The Süper Lig (Turkish pronunciation: [ˈsypæɾ liɟ], Super League), officially known as Spor Toto Süper Lig for sponsorship reasons, is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system and is run by the Turkish Football Federation. In 2022–23 season, nineteen clubs compete, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted from, and relegated to the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 36 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday.

Süper Lig
Süper Lig logo.svg
Organising bodyTurkish Football Federation (TFF)
Founded21 February 1959; 63 years ago (1959-02-21)
CountryTurkey
ConfederationUEFA
Number of teams19
Level on pyramid1
Relegation toTFF First League
Domestic cup(s)
International cup(s)
Current championsTrabzonspor (7th title)
(2021–22)
Most championshipsGalatasaray (22 titles)
Most appearancesUmut Bulut (515)[1]
Top goalscorerHakan Şükür (249)[2]
TV partnersList of broadcasters
Websitetff.org
Current: 2022–23 Süper Lig

The competition was initially established in 1923. The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level national competitions. The Süper Lig is currently 20th in the UEFA coefficient ranking of leagues based on club performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 73 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only six have won the title to date: Galatasaray (22), Fenerbahçe (19), Beşiktaş (16), Trabzonspor (7), İstanbul Başakşehir (1) and Bursaspor (1).

HistoryEdit

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Ottoman Empire).[3] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig (Süper Lig) in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul League and Millî Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana (1924), Ankara (1922), Eskişehir (1924), İzmir (1924), Bursa (1924), and Trabzon (1922), to name a few. The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the former Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[4] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues.[5] The National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition in Turkey. Started in 1937, the National Division consisted of the strongest clubs from the Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir leagues. The championship lasted until 1950.[6][7]

The Federation Cup was established in 1956 to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two seasons until it was replaced by the Millî Lig. Beşiktaş won both editions and qualified for the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[8][9]

The top clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Turkish National League. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, since the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (Istanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü (Ankara), Ankara Demirspor (Ankara), Beşiktaş (Istanbul), Beykoz (Istanbul), Karagümrük (Istanbul), Fenerbahçe (Istanbul), Galatasaray (Istanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe Gençlik (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir), and Vefa (Istanbul). The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.[10]

The 2. Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the foundation of a second division, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the group were promoted to the Süper Lig. After the foundation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1. Lig, the formerly titled 1. Lig was rebranded as Süper Lig.[11] The Süper Lig is home of the Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby, the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world, being ranked among the greatest football rivalries of all-time by various international sources.[12][13][14]

Competition formatEdit

 
Current design of the Süper Lig Trophy, in use since 2015.

There has been 18 clubs in the Süper Lig until 2020. 20 Clubs are competing in the Süper Lig starting from 2020. During the course of the season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then head-to-head record, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to-head record and then goal difference determine the winner. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1. Lig and the top two teams from the 1. Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1. Lig clubs are promoted in their place.[15]

Qualification for European competitionsEdit

Qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the second qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, and fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has already qualified for European competition through their league finish, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place.

UEFA rankingEdit

[16]As of 11 August 2022

Ranking Member association Coefficient
2021h 2022 Mvmt 2018–19 2019–20 2020–21 2021–22 2022–23 Total
19 18 +1   Croatian Football League 5,750 4,375 5.900 6,000 3,125 25,150
20 19 +1   Süper Lig 5.500 5.000 3.100 6.700 4.800 25.100
15 20 -5   Super League Greece 5,100 4,900 5,100 8,000 1,625 24,725

ClubsEdit

Club Province Position in 2021–22 First season
in top division
Seasons in
top division
First season
of current spell
Top division
titles
Last title
Alanyaspor Antalya 5th 2016–17 7 2016–17
Ankaragücüa Ankara 1st (First League) 1959 53 2022–23
Antalyaspor Antalya 7th 1982–83 27 2015–16
Beşiktaşab Istanbul 6th 1959 65 1959 16 2020–21
Çaykur Rizespor Rize 17th 1979–80 21 2018–19
Fatih Karagümrüka Istanbul 8th 1959 6 2020–21
Fenerbahçeab Istanbul 2nd 1959 65 1959 19 2013–14
Galatasarayab Istanbul 13th 1959 65 1959 22 2018–19
Gaziantepb Gaziantep 15th 2019–20 4 2019–20
Göztepea Izmir 19th 1959 30 2017–18
Hatayspor Hatay 12th 2020–21 3 2020–21
İstanbul Başakşehir Istanbul 4th 2007–08 15 2019–20 1 2019-20
İstanbulspor Istanbul 4th (First League) 1959 24 2022–23
Kasımpaşa Istanbul 11th 1959–60 17 2012–13
Kayserispor Kayseri 14th 2004–05 18 2015–16
Konyaspor Konya 3rd 1988–89 22 2013–14
Sivasspor Sivas 10th 2005–06 17 2017–18
Trabzonsporb Trabzon 1st 1974–75 49 1974–75 7 2021–22
Ümraniyespor Istanbul 2nd (First League) 2022–23 1 2022–23
Yeni Malatyaspor Malatya 20th 2017–18 5 2017–18

a Founding member of the Süper Lig
b Never been relegated from the Süper Lig

ChampionsEdit

In total, fifteen different clubs have won the Turkish championship title, including titles won before the Süper Lig's inception, namely in the former Turkish Football Championship and Turkish National Division,[17] which are denied and not counted by the Turkish Football Federation, even though they were official championships by the TFF itself. Galatasaray claim to have won the most national championships, with 22 titles in total; However, in fact they only won 22 titles recognized by the federation.

Only six clubs have been champions since the introduction of the Super League: Galatasaray 22 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 19 times (see note below), Trabzonspor 7 times, and Bursaspor and İstanbul Başakşehir once each.

Club Champ­ions[18] Runners-up Winning seasons Runners-up seasons
Galatasaray
    
22 13 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–00, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2017–18, 2018–19 1956–571, 1957–581, 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2013–14, 2020–21
Fenerbahçe
   
19 23 1959, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 2000–01, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2010–11, 2013–14 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2021–22
Beşiktaş     16 14 1956–571, 1957–581, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2008–09, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2020–21 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1973–74, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–00, 2006–07
Trabzonspor
 
7 9 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84, 2021–22 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11, 2019–20
İstanbul Başakşehir 1 2 2019–20 2016–17, 2018–19
Bursaspor 1 2009–10

1 Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish Professional First Division championships to the Turkish Football Federation. The Cup was established in 1956 to find a national champion to represent Turkey, after UEFA decided that only national champions could participate in the European Cup.[17] Beşiktaş had therefore earned the right to represent Turkey in the European Cup in the 1957–58 and 1958–59 seasons.[19] The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Federation Cup would be counted as national league championships.

Star rating systemEdit

The honor of Golden Stars was introduced in football to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. In Turkey, clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest for every five national championships won. As of the 2020-21 season Galatasaray are permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.

League participationEdit

As of 2022, 74 clubs have participated. Note: The tallies below include up to the 2022–23 season. Teams denoted in bold are current participants.

Player recordsEdit

  • Bold denotes players still active in the league.
  • All players are Turkish unless otherwise indicated.

Turkish football clubs in UEFA competitionsEdit

European Cup / UEFA Champions League UEFA Cup / Europa League UEFA Cup Winners' Cup UEFA Super Cup UEFA Intertoto Cup
Club Semi-finalist Quarter-finalist Winner Semi-finalist Quarter-finalist Quarter-finalist Winner Winner
Galatasaray 1989 1963, 1970, 1994, 2001, 2013 2000 - - 1992 2000 -
Fenerbahçe - 2008 - 2013 - 1964 - -
Beşiktaş - 1987 - - 2003, 2017 - - -
Bursaspor - - - - - 1975 - -
Göztepe - - - 1969 - 1970 - -
Kayserispor - - - - - - - 2006

‡ Galatasaray was one of the final eight teams of the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League group stage, however UEFA does not consider this a quarter-final participation.

Official match ballEdit

  • 2008–2010: Nike T90 Omni
  • 2010–2011: Nike T90 Tracer
  • 2011–2012: Nike Seitiro
  • 2012–2013: Nike Maxim
  • 2013–2014: Nike Incyte
  • 2014–2015: Nike Ordem 2
  • 2015–2016: Nike Ordem 3
  • 2016–2017: Nike Ordem 4
  • 2017–2018: Nike Ordem 5
  • 2018–2020: Nike Merlin

See alsoEdit

References and notesEdit

  1. ^ "Türkiye Spor Toto Süper Lig". mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Hakan Şükür". mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  3. ^ "Before the national Turkish Leagues". turkish-soccer.com. Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  4. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 1936'ya kadar süren bu dönemde ilk Türkiye Şampiyonası Ankara'da yapılmış ve şampiyon Harbiye olmuştur.
  5. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Birinciliği". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  6. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Kuruluyor". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. ...ilk deplasmanlı lig kapsamındaki Milli Küme maçları da yine bu dönemde tertip edilmiştir.
  7. ^ "Milli Küme". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  8. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 56/57 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  9. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç Federation Cup 57/58 turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  10. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç 1959 Milli Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  11. ^ Sivritepe, Erdinç 1963-1964 1. Lig turkish-soccer.com, accessed 22 July 2010
  12. ^ "FourFourTwo's 50 Biggest Derbies in the World, No.6: Fenerbahce vs Galatasaray". fourfourtwo.com. FourFourTwo. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  13. ^ "The 50 greatest derbies in football throughout the world". givemesport.com. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  14. ^ "History of the Istanbul Derby - Fenerbahce vs Galatasaray". sportskeeda.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  15. ^ Official TFF competition rules Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2023". kassiesa.net. Retrieved 2022-08-07.
  17. ^ a b "Turkey – List of Champions". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  18. ^ "Süper Lig Şampiyonu Takımlar". www.tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  19. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu Ana Sayfa TFF". www.tff.org.
  20. ^ Dissolved in 2020.
  21. ^ Played as İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyespor before 2014-15 season.
  22. ^ a b Dissolved in 2019.
  23. ^ Later renamed as Fenerspor. Dissolved in 2012. - Zonguldakspor Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ a b Dissolved in 2018.
  25. ^ Later renamed as Türk Telekom. Dissolved in 2011.
  26. ^ Later renamed as Turanspor. Dissolved in 2017.
  27. ^ Ankara Keçiörengüçü since 1988.
  28. ^ Dissolved in 2014.
  29. ^ a b Dissolved in 2015.
  30. ^ Alibeyköyspor since 1971.
  31. ^ Later renamed as Buca Geliştirmespor. Dissolved in 2020.
  32. ^ Dissolved in 2010. (TFF)
  33. ^ Dissolved in 2020. Siirtspor
  34. ^ a b "Türkiye Spor Toto Süper Lig". mackolik.com. Retrieved 11 November 2015.

External linksEdit