The Süper Lig (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈsypæɾ liɟ], Super League), officially known as Trendyol Süper Lig for sponsorship reasons,[3] is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system and is run by the Turkish Football Federation. In the 2023 to 2024 season, twenty clubs compete, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted from, and relegated to the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 38 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday.

Süper Lig
Organising bodyTurkish Football Federation (TFF)
Founded21 February 1959; 65 years ago (1959-02-21)
CountryTurkey
ConfederationUEFA (Europe)
Number of teams20 (since 2023–24)
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toTFF First League
Domestic cup(s)
International cup(s)UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
UEFA Conference League
Current championsGalatasaray (23rd title)
(2022–23)
Most championshipsGalatasaray (23 titles)
Most appearancesUmut Bulut (515)[1]
Top goalscorerHakan Şükür (249)[2]
TV partnersList of broadcasters
Websitetff.org
Current: 2023–24 Süper Lig

The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level national competitions. The Süper Lig is currently 9th in the UEFA coefficient ranking of leagues based on club performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 75 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only six have won the title to date: Galatasaray (23), Fenerbahçe (19), Beşiktaş (16), Trabzonspor (7), İstanbul Başakşehir (1) and Bursaspor (1).

History edit

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Ottoman Empire).[4] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig (Süper Lig) in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul League and Millî Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana (1924), Ankara (1922), Eskişehir (1924), İzmir (1924), Bursa (1924), and Trabzon (1922), to name a few. The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the former Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[5] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues.[6] The National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition in Turkey. Started in 1937, the National Division consisted of the strongest clubs from the Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir leagues. The championship lasted until 1950.[7][8]

 
Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray match in the Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium

The Federation Cup was established in 1956 to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two seasons until it was replaced by the Millî Lig. Beşiktaş won both editions and qualified for the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[9][10]

The top clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Turkish National League. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958 to 1959, since the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (Istanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü (Ankara), Ankara Demirspor (Ankara), Beşiktaş (Istanbul), Beykoz (Istanbul), Karagümrük (Istanbul), Fenerbahçe (Istanbul), Galatasaray (Istanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe Gençlik (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir), and Vefa (Istanbul). The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.[11]

The 2. Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the foundation of a second division, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the group were promoted to the Süper Lig. After the foundation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1. Lig, the formerly titled 1. Lig was rebranded as Süper Lig.[12] The Süper Lig is home of the Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby, the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world, being ranked among the greatest football rivalries of all time by various international sources.[13][14][15]

On 12 December 2023, the Turkish Football Federation suspended all league games indefinitely following an incident during a match between MKE Ankaragucu and Caykur Rizespor which involved fans being able to successfully invade the pitch and people, including recent MKE Ankaragucu president Faruk Koca, being arrested after attacking referee Halil Umut Meler.[16][17] Koca would resign from MKE Ankaragucu as well.[17] However, on 13 December, the same day Meler was discharged from the hospital it was soon agreed that Super Lig matches would resume on 19 December.[18][19]

Format edit

 
Former design of the Süper Lig Trophy, used from 2015 until 2022.

There were 18 clubs in the Süper Lig until 2020. 20 Clubs are competing in the Süper Lig starting from 2020. During the course of the season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then head-to-head record, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to-head record and then goal difference determine the winner. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1. Lig and the top two teams from the 1. Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to seventh placed 1. Lig clubs are promoted in their place.[20]

  • 16 clubs: 1959
  • 20 clubs: 1959–1962
  • 22 clubs: 1962–1963
  • 18 clubs: 1963–1964
  • 16 clubs: 1964–1966
  • 17 clubs: 1966–1968
  • 16 clubs: 1968–1981
  • 17 clubs: 1981–1982
  • 18 clubs: 1982–1985
  • 19 clubs: 1985–1987
  • 20 clubs: 1987–1988
  • 19 clubs: 1988–1989
  • 18 clubs: 1989–1990
  • 16 clubs: 1990–1994
  • 18 clubs: 1994–2020[citation needed]
  • 21 clubs: 2020–2021[citation needed]
  • 20 clubs: 2021–2022
  • 19 clubs: 2022–2023
  • 20 clubs: 2023–present[citation needed]

Qualification for European competitions edit

The champions qualify for the second qualifying round of the Champions League. The runners-up, third place and the Turkish Cup winners qualify for the second qualifying round of the Europa Conference League. If the Turkish Cup winner has already qualified for European competition through their league finish, then the team that finishes fourth in the league takes their place.

Media coverage edit

Domestic edit

On March 2, 2024, Turkish Football Federation stated that Qatari media group BeIN has renewed its rights to broadcast Turkey's top flight matches for three more years, until 2027.[21] BeIN will pay $182 million-a-year to broadcast Turkey's Süper Lig and TFF First League.[22] As such, Süper Lig will become the 6th most valuable football league after the Big Five leagues in Europe.[23]

International edit

UEFA ranking edit

As of March 1, 2024[24]

Süper Lig ranks 9th in UEFA Country Rankings 2024. The league made a big breakthrough in the early 90s and became one of the most valuable leagues in Europe. Süper Lig achieved the best ranking in its history in 2001 by rising to 7th place. In 1982, the league dropped to 28th place, achieving the worst ranking in its history.

Ranking Member association Coefficient
2022 2023 Mvmt 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21 2021–22 2022–23 Total
11 11   Serbian SuperLiga 6.000 6.000 5.500 9.500 5.375 32.375
20 12   +8   Turkish Süper Lig 5.500 5.000 3.100 6.700 11.800 32.100
14 13   +1   Swiss Super League 3.900 6.400 5.125 7.750 8.500 31.675
Süper Lig UEFA ranking by years[25]
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
  18   19   20   19   15   18   19   21   21   22
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
  18   19   17   18   19   23   23   23   22   23
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
  25   25   28   27   26   27   26   24   26   24
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
  24   23   18   13   12   10   11   8   14   14
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
  11   7   8   10   10   11   15   14   11   11
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
  11   10   11   10   11   12   11   10   10   10
2020 2021 2022 2023
  11   13   20   12

Clubs edit

Stadiums and locations edit

Team Home city/borough Home province Stadium Capacity
Adana Demirspor Adana Adana New Adana Stadium 33,543
Alanyaspor Alanya Antalya Alanya Oba Stadium 10,130
Ankaragücü Ankara Ankara Eryaman Stadium 20,560
Antalyaspor Antalya Antalya Corendon Airlines Park 32,537
Başakşehir Başakşehir Istanbul Başakşehir Fatih Terim Stadium 17,156
Beşiktaş Beşiktaş Tüpraş Stadium 42,590
Fatih Karagümrük Fatih Atatürk Olympic Stadium 76,761
Fenerbahçe Kadıköy Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium 47,834
Galatasaray Sarıyer Rams Park 52,280
Gaziantep Gaziantep Gaziantep Kalyon Stadium 33,502
Hatayspor Antakya Hatay Mersin Stadium[note 1] 25,497
İstanbulspor Büyükçekmece Istanbul Esenyurt Necmi Kadıoğlu Stadium 7,500
Kasımpaşa Kasımpaşa Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Stadium 14,234
Kayserispor Kayseri Kayseri RHG Enertürk Enerji Stadium 32,864
Konyaspor Konya Konya Konya Metropolitan Municipality Stadium 42,000
Pendikspor Pendik Istanbul Pendik Stadium [tr][26] 2,500
Rizespor Rize Rize Rize City Stadium 15,332
Samsunspor Samsun Samsun Samsun 19 Mayıs Stadium 33,919
Sivasspor Sivas Sivas New Sivas 4 Eylül Stadium 27,532
Trabzonspor Trabzon Trabzon Şenol Güneş Sports Complex 40,782
  1. ^ Hatayspor plays their home matches in Mersin due to Hatay Stadium having been affected by the 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquakes.

Champions edit

Only six clubs have been champions since the introduction of the Super League: Galatasaray 23 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 16 times (see note below), Trabzonspor 7 times, and Bursaspor and İstanbul Başakşehir once each.

Teams in bold compete in the Süper Lig as of the 2023–24 season.

Club Champ­ions[27] Runners-up Winning seasons Runners-up seasons
Galatasaray
    
23 13 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–00, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2017–18, 2018–19, 2022–23 1956–571, 1957–581, 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2013–14, 2020–21
Fenerbahçe
   
19 24 1959, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 2000–01, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2010–11, 2013–14 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2021–22, 2022–23
Beşiktaş     16 14 1956–571, 1957–581, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2008–09, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2020–21 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1973–74, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–00, 2006–07
Trabzonspor
 
7 9 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84, 2021–22 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11, 2019–20
İstanbul Başakşehir 1 2 2019–20 2016–17, 2018–19
Bursaspor 1 2009–10

1 Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish Professional First Division championships to the Turkish Football Federation. The Cup was established in 1956 to find a national champion to represent Turkey, after UEFA decided that only national champions could participate in the European Cup.[28] Beşiktaş had therefore earned the right to represent Turkey in the European Cup in the 1957–58 and 1958–59 seasons.[29] The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002, which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Federation Cup would be counted as national league championships.

Star rating system edit

The honor of Golden Stars was introduced in football to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. In Turkey, clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest for every five national championships won. As of the 2023–24 season season Galatasaray are permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.

League participation edit

As of 2024, 75 clubs have participated. Note: The tallies below include up to the 2023–24 season. Teams denoted in bold are current participants.

Player records edit

  • Bold denotes players still active in the league.
  • All players are Turkish unless otherwise indicated.

Turkish football clubs in UEFA competitions edit

Club European Cup / UEFA Champions League UEFA Cup / Europa League UEFA Super Cup UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
Semi-finalist Quarter-finalist Winner Semi-finalist Quarter-finalist Winner Quarter-finalist
Galatasaray 1989 1963, 1970, 1994, 2001, 2013 2000 - - 2000 1992
Fenerbahçe - 2008 - 2013 - - 1964
Beşiktaş - 1987 - - 2003, 2017 - -
Bursaspor - - - - - - 1975
Göztepe - - - 1969# - - 1970

‡ Galatasaray was one of the final eight teams of the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League group stage.
# Inter–Cities Fairs Cup

Sponsorship edit

Period Sponsor Brand
1959–1963 No sponsor Turkish Football Championship- Millî Lig
1989–2000 No sponsor Türkiye 1. Futbol Ligi
2000–2005 No sponsor Türkiye Süper Ligi
2005–2010 Turkcell Turkcell Süper Lig[49]
2010–2017 Spor Toto Spor Toto Süper Lig[50]
2017–2018 No sponsor Süper Lig
2018–2019 Spor Toto Spor Toto Süper Lig[51]
2019–2021 No sponsor Süper Lig
2021–2023 Spor Toto Spor Toto Süper Lig[51]
2023–present Trendyol Trendyol Süper Lig[3]

Official match ball edit

  • 2008–2010: Nike T90 Omni
  • 2010–2011: Nike T90 Tracer
  • 2011–2012: Nike Seitiro
  • 2012–2013: Nike Maxim
  • 2013–2014: Nike Incyte
  • 2014–2015: Nike Ordem 2
  • 2015–2016: Nike Ordem 3
  • 2016–2017: Nike Ordem 4
  • 2017–2018: Nike Ordem 5
  • 2018–2020: Nike Merlin
  • 2020–2021: Adidas Uniforia
  • 2021–2022: Adidas Conext 21 Pro
  • 2022–present: Puma Orbita

See also edit

References and notes edit

  1. ^ "Türkiye Spor Toto Süper Lig". mackolik.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Hakan Şükür". Mackolik.com. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Süper Lig ve 1. Lig'in İsim Sponsoru Trendyol Oldu". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. 12 July 2023. Archived from the original on 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  4. ^ "Before the national Turkish Leagues". turkish-soccer.com. Erdinç Sivritepe. Archived from the original on 31 May 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 1936'ya kadar süren bu dönemde ilk Türkiye Şampiyonası Ankara'da yapılmış ve şampiyon Harbiye olmuştur.
  6. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Birinciliği". Erdinç Sivritepe. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  7. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2017. ...ilk deplasmanlı lig kapsamındaki Milli Küme maçları da yine bu dönemde tertip edilmiştir.
  8. ^ "Milli Küme". Erdinç Sivritepe. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  9. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 56/57 Archived 2017-04-08 at the Wayback Machine turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  10. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 57/58 Archived 2017-04-08 at the Wayback Machine turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  11. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç 1959 Milli Lig Archived 2019-04-21 at the Wayback Machine turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  12. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç 1963-1964 1. Lig Archived 2019-04-11 at the Wayback Machine turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  13. ^ "FourFourTwo's 50 Biggest Derbies in the World, No. 6: Fenerbahce vs Galatasaray". fourfourtwo.com. FourFourTwo. 29 April 2016. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  14. ^ "The 50 greatest derbies in football throughout the world". givemesport.com. 14 April 2020. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  15. ^ "History of the Istanbul Derby - Fenerbahce vs Galatasaray". sportskeeda.com. 31 August 2015. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Turkish football club president arrested for punching referee on the field". Al Jazeera. 12 December 2023.
  17. ^ a b Fraser, Suzan (12 December 2023). "Turkish club president arrested and league games suspended after referee is punched at match". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  18. ^ "Turkish referee Halil Umut Meler leaves hospital after attack from Ankaragucu president Faruk Koca | Super Lig matches to resume on Tuesday". Sky Sports. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  19. ^ Mintah, Yaw Loic (13 December 2023). "Turkey referee punch: League to resume on December 19 after official leaves hospital". Citi Sports Online. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  20. ^ Official TFF competition rules Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ SPORTS, beIN (4 March 2024). "Trendyol Süper Lig 3 sezon daha sadece beIN SPORTS ta". beinsports.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  22. ^ "Statement Regarding Super League and League 1 Broadcasting Rights - TFF". www.tff.org. Istanbul: Turkish Football Federation. 2 March 2024. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  23. ^ "Yayın ihalesi sonrası Süper Lig, Avrupa'nın en pahalı ligleri arasında". www.ntv.com.tr (in Turkish). NTV. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  24. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2024". kassiesa.net. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  25. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2023". kassiesa.net. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  26. ^ @PendiksporK (19 July 2023). "Önemli Duyuru" (Tweet) (in Turkish) – via Twitter.
  27. ^ "Süper Lig Şampiyonu Takımlar". www.tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 22 November 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  28. ^ "Turkey – List of Champions". RSSSF. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  29. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Ana Sayfa TFF". www.tff.org. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  30. ^ Dissolved in 2020.
  31. ^ Played as İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor before 2014-15 season.
  32. ^ Later renamed as Mersin Talim Yurdu. Dissolved in 2019.
  33. ^ Later renamed as Fenerspor. Dissolved in 2012. - Zonguldakspor Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Played as Kayserispor before 2005-06 season. Dissolved in 2018.
  35. ^ Later renamed as Türk Telekom. Dissolved in 2011.
  36. ^ Later renamed as Turanspor. Dissolved in 2017.
  37. ^ Ankara Keçiörengüçü since 1988.
  38. ^ Played as Akhisar Belediyespor before 2017-18 season.
  39. ^ Later renamed as İl Özel İdaresi Vanspor. Dissolved in 2014.
  40. ^ Dissolved in 2015.
  41. ^ Later renamed as Yozgatspor Ticaret. Dissolved in 2015.
  42. ^ Alibeyköyspor since 1971.
  43. ^ Dissolved in 2018.
  44. ^ Erzurumspor FK since 2022.
  45. ^ Later renamed as Buca Geliştirmespor. Dissolved in 2020.
  46. ^ Dissolved in 2010. (TFF Archived 2018-04-07 at the Wayback Machine)
  47. ^ Later renamed as Siirt Yeni Köy Hizmetleri. Dissolved in 2020. Siirtspor Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ a b "Türkiye Spor Toto Süper Lig". mackolik.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  49. ^ "Süper Lig, 50 milyon dolara 'Turkcell'in". hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Hürriyet. 12 August 2005. Archived from the original on 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  50. ^ "Spor Toto ile Süper Lig isim sponsorluğu anlaşması imzalandı". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. 12 August 2010. Archived from the original on 13 July 2023. Retrieved 13 July 2023.
  51. ^ a b "Süper Lig Tarihçe". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 25 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2023.

External links edit