Open main menu

In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. Introduced in 1979,[1] the coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[2] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[3][4] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[5]

Contents

Men's National team coefficientEdit

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and is only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups at the request of FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

Old ranking and calculation methodEdit

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

  1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
  2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
  3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
  4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
  5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in 2003, 2005 and 2007.

Current ranking and calculation methodEdit

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

  1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
  2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
  3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot-out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
  4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
  5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
  6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
  7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
  8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

Final ranking in 2017Edit

The coefficients from 2017, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for 2018–19 UEFA Nations League, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The seeding and pot placements of the teams in the draw for the 2018–19 UEFA Nations League were based on the UEFA coefficients, determined on 11 October 2017, which are as follows:[9]

HistoryEdit

 

After the recalculation of the coefficient rankings for the 2007 cycle, Italy were ranked top following their FIFA World Cup victory in 2006. Runners-up France lay behind them in second place, followed by the Czech Republic. Spain overtook Italy to gain first place following their UEFA Euro 2008 win, with beaten finalists Germany moving into second; the Netherlands were third.

Spain consolidated their top spot by winning the 2010 FIFA World Cup, with the Netherlands jumping above Germany by finishing second in the tournament. In the 2013 rankings, Spain maintained top spot by winning their third major competition in a row - UEFA Euro 2012. Germany regained second, with the Dutch falling back to third place after failing to make it out of their group.

Germany climbed to the top of the 2015 rankings as a result of their 2014 FIFA World Cup success; Spain dropped behind them. England reached their highest position in the rankings - placed third. Germany held on to top spot in 2017, with new European champions Portugal in second; Belgium were third.

Year First Second Third
Team Coeff. Team Coeff. Team Coeff.
2007[7]   Italy 36,986   France 36,219   Czech Republic 36,025
2009[10]   Spain 39,964   Germany 38,294   Netherlands 37,821
2011[11]   Spain 43,116   Netherlands 40,860   Germany 40,446
2013[12]   Spain 42,158   Germany 41,366   Netherlands 38,541
2015[13]   Germany 40,236   Spain 37,963   England 35,963
2017[9]   Germany 40,747   Portugal 38,655   Belgium 38,123

Women's National team coefficientEdit

Old Women ranking and calculation methodEdit

Current Women ranking and calculation methodEdit

Final Women's ranking in 2017Edit

Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Germany 42,957 1
  France 42,355 2
  England 39,880 3
  Norway 39,161 4
  Sweden 38,036 5
  Spain 37,655 6
   Switzerland 36,629 7
  Italy 34,775 8
  Netherlands 34,642 9
  Iceland 34,141 10
  Scotland 33,632 11
  Denmark 32,915 12
  Austria 31,882 13
  Belgium 31,213 14
  Russia 30,367 15
  Finland 29,815 16
  Ukraine 28,579 17
  Wales 25,807 18
  Romania 25,602 19
Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Poland 24,832 20
  Czech Republic 23,874 21
  Republic of Ireland 23,669 22
  Portugal 22,860 23
  Serbia 21,579 24
  Hungary 20,362 25
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 19,546 26
  Belarus 19,434 27
  Slovakia 18,104 28
  Slovenia 17,224 29
  Northern Ireland 17,051 30
  Croatia 16,266 31
  Turkey 15,656 32
  Israel 14,641 33
  Greece 13,961 34
  Kazakhstan 13,350 35
  Estonia 11,151 36
  Albania 9,121 37
  Faroe Islands 8,020 38
Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Moldova 7,910 39
  Bulgaria 7,817 40
  North Macedonia 7,768 41
  Malta 7,208 42
  Armenia 7,194 43
  Montenegro 7,191 44
  Georgia 6,316 45
  Lithuania 4,818 46
  Latvia 4,584 47
  Luxembourg 4,109 48
  Andorra 1,793 49
  Kosovo
  Azerbaijan
  Cyprus
  Gibraltar
  Liechtenstein
  San Marino

HistoryEdit

Year First Second Third
Team Coeff. Team Coeff. Team Coeff.
2017   Germany 42,957   France 42,355   England 39,880

Country coefficientEdit

 
Map of UEFA countries whose teams have reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
  Not a UEFA member

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2017–18 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2019–20 (not 2018–19) UEFA season. This is unrelated to the selection of teams which will fill each allocation through the individual association leagues and national cups (which is decided in the preceding year).

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[15][16]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

  • Clubs that reach the quarter-finals, semi-finals, or final of either the UEFA Champions League or the UEFA Europa League (1 bonus point).
  • Clubs that qualify for the group stage of the Champions League (4 bonus points).
  • Clubs that qualify for the round of 16 of the Champions League (5 bonus points).

Current rankingEdit

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2014–15 to 2018–19, with the 2018–19 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2018–19 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2020–21 UEFA Champions League and 2020–21 UEFA Europa League.

As of 18 April 2019 the coefficients are as follows:[17][18]

Ranking Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
Coefficient Teams Places in 2020–21 season
2019 2018 Mvmt 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 Total CL EL Total
1 1     Spain (L, C) 20.214 23.928 20.142 19.714 19.285 103.283 2/7 4 3 7
2 2     England (L, C, LC1) 13.571 14.250 14.928 20.071 20.071 82.891 4/7
3 3     Italy (L, C) 19.000 11.500 14.250 17.333 12.642 74.725 0/7
4 4     Germany (L, C) 15.857 16.428 14.571 9.857 14.928 71.641 1/7
5 5     France (L, C, LC1) 10.916 11.083 14.416 11.500 10.583 58.498 0/6 3 6
6 6     Russia (L, C) 9.666 11.500 9.200 12.600 7.583 50.549 0/6
7 7     Portugal (L, C) 9.083 10.500 8.083 9.666 10.900 48.232 0/5 2 5
8 9   +1   Belgium (L, C) 9.600 7.400 12.500 2.600 7.800 39.900 0/5
9 8   –1   Ukraine (L, C) 10.000 9.800 5.500 8.000 5.600 38.900 0/5
10 10     Turkey (L, C) 6.000 6.600 9.700 6.800 5.500 34.600 0/5
11 14   +3   Netherlands (L, C) 6.083 5.750 9.100 2.900 8.200 32.033 1/5
12 11   –1   Austria (L, C) 4.125 3.800 7.375 9.750 6.200 31.250 0/5
13 13     Czech Republic (L, C) 3.875 7.300 5.500 5.500 6.500 28.675 0/5
14 15   +1   Greece (L, C) 6.200 5.400 5.800 5.100 5.100 27.600 0/5
15 16   +1   Croatia (L, C) 6.875 4.500 5.125 5.125 5.750 27.375 0/4
16 17   +1   Denmark (L, C) 2.900 5.500 8.500 5.250 4.875 27.025 0/4 1 4
17 12   –5   Switzerland (L, C) 6.900 5.300 4.300 6.500 3.900 26.900 0/5
18 19   +1   Cyprus (L, C) 3.300 3.000 5.500 7.000 6.125 24.925 0/4
19 25   +6   Serbia (L, C) 2.750 4.250 2.875 6.375 6.000 22.250 0/4
20 26   +6   Scotland (L, C) 4.000 3.000 4.375 4.000 6.750 22.125 0/4
21 27   +6   Belarus (L, C) 5.500 5.125 3.000 3.250 5.000 21.875 0/4
22 22     Sweden (L, C) 3.900 4.750 2.750 5.375 4.125 20.900 0/4
23 29   +6   Norway (L, C) 2.200 7.250 1.375 4.000 5.375 20.200 0/4
24 28   +4   Kazakhstan (L, C) 3.375 4.625 2.750 4.250 4.250 19.250 0/4
25 21   –4   Poland (L, C) 4.750 5.500 3.875 2.875 2.250 19.250 0/4
26 23   –3   Azerbaijan (L, C) 3.625 4.375 4.250 4.375 2.375 19.000 0/4
27 18   –9   Israel (L, C) 1.375 2.250 6.750 5.625 2.625 18.625 0/4
28 24   –4   Bulgaria (L, C) 4.250 1.000 4.250 4.000 4.000 17.500 0/4
29 20   –9   Romania (L, C) 5.125 2.250 3.300 2.900 2.375 15.950 0/4
30 32   +2   Slovakia (L, C) 2.750 3.750 2.125 1.875 5.125 15.625 0/4
31 30   –1   Slovenia (L, C) 4.000 1.000 2.250 4.625 3.125 15.000 0/4
32 31   –1   Liechtenstein (C2) 2.500 5.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 13.500 0/1 0 1 1
33 36   +3   Hungary (L, C) 2.125 1.625 1.875 1.625 3.250 10.500 0/4 1 3 4
34 37   +3   Macedonia (L, C) 1.125 1.500 1.250 3.125 1.000 8.000 0/4
35 33   –2   Moldova (L, C) 1.750 1.250 0.875 2.750 1.125 7.750 0/4
36 34   –2   Albania (L, C) 0.875 2.125 0.875 2.625 1.000 7.500 0/4
37 39   +2   Republic of Ireland (L, C) 2.000 0.700 2.625 1.125 1.000 7.450 0/4
38 38     Finland (L, C) 2.400 1.000 1.750 1.250 0.875 7.275 0/4
39 35   –4   Iceland (L, C) 2.500 1.125 1.000 1.125 1.500 7.250 0/4
40 40     Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C) 1.750 1.500 0.500 1.375 2.000 7.125 0/4
41 43   +2   Lithuania (L, C) 0.500 0.750 0.500 2.375 2.625 6.750 0/4
42 41   –1   Latvia (L, C) 0.250 1.625 1.375 0.750 1.625 5.625 0/4
43 48   +5   Luxembourg (L, C) 0.500 0.750 0.750 0.875 2.625 5.500 0/4
44 46   +2   Armenia (L, C) 0.375 1.625 1.125 0.625 1.500 5.250 0/4
45 47   +2   Malta (L, C) 0.125 0.875 1.250 1.375 1.500 5.125 0/4
46 42   –4   Estonia (L, C) 1.500 1.000 1.375 0.625 0.500 5.000 0/4
47 45   –2   Georgia (L, C) 1.250 0.625 1.125 0.125 1.625 4.750 0/4
48 50   +2   Wales (L, C) 0.125 1.500 1.000 0.500 1.000 4.125 0/4
49 44   –5   Montenegro (L, C) 0.750 1.000 0.875 1.125 0.375 4.125 0/4
50 51   +1   Faroe Islands (L, C) 1.375 0.375 0.375 0.750 1.125 4.000 0/4
51 52   +1   Gibraltar (L, C) 0.250 0.750 1.500 0.500 1.000 4.000 0/3
52 49   –3   Northern Ireland (L, C) 1.375 0.750 0.500 0.750 0.500 3.875 0/4 2 3
53 55   +2   Kosovo (L3, C)
Not a UEFA member
No entry 0.000 2.500 2.500 0/2
54 53   –1   Andorra (L, C) 0.500 0.166 0.166 0.166 0.833 1.831 0/3
55 54   –1   San Marino (L, C) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.166 0.500 0.666 0/3 1 2
  Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates active countries which have some teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA (replacing the lowest-ranked league team which would have qualified).
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organise a national league competition and all its seven clubs compete in the Swiss football league system.[19][20] As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.[20]
3 The Football Federation of Kosovo became a UEFA member on 3 May 2016.[21] The participation of their domestic league champions in the UEFA Champions League and their domestic cup winners in the UEFA Europa League were to be confirmed following the assessment of club licensing criteria by 31 May 2016,[22] but was denied by UEFA in June due to the clubs failing licensing requirements or provision of suitable stadiums (as UEFA did not allow them to play their home matches in a foreign country).[23][24]

UEFA uses this coefficient system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top four league places in the countries ranked 1 to 4 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams of the country ranked 5 and 6 also gain automatic entry as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 10. The Champions League and Europa League winners also get the chance to participate in the following season’s competition, guaranteed an automatic entry into the group stage.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions.

  • There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions.
  • The league of Gibraltar used to have only six teams, but was expanded to eight in 2013–14 after admission to UEFA, to fulfill the requirement for entry into UEFA competitions starting from the 2014–15 season.[25]
  • Prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant in European competitions, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the now defunct UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.

HistoryEdit

La LigaPremier LeagueLa LigaSerie ABundesligaSerie AFootball League First DivisionBundesligaFootball League First DivisionLa Liga 

The original European competition, the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, was limited to certain clubs and/or by invitation, so no coefficient calculation was necessary.

Following the introduction of the UEFA Cup in 1971, the competition began to grow in complexity. UEFA began to publish rankings in 1979,[1] to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup.

Subsequently, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system, only four leagues have succeeded in being ranked as the top European league.[26]

Following the Heysel Stadium disaster, all English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985. The ban was only lifted after five seasons, with the knock-on effects continuing to impact on the First Division and then the Premier League for a total of nine years from 1986 to 1994.[27] Having been top in 1985, England were unranked in 1990,[28] and would not regain the top position until 2008.[29]

Top leagues by periodEdit

The following data indicates the three top-ranked leagues in each five-year period.[30] Data prior to 1975–1979 period has been calculated, but precedes the first published by the Confederation and has merely informative value.[30]

Years 1st Place Coeff. 2nd Place Coeff. 3rd Place Coeff.
1956–1960   La Liga 70.833   Ligue 1 40.500   Serie A 36.500
1957–1961   La Liga 68.333   Football League 41.666   Serie A 36.500
1958–1962   La Liga 71.933   Football League 34.666   Serie A 31.500
1959–1963   La Liga 68.433   Serie A 32.500   Football League 32.250
1960–1964   La Liga 66.833   Serie A 39.700   Football League 35.750
1961–1965   La Liga 52.333   Serie A 43.128   Football League 38.849
1962–1966   La Liga 53.333   Football League 42.682   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 39.999
1963–1967   Football League 45.482   La Liga 41.733   Serie A 41.728
1964–1968   Football League 49.016   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 43.665   La Liga 41.566
1965–1969   Football League 53.701   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 53.665   Football League 38.366
1966–1970   Football League 51.951   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 46.415   Football League 39.566
1967–1971   Football League 51.660   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 40.999   Serie A 40.094
1968–1972   Football League 53.431   Nemzeti Bajnokság I 41.666   Serie A 38.660
1969–1973   Football League 53.231   Eredivisie 41.200   Serie A 37.593
1970–1974   Football League 54.279   Eredivisie 43.500   Bundesliga 39.664
1971–1975   Football League 47.779   Bundesliga 46.331   Eredivisie 45.200
1972–1976   Bundesliga 48.950   Eredivisie 43.600   Football League 43.570
1973–1977   Bundesliga 51.902   Football League 41.999   Eredivisie 39.450
1974–1978   Bundesliga 48.783   Eredivisie 43.450   Football League 38.332
1975–1979   Bundesliga 52.617   Eredivisie 39.200   First Division A 38.300
1976–1980   Bundesliga 53.998   Football League 38.426   First Division A 37.300
1977–1981   Bundesliga 52.284   Football League 38.760   La Liga 36.999
1978–1982   Bundesliga 51.999   Football League 37.902   Eredivisie 35.466
1979–1983   Bundesliga 54.118   La Liga 34.999   Football League 34.426
1980–1984   Bundesliga 43.618   Football League 37.950   La Liga 32.199
1981–1985   Football League 41.093   Serie A 38.800   Bundesliga 37.070
1982–1986   Serie A 39.466   Bundesliga 37.332   Top League 36.516
1983–1987   Serie A 41.716   Top League 37.250   Bundesliga 36.332
1984–1988   Serie A 41.082   Top League 37.550   Bundesliga 36.165
1985–1989   Serie A 42.498   Bundesliga 41.093   La Liga 40.999
1986–1990   Bundesliga 45.427   Serie A 43.212   La Liga 42.666
1987–1991   Serie A 48.171   Bundesliga 43.594   La Liga 38.666
1988–1992   Serie A 52.837   Bundesliga 42.927   La Liga 40.266
1989–1993   Serie A 60.337   Ligue 1 40.450   Bundesliga 39.403
1990–1994   Serie A 62.313   Ligue 1 45.150   Bundesliga 41.641
1991–1995   Serie A 63.884   Ligue 1 45.283   Bundesliga 40.307
1992–1996   Serie A 61.259   Ligue 1 45.408   La Liga 43.932
1993–1997   Serie A 60.735   La Liga 46.532   Ligue 1 45.733
1994–1998   Serie A 59.640   Bundesliga 49.932   La Liga 48.580
1995–1999   Serie A 57.212   La Liga 49.628   Bundesliga 45.498
1996–2000   La Liga 59.599   Serie A 55.927   Bundesliga 46.403
1997–2001   La Liga 65.210   Serie A 56.239   Premier League 51.288
1998–2002   La Liga 68.467   Serie A 58.668   Premier League 55.459
1999–2003   La Liga 75.539   Serie A 62.311   Premier League 58.340
2000–2004   La Liga 79.851   Premier League 62.153   Serie A 59.186
2001–2005   La Liga 73.717   Premier League 63.224   Serie A 61.186
2002–2006   La Liga 72.748   Serie A 66.731   Premier League 63.486
2003–2007   La Liga 76.891   Premier League 68.540   Serie A 66.088
2004–2008   Premier League 75.749   La Liga 75.266   Serie A 60.410
2005–2009   Premier League 79.499   La Liga 74.266   Serie A 62.910
2006–2010   Premier League 81.856   La Liga 79.757   Serie A 64.338
2007–2011   Premier League 85.785   La Liga 82.329   Bundesliga 69.436
2008–2012   Premier League 84.410   La Liga 84.186   Bundesliga 75.186
2009–2013   La Liga 88.025   Premier League 82.963   Bundesliga 79.614
2010–2014   La Liga 97.713   Premier League 84.748   Bundesliga 81.641
2011–2015   La Liga 99.999   Premier League 80.391   Bundesliga 79.415
2012–2016   La Liga 105.713   Bundesliga 80.177   Premier League 76.284
2013–2017   La Liga 104.998   Bundesliga 79.498   Premier League 75.962
2014–2018   La Liga 106.998   Premier League 79.605   Serie A 76.249

The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years in the top three of the rankings:

As of 26 May 2018
League 1st 2nd 3rd Total
  La Liga 21 9 9 39
  First Division/Premier League 15 15 10 40
  Serie A 13 10 14 37
  Bundesliga 10 8 14 32
  Eredivisie 0 5 3 8
  Ligue 1 0 5 1 6
  Nemzeti Bajnokság 0 5 1 6
  Vysshaya Liga 0 2 1 3
  Football League/Professional Football League 0 0 4 4
  First Division A 0 0 2 2

Women's Country coefficientEdit

Women's Current rankingEdit

Association ranking for 2018–19 UEFA Women's Champions League
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
1   Germany 86.000 2
2   France 80.000
3   Sweden 61.500
4   England 53.000
5   Spain 44.000
6   Denmark 38.500
7   Italy 37.000
8   Russia 35.500
9   Switzerland 33.000
10   Czech Republic 33.000
11   Austria 28.000
12   Norway 27.500
13   Scotland 26.000 1
14   Netherlands 25.000
15   Kazakhstan 21.000
16   Poland 20.000
17   Cyprus 18.000
18   Iceland 17.000
19   Serbia 15.500
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
20   Romania 15.000 1
21   Hungary 14.000
22   Belgium 13.500
23   Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.000
24   Lithuania 12.000
25   Turkey 12.000
26   Slovenia 11.000
27   Finland 11.000
28   Portugal 10.500
29   Belarus 10.000
30   Ukraine 9.500
31   Greece 8.500
32   Republic of Ireland 8.500
33   Croatia 7.500
34   Israel 7.000
35   Estonia 5.500
36   Bulgaria 5.000
37   Slovakia 4.500
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
38   Faroe Islands 3.000 1
39   Northern Ireland 3.000
40   Wales 2.000
41   Montenegro 1.500
42   Albania 1.500
43   Kosovo 1.000
44   Latvia 1.000
45   Macedonia 1.000
46   Moldova 0.500
47   Malta 0.500
48   Luxembourg 0.000 DNE
NR   Andorra
  Armenia
  Azerbaijan
  Georgia 1
  Gibraltar DNE
  Liechtenstein
  San Marino
Ranking Member association Coefficient Teams Places in 2020–21 season
2019 2018 Mvmt 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 Total CL Total
1   Germany
2   France
3   Sweden
4   England
5   Spain
6   Denmark
7   Italy
8   Russia
9   Switzerland
10   Czech Republic
11   Austria
12   Norway
13   Scotland
14   Netherlands
15   Kazakhstan
16   Poland
17   Cyprus
18   Iceland
19   Serbia
20   Romania
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

Women's HistoryEdit

Club coefficientEdit

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons, but no less than 20% of the club's association coefficient.[31] Prior to the 2018 club rankings, teams received the sum of their points earned over the last five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[32][33]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[32] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League qualifying because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition.[33]

Round Points awarded
Champions League Europa League
Preliminary Round elimination 0.5
First qualifying round elimination 1.0
Second qualifying round elimination 1.5
Third qualifying round elimination 2
Play-off elimination 2.5
Group stage participation 4 3 (minimum)
Win in group stage or subsequent round 2 2
Draw in group stage or subsequent round 1 1
Round of 16 participation 5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation 1 1

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

UEFA team rankingEdit

The top 25 clubs as of 18 April 2019 are as follows.[34][35]

Ranking Club Association Coefficient
2019 2018 Mvmt 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 Total Country Part
1 1   Real Madrid   Spain 29.000 33.000 33.000 32.000 19.000 146.000 20.656
2 4   +2 Barcelona   Spain 34.000 26.000 23.000 25.000 28.000 136.000 20.656
3 3   Bayern Munich   Germany 28.000 29.000 22.000 29.000 20.000 128.000 14.328
4 2   –2 Atlético Madrid   Spain 22.000 28.000 29.000 28.000 20.000 127.000 20.656
5 5   Juventus   Italy 29.000 18.000 33.000 23.000 21.000 124.000 14.945
6 8   +2 Manchester City   England 15.000 26.000 18.000 22.000 25.000 106.000 16.578
7 6   –1 Sevilla   Spain 28.000 23.000 19.000 21.000 13.000 104.000 20.656
8 7   –1 Paris Saint-Germain   France 21.000 24.000 20.000 19.000 19.000 103.000 11.699
9 9   Arsenal   England 20.000 15.000 19.000 21.000 21.000 96.000 16.578
10 11   +1 Porto   Portugal 25.000 11.000 17.000 17.000 23.000 93.000 9.646
11 22   +11 Liverpool   England 10.000 22.000 0.000 30.000 24.000 86.000 16.578
12 10   –2 Borussia Dortmund   Germany 18.000 17.000 22.000 10.000 18.000 85.000 14.328
13 13   Chelsea   England 21.000 18.000 0.000 18.000 25.000 82.000 16.578
14 21   +7 Roma   Italy 12.000 14.000 13.000 25.000 17.000 81.000 14.945
15 17   +2 Napoli   Italy 22.000 13.000 17.000 10.000 18.000 80.000 14.945
14   –1 Shakhtar Donetsk   Ukraine 17.000 20.000 14.000 19.000 10.000 80.000 7.780
17 12   –5 Manchester United   England 0.000 13.000 26.000 20.000 19.000 78.000 16.578
18 19   +1 Tottenham Hotspur   England 9.000 12.000 10.000 21.000 23.000 75.000 16.578
19 16   –3 Zenit Saint Petersburg   Russia 17.000 19.000 12.000 14.000 10.000 72.000 10.109
20 31   +11 Ajax   Netherlands 14.000 6.000 22.000 1.500 25.000 68.500 6.406
21 15   –6 Benfica   Portugal 8.000 22.000 17.000 4.000 17.000 68.000 9.646
32   +11 Villarreal   Spain 12.000 23.000 9.000 8.000 16.000 68.000 20.656
23 23   Dynamo Kyiv   Ukraine 16.000 18.000 8.000 12.000 11.000 65.000 7.780
24 24   Schalke   Germany 17.000 11.000 18.000 0.000 17.000 63.000 14.328
25 26   +1 Beşiktaş   Turkey 11.000 7.000 20.000 19.000 5.000 62.000 6.920
27   +2 Monaco   France 21.000 5.000 25.000 6.000 5.000 62.000 11.699
  Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

Top club by periodEdit

The following data indicate the top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period.[30] Data prior to 1975–1979 period has been calculated, but precedes the first published by the Confederation and has merely informative value.[30]

Years Club Coeff.
1975–1979   Borussia Mönchengladbach 8.402
1976–1980   Borussia Mönchengladbach 7.985
1977–1981   Barcelona 7.652
1978–1982   Barcelona 7.832
1979–1983   Barcelona 7.998
1980–1984   Liverpool 8.277
1981–1985   Liverpool 9.054
1982–1986   Anderlecht 7.915
  Juventus 7.915
1983–1987   Juventus 8.665
1984–1988   Juventus 8.388
1985–1989   Bayern Munich 7.846
1986–1990   Bayern Munich 8.096
1987–1991   Juventus 8.291
1988–1992   Real Madrid 7.975
1989–1993   Real Madrid 7.850
1990–1994   Real Madrid 7.600
1991–1995   Real Madrid 7.266
1992–1996   Ajax 9.124
1993–1997   Juventus 8.719
1995–1999   Juventus 121.606
1996–2000   Juventus 109.963
1997–2001   Real Madrid 114.605
1998–2002   Real Madrid 147.233
1999–2003   Real Madrid 151.769
2000–2004   Real Madrid 146.350
2001–2005   Real Madrid 131.326
2002–2006   Milan 129.020
2003–2007   Milan 133.808
2004–2008   Chelsea 124.996
2005–2009   Barcelona 121.853
2006–2010   Barcelona 136.951
2007–2011   Manchester United 151.157
2008–2012   Barcelona 157.837
2009–2013   Barcelona 157.605
2010–2014   Real Madrid 161.542
2011–2015   Real Madrid 171.999
2012–2016   Real Madrid 176.142
2013–2017   Real Madrid 176.999
2014–2018   Real Madrid 162.000

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5-year period since the first period officially analysed (1975–1979):

Rank Club Total
1   Real Madrid 14
2   Juventus 7
  Barcelona 7
4   Borussia Mönchengladbach 2
  Bayern Munich 2
  Liverpool 2
  Milan 2
8   Ajax 1
  Anderlecht 1
  Chelsea 1
  Manchester United 1

Women's Club coefficientEdit

UEFA women's team rankingEdit

Ranking Club Association Coefficient
2019 2018 Mvmt 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 Total Country Part

Top women's club by periodEdit

Futsal Club coefficientEdit

Men'sEdit

Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Russia 10,605 1
  Spain 10,017 2
  Portugal 9,250 3
  Italy 8,889 4
  Ukraine (H) 7,944 5
  Azerbaijan (H) 7,544 6
  Slovenia 6,389 7
  Kazakhstan 6,333 8
  Serbia 5,556 9
  Croatia 5,556 10
  Czech Republic 4,667 11
  Romania (H) 4,278 12
  Hungary 4,222 13
  Slovakia 3,389 14
  Netherlands 3,333 15
Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Belgium 3,278 16
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,000 17
  Belarus (H) 2,667 18
  Poland (H) 2,056 19
  North Macedonia 2,000 20
  Finland 1,583 21
  Turkey (H) 1,444 22
  France 1,278 23
  Latvia (H) 1,222 24
  Georgia (H) 1,028 25
  Norway 1,000 26
  Sweden 0,944 27
  England 0,944 28
  Greece 0,889 29
Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Moldova 0,750 30
  Denmark 0,722 31
  Montenegro 0,667 32
  Bulgaria (H) 0,611 33
   Switzerland 0,472 34
  Armenia 0,444 35
  Andorra 0,389 36
  Lithuania (H) 0,389 37
  Albania 0,333 38
  Israel 0,333 39
  Cyprus (H) 0,222 40
  Wales (H) 0,222 41
  Estonia 0,111 42
  Gibraltar (H) 0,111 43
Team Coeff Rank[14]
  Malta 0,000 44
  San Marino 0,000 45
  Scotland 0,000 46
  Germany
  Kosovo
  Austria
  Faroe Islands
  Iceland
  Liechtenstein
  Luxembourg
  Northern Ireland
  Ireland

Women'sEdit

Futsal CountryEdit

Rank Association Coeff. Teams
1   Russia 10,605 2
2   Spain 10,017
3   Portugal 9,250
4   Italy 8,889
5   Ukraine 7,944 1
6   Azerbaijan 7,544
7   Slovenia 6,389
8   Kazakhstan 6,333
9   Serbia 5,556
10   Croatia 5,556
11   Czech Republic 4,667
12   Romania 4,278
13   Hungary 4,222
14   Slovakia 3,389
15   Netherlands 3,333
16   Belgium 3,278
17   Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,000
18   Belarus 2,667
19   Poland 2,056
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
20   Macedonia 2,000 1
21   Finland 1,583
22   Turkey 1,444
23   France 1,278
24   Latvia 1,222
25   Georgia 1,028
26   Norway 1,000
27   Sweden 0,944
28   England 0,944
29   Greece 0,889
30   Moldova 0,750
31   Denmark 0,722
32   Montenegro 0,667
33   Bulgaria 0,611
34   Switzerland 0,472
35   Armenia 0,444
36   Andorra 0,389
37   Lithuania 0,389
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
38   Albania 0,333 1
39   Israel 0,333
40   Cyprus 0,222
41   Wales 0,222
42   Estonia 0,111
43   Gibraltar 0,111
44   Malta 0,000
45   San Marino 0,000
46   Scotland 0,000
(NR)   Germany 0.000
  Kosovo
  Austria
  Luxembourg
  Northern Ireland
  Republic of Ireland
  Faroe Islands 0 (DNE)
  Iceland
  Liechtenstein

Futsal ClubEdit

Youth tournaments' coefficientEdit

UEFA Under-19Edit

Team Coeff Rank
  Portugal 24.722 1
  Germany 22.778 2
  England 21.889 3
  Austria 19.000 4
  France 18.556 5
  Netherlands 17.667 6
  Spain 16.500 7
  Ukraine 14.833 8
  Czech Republic 14.833 9
  Serbia 14.667 10
  Russia 14.611 11
  Italy 14.222 12
  Greece 12.500 13
  Sweden 12.111 14
  Georgia 11.833 15
Team Coeff Rank
  Croatia 11.778 16
  Israel 11.333 17
  Belgium 11.167 18
  Turkey 11.000 19
  Bulgaria 10.556 20
  Slovakia 9.833 21
  Republic of Ireland 9.000 22
  Hungary 9.000 23
  Scotland 8.833 24
   Switzerland 8.500 25
  Denmark 8.500 26
  Poland 8.167 27
  Montenegro 8.000 28
Team Coeff Rank
  Norway 7.667 29
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.833 30
  Wales 6.333 31
  Slovenia 6.167 32
  Romania 5.333 33
  Cyprus 5.167 34
  Lithuania 4.667 35
  Finland 4.667 36
  Northern Ireland 4.000 37
  Iceland 4.000 38
  Azerbaijan 4.000 39
  Belarus 3.333 40
  North Macedonia 3.333 41
Team Coeff Rank
  Latvia 3.000 42
  Albania 2.667 43
  Luxembourg 2.667 44
  Estonia 2.667 45
  Armenia 2.333
  Malta 2.333 46
  Andorra 1.333 47
  Faroe Islands 1.333 48
  Moldova 1.000 49
  Liechtenstein 0.333 50
  Gibraltar 0.333 51
  Kazakhstan 0.333 52
  San Marino 0.000 53
  Kosovo 54

UEFA Under-17Edit

Team Coeff Rank
  Spain 25.889 1
  England 25.000 2
  Germany 24.167 3
  Netherlands 23.778 4
  France 20.611 5
  Italy 19.667 6
  Belgium 19.111 7
  Portugal 18.222 8
  Republic of Ireland 17.167 9
  Austria 14.333 10
  Sweden 14.000 11
  Serbia 13.778 12
  Scotland 13.222 13
  Russia 13.111 14
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.000 15
Team Coeff Rank
  Croatia 12.556 16
  Israel 11.333 17
  Hungary 11.111 18
  Slovenia 10.889 19
  Poland 10.833 20
  Turkey 10.833 21
  Ukraine 10.722 22
  Norway 10.722 23
  Czech Republic 10.611 24
  Greece 10.556 25
   Switzerland 10.111 26
  Denmark 9.333 27
  Slovakia 9.167 28
Team Coeff Rank
  Finland 7.833 29
  Azerbaijan 7.000 30
  Georgia 6.833 31
  Cyprus 6.833 32
  Wales 6.500 33
  Iceland 6.333 34
  Belarus 6.167 35
  Bulgaria 5.333 36
  Romania 5.000 37
  Northern Ireland 4.167 38
  North Macedonia 3.833 39
  Montenegro 3.667 40
  Faroe Islands 3.222 41
Team Coeff Rank
  Lithuania 2.667 42
  Latvia 2.667 43
  Estonia 2.333 44
  Albania 2.333 45
  Armenia 2.000 46
  Luxembourg 1.667 47
  Moldova 1.667 48
  Kazakhstan 1.000 49
  Liechtenstein 1.000 50
  Andorra 0.333 51
  San Marino 0.333 52
  Gibraltar 0.333 53
  Malta 0.000 54
  Kosovo 0.000 55

UEFA Women's Under-19Edit

Team Coeff Rank
  Spain 33.000 1
  France 27.944 2
  Germany 26.500 3
  Netherlands 21.722 4
  Norway 19.333 5
  Denmark 18.167 6
  Sweden 17.944 7
   Switzerland 16.278 8
  Italy 15.222 9
  England 15.167 10
  Scotland 12.611 11
  Finland 12.333 12
Team Coeff Rank
  Belgium 11.667 13
  Czech Republic 11.500 14
  Austria 11.167 15
  Russia 9.833 16
  Portugal 9.667 17
  Republic of Ireland 9.500 18
  Serbia 9.167 19
  Poland 9.000 20
  Hungary 8.833 21
  Iceland 8.667 22
  Northern Ireland 8.000 23
  Slovakia 7.833 24
Team Coeff Rank
  Turkey 7.333 25
  Slovenia 7.000 26
  Ukraine 6.000 27
  Azerbaijan 5.667 28
  Israel 5.500 29
  Greece 5.333 30
  Romania 4.833 31
  Belarus 4.667 32
  Wales 4.500 33
  Croatia 4.000 34
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.667 35
  Faroe Islands 3.000 36
Team Coeff Rank
  Moldova 2.333 37
  Montenegro 1.667 38
  Albania 1.333 39
  Latvia 1.000 40
  Bulgaria 1.000 41
  Estonia 0.333 42
  Georgia 0.333
  North Macedonia 0.333 43
  Cyprus 0.333 44
  Kosovo 0.333 45
  Lithuania 0.000 46
  Kazakhstan 0.000 47
  Armenia 0.000 48

UEFA Women's Under-17Edit

Team Coeff Rank
  Spain 32.056 1
  Germany 31.167 2
  England 22.889 3
  Norway 21.000 4
  Netherlands 17.667 5
  France 17.278 6
  Republic of Ireland 15.722 7
   Switzerland 15.111 8
  Italy 15.056 9
  Finland 13.833 10
  Czech Republic 12.889 11
  Denmark 12.833 12
  Poland 12.722 13
Team Coeff Rank
  Austria 11.833 14
  Belgium 11.667 15
  Sweden 11.500
  Serbia 11.500 16
  Iceland 11.500 17
  Hungary 10.000 18
  Scotland 10.000 19
  Russia 8.667 20
  Slovenia 7.833 21
  Portugal 7.000 22
  Turkey 6.333 23
  Greece 6.000 24
Team Coeff Rank
  Belarus 6.000 25
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.833 26
  Wales 5.167 27
  Slovakia 5.000 28
  Northern Ireland 4.833 29
  Ukraine 4.500 30
  Romania 4.000 31
  Bulgaria 4.000 32
  Lithuania 3.333 33
  Azerbaijan 3.167 34
  Israel 2.667 35
Team Coeff Rank
  Croatia 2.333 36
  Montenegro 1.333 37
  North Macedonia 1.333 38
  Faroe Islands 1.000 39
  Latvia 1.000 40
  Malta 1.000 41
  Estonia 0.333 42
  Kazakhstan 0.333 43
  Moldova 0.000 44
  Georgia 0.000 45
  Albania 46

Youth Club's (Nation)Edit

Rank Association Coeff. Teams
1   Russia 10.171 2
2   Spain 10.022
3   Portugal 9.633
4   Kazakhstan 9.000
5   Ukraine 8.389 1
6   Azerbaijan 7.822
7   Italy 7.444
8   Serbia 6.833
9   Slovenia 6.500
10   Croatia 4.278
11   Hungary 4.111
12   Czech Republic 3.611
13   Romania 3.500
14   Poland 3.389
15   France 2.944
16   Slovakia 2.944
17   Belarus 2.889
18   Netherlands 2.278
19   Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.222
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
20   Belgium 2.111 1
21   Georgia 2.056
22   Macedonia 2.000
23   Finland 1.694
24   Latvia 1.222
25   Turkey 1.222
26   Moldova 0.833
27   England 0.833
28   Albania 0.778
29   Sweden 0.778
30   Montenegro 0.722
31   Denmark 0.722
32   Norway 0.722
33   Kosovo 0.667
34   Switzerland 0.583
35   Bulgaria 0.556
36   Armenia 0.500
37   Greece 0.500
Rank Association Coeff. Teams
38   Germany 0.500 1
39   Wales 0.389
40   Lithuania 0.389
41   Cyprus 0.389
42   Israel 0.278
43   Andorra 0.222
44   Estonia 0.111
45   Malta 0.000
46   Gibraltar 0.000
47   San Marino 0.000
48   Scotland 0.000
NR   Austria 0.000
  Iceland
  Luxembourg
  Northern Ireland
  Republic of Ireland
  Faroe Islands DNE
  Liechtenstein

Youth Club's (Club)Edit

CriticismsEdit

The UEFA coefficient system has been criticised for being likely to preserve the status quo for rankings and seedings, as well as for favouring teams from stronger leagues.[36]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Patric Andersson; Peter Ayton; Carsten Schmidt (2009). Myths and Facts about Football: The Economics and Psychology of the World's Greatest Sport. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 14-4381-525-X.
  2. ^ "UEFA Women's National Team Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com. 25 October 2012.
  3. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League Association Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA.com.
  4. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League 2012/13 Entry List" (PDF). UEFA.com.
  5. ^ "Spain and Israel top seeds for Under-21 draw". UEFA.com. 19 October 2012.
  6. ^ "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  7. ^ a b "New UEFA National Team Coefficient Ranking System" (PDF). UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  8. ^ "National Team Coefficient Ranking -Technical explanation" (PDF). UEFA. October 2009.
  9. ^ a b "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  10. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  11. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  12. ^ "National Ranking UEFA 2013". footballseeding.com. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  13. ^ "National Ranking UEFA 2015". footballseeding.com. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "UEFA Futsal National Teams coefficient rankings 2017/18" (PDF). UEFA.com.
  15. ^ "UEFA Country Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  16. ^ "Regulations of UEFA Champions League" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  17. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2019". kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  18. ^ uefa.com. "Member associations - UEFA rankings - Country coefficients – UEFA.com". UEFA.com. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  19. ^ "Border crossing". When Saturday Comes (WSC). July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  20. ^ a b "Liechtenstein making strides (Liechtenstein's profile)". UEFA. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  21. ^ "Football Federation of Kosovo joins UEFA". UEFA. 3 May 2016.
  22. ^ "Timeline for UEFA Presidential elections decided". UEFA. 18 May 2016.
  23. ^ https://www.b92.net/eng/news/society.php?yyyy=2016&mm=06&dd=03&nav_id=98208
  24. ^ "Infrastruktura i lë jashtë Evropës!". zeri.info. 2 June 2016.
  25. ^ "Gibraltar Premier Division to expand". Gibraltar Football. 7 June 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  26. ^ UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database (Bert Kassies)
  27. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1985". Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  28. ^