and is the largest House loss in the history of the Republican Party.

In the south, the Democrats continued their systematic destruction of the Republican coalition. In the South, Scalawags moved into the Democratic Party. The Democratic landslide signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction, which Democrats opposed and a realignment of the Republican coalition that had dominated American politics since the late 1850s.[3]

While the ongoing end of Reconstruction in the South was one of the main reasons for the shift, turn-of-the-century historian James Ford Rhodes explored the multiple causes of the results in the North:[4]

In the fall elections of 1874 the issue was clearly defined: Did the Republican President Ulysses S. Grant and Congress deserve the confidence of the country? and the answer was unmistakably No ... The Democrats had won a signal victory, obtaining control of the next House of Representatives which would stand Democrats 168, Liberals and Independents 14, Republicans 108 as against the two-thirds Republican majority secured by the election of 1872. Since 1861 the Republicans had controlled the House and now with its loss came a decrease in their majority in the Senate ...

Rhodes continues:

The political revolution from 1872 to 1874 was due to the failure of the Southern policy of the Republican party, to the Credit Mobilier and Sanborn contract scandals, to corrupt and inefficient administration in many departments and to the persistent advocacy of Grant by some close friends and hangers-on for a third presidential term. Some among the opposition were influenced by the President's backsliding in the cause of civil service reform, and others by the failure of the Republican party to grapple successfully with the financial question. The depression, following the financial Panic of 1873, and the number of men consequently out of employment weighed in the scale against the party in power. In Ohio, the result was affected by the temperance crusade in the early part of the year. Bands of women of good social standing marched to saloons before which or in which they sang hymns and, kneeling down, prayed that the great evil of drink might be removed. Sympathizing men wrought with them in causing the strict law of the State against the sale of strong liquor to be rigidly enforced. Since Republicans were in the main the instigators of the movement, it alienated from their party a large portion of the German American vote.

Special electionsEdit

Election summariesEdit

182 8 103
Democratic [f] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Independent
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+ 2 at-large
8 6   4 2   4 0  
Arkansas District 4 4   4 0   4 0  
California[g] District 4 3   2 1   2 0  
Connecticut[g] District 4 3   2 1   2 0  
Delaware At-large 1 1   1 0   1 0  
Florida District 2 1   1 1   1 0  
Georgia[h] District 9 9[e]   2 0   2 0  
Illinois District 19 11   6 6   8 2   2
Indiana[h] District 13 8   5 5   5 0  
Iowa[h] District 9 1   1 8   1 0  
Kansas District 3 1   1 2   1 0  
Kentucky District 10 9   1 1   1 0  
Louisiana District 6 4   3 2   2 0  
Maine[h] District 5 0   5   0  
Maryland District 6 6   2 0   2 0  
Massachusetts District 11 5   5 4   7 2   2
Michigan District 9 3   3 6   3 0  
Minnesota District 3 0   3   0  
Mississippi District 6 4   3 2[i]   3 0  
Missouri District 13 13   4 0   4 0  
Nebraska[h] At-large 1 0   1   0  
Nevada At-large 1 0   1 1   1 0  
New Hampshire[g] District 3 2   1 1   1 0  
New Jersey District 7 5   4 2   4 0  
New York District 33 17   8 16[i]   8 0  
North Carolina[h] District 8 7   2 1   2 0  
Ohio[h] District 20 13   7 7   7 0  
Oregon[h] At-large 1 1   1 0   1 0  
Pennsylvania District 27 17   12 10   12 0  
Rhode Island District 2 0   2   0  
South Carolina District 5 0   5   0  
Tennessee District 10 9   6 1   6 0  
Texas District 6 6   0   0  
Vermont[h] District 3 0   3[i]   0  
Virginia District 9 8   4 1   4 0  
West Virginia[h] District 3 3   1 0   1 0  
Wisconsin District 8 3   1 5   1 0  
Total 293[b] 183[e]
62.5%
  94 105[d]
36.2%
  93 4
1.4%
  4
Popular vote
Democratic
49.12%
Republican
44.38%
Anti-Monopoly
1.28%
Reform
0.15%
Independent
4.44%
Others
0.63%
House seats
Democratic
61.43%
Republican
35.15%
Anti-Monopoly
0.34%
Reform
0.34%
Independent
2.74%
 
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
  80+% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
 
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election datesEdit

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[5] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the states moved their congressional elections to this date as well. In 1874–75, there were still 10 states with earlier election dates, and 3 states with later election dates:

AlabamaEdit

ArkansasEdit

Arizona TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

CaliforniaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Charles Clayton Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  •  Y William Adam Piper (Democratic) 49.1%
  • Ira P. Rankin (Republican) 26.8%
  • John F. Swift (Independent) 24.1%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Horace F. Page (Republican) 43.4%
  • Henry Larkin (Democratic) 38.7%
  • Charles A. Tuttle (Independent) 17.8%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y John K. Luttrell (Democratic) 46.7%
  • C. B. Denio (Republican) 36.1%
  • Charles F. Reed (Independent) 17.1%
California 4 Sherman O. Houghton Republican 1871 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
  •  Y Peter D. Wigginton (Democratic) 48.8%
  • Sherman O. Houghton (Republican) 34.6%
  • J. S. Thompson (Independent) 16.7%

Colorado TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

ConnecticutEdit

DelawareEdit

FloridaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 William J. Purman
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Josiah T. Walls
Redistricted from the at-large district
Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
The election was later successfully challenged.

GeorgiaEdit

Idaho TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

IllinoisEdit

IndianaEdit

Iowa TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

KansasEdit

KentuckyEdit

LouisianaEdit

MaineEdit

MarylandEdit

MassachusettsEdit

MichiganEdit

MinnesotaEdit

MississippiEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1 Lucius Q. C. Lamar Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 Albert R. Howe Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Independent Republican gain.
Mississippi 3 Henry W. Barry Republican 1869 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 4 Jason Niles Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 5 George C. McKee Republican 1869 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Mississippi 6 John R. Lynch Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.

MissouriEdit

Montana TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

NebraskaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Nebraska at-large Lorenzo Crounse Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Lorenzo Crounse (Republican) 62.70%
  • James W. Savage (Democratic) 23.26%
  • James W. Davis (Independent) 11.34%
  • James G. Miller (Prohibition) 2.71%[12]

NevadaEdit

New HampshireEdit

New JerseyEdit

New Mexico TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New YorkEdit

North CarolinaEdit

OhioEdit

OregonEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

South CarolinaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  •  Y Joseph Rainey (Republican) 51.4%
  • Samuel Lee (Independent Republican) 48.6%
South Carolina 2 Alonzo J. Ransier Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent Republican gain.
Election was later successfully challenged, declared vacant, and a special election was then held.
South Carolina 3 Robert B. Elliott Republican 1870 Incumbent resigned November 1, 1874 to serve as sheriff.
new member elected.
Republican hold
South Carolina 4 Alexander S. Wallace Republican 1868 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 Richard H. Cain
Redistricted from the at-large seat
Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Robert Smalls (Republican) 79.4%
  • J. P. M. Epping (Independent Republican) 19.9%
  • Others 0.7%

TennesseeEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 Roderick R. Butler Republican 1867 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 2 Jacob M. Thornburgh Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 William Crutchfield Republican 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 4 John M. Bright Democratic 1870 Incumbent redistricted to the 5th district.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Tennessee 5 Horace Harrison Republican 1872 Incumbent redistricted to the 6th district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John M. Bright Democratic 1870 Redistricted from the 4th district.
Tennessee 6 Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1870 Incumbent redistricted to the 6th district.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Horace Harrison Republican 1872 Redistricted from the 5th district.
Tennessee 7 John D. C. Atkins Democratic 1872 Incumbent redistricted to the 8th district.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Washington C. Whitthorne Democratic 1870 Redistricted from the 7th district
Tennessee 8 David A. Nunn Republican 1872 Incumbent redistricted to the 9th district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John D. C. Atkins Democratic 1872 Redistricted from the 7th district.
Tennessee 9 Barbour Lewis Republican 1872 Incumbent redistricted to the 10th district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
David A. Nunn Republican 1872 Redistricted from the 8th district.
Tennessee 10 Barbour Lewis Republican 1872 Incumbent redistricted from the 9th district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

TexasEdit

Utah TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

VermontEdit

VirginiaEdit

Washington TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

West VirginiaEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
West Virginia 1 John J. Davis Independent Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
West Virginia 2 John Hagans Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election as an Independent.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
West Virginia 3 Frank Hereford Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected.

WisconsinEdit

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Charles G. Williams Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 2 Gerry Whiting Hazelton Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 3 J. Allen Barber Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  •  Y Henry S. Magoon (Republican) 52.7%
  • Charles F. Thompson (Democratic) 47.3%
Wisconsin 4 Alexander Mitchell Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
new member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 5 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 6 Philetus Sawyer Republican 1864 Incumbent retired.
new member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 7 Jeremiah McLain Rusk Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 8 Alexander S. McDill Republican 1872 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Wyoming TerritoryEdit

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Non-voting delegatesEdit

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Arizona Territory at-large
Dakota Territory at-large Moses K. Armstrong Democratic 1870 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Colorado Territory at-large Jerome B. Chaffee Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Idaho Territory at-large John Hailey Democratic 1872 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Independent gain.
Result successfully contested.
Democratic hold.
Montana Territory at-large Martin Maginnis Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
New Mexico Territory at-large
Utah Territory at-large
Washington Territory at-large
Wyoming Territory at-large William R. Steele Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The majority of states held their elections on this date. 13 other states held regular elections on different dates between June 1, 1874 and September 7, 1875.
  2. ^ a b Includes late elections.
  3. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  4. ^ a b Includes 3 Independent Republicans.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat, William H. Felton, elected to Georgia's 7th congressional district.
  6. ^ There were 4 Independents, 3 Independent Republicans, and 1 Independent Democrat.
  7. ^ a b c Elections held late.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Elections held early.
  9. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  10. ^ Died before term began.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Martis, pp. 128–129.
  2. ^ Barreyre, Nicolas (2011). "The Politics of Economic Crises: The Panic of 1873, the End of Reconstruction, and the realignment of American Politics". Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. 10 (4): 403–423. doi:10.1017/S1537781411000260.
  3. ^ Campbell, James E. (Fall 2006). "Party Systems and Realignments in the United States, 1868-2004". Social Science History. 30 (3): 359–386. doi:10.1017/S014555320001350X. S2CID 15075840.
  4. ^ Rhodes, James Ford (1920). History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850: 1872-1877. The Macmillan company. p. 67.
  5. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  6. ^ "MS - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  7. ^ "MS - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  8. ^ "MS - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  9. ^ "MS - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  10. ^ "MS - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  11. ^ "MS - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - NE - District 01 Race - Oct 13, 1874". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 19, 2021.
  13. ^ "TN - District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  14. ^ "TN - District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  15. ^ "TN - District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  16. ^ "TN - District 04". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  17. ^ "TN - District 05". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  18. ^ "TN - District 06". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  19. ^ "TN - District 07". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  20. ^ "TN - District 08". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  21. ^ "TN - District 09". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  22. ^ "TN - District 10". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  23. ^ "WV District 01". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  24. ^ "WV District 02". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  25. ^ "WV District 03". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  26. ^ "DK Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - CO Territorial Delegate - Final Election Race - Nov 03, 1874". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  28. ^ "ID Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  29. ^ "MT Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  30. ^ "WY Territorial Delegate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 11, 2021.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit