Erciyesspor, which was Kayserispor's predecessor, was founded as Erciyesspor with red-white colours. In 1937, Erciyesspor merged with Yılmazspor and changed their colours to yellow-red. It was merged into Kayseri Gençlik in 1940. They were refounded in 1948 with yellow-navy colours. They merged with Kayseri Gençlik in 1949 and changed their colours to yellow-red. They were dissolved in 1951. But they were refounded by Naci Ulucan in 1952. They played in a regional league until 1966.
In 1965, Orhan Şefik Apak, then president of the Turkish Football Federation, asked cities in Turkey to combine their amateur football clubs into one singular club that would represent their communities. These new clubs would compete in the newly created 2.Lig (Second Division). After several meetings, representatives of the city merged Erciyesspor, Sanayispor, and Ortaanadoluspor to form Kayserispor. The club submitted the required paperwork and were officially founded as Kayserispor on 1 July 1966. They began competing in the 1966–67 2.Lig. Erdoğan Gürhan was the first manager, signing a contract worth 1,500 TL. In their first season, the club competed in the Beyaz Grup (White Group). Yener scored the first goal in club history when he netted a shot in the 17th minute against Ankara Toprakspor. The club finished with a nine win, nine draw, and twelve loss record in 30 matches while scoring 21 goals and conceding 33. They finished in ninth place.
It was refounded as Kayseri Emniyetspor with red-navy colours. They merged with Kayserigücü, whose former name was Mahrumlarspor in 1985. They were promoted to 3rd level in 1988. However changed their name to Kayseri Erciyesspor due to the Security General Directorate's decision to withdraw Security teams from leagues. They changed their colours to black-white. They became Büyükşehir Belediye Erciyesspor with blue-white colours in 1992, Melikgazi Belediyesi Erciyesspor with yellow-red in 1997, and Hacılar Erciyesspor with yellow-navy colours in 1999. They were promoted to second level in the 1999–2000 season. They changed their name to Erciyesspor and colours to yellow-red in 2001. They were relegated to third level in the 2001–2002 season. But after successive two promotions, Erciyesspor reached the top level in 2004. It was at this time that Kayserspor switched names with Kayseri Erciyesspor. Manager Hüsnü Özkara was fired seven matches into the season after accumulating two points out of a possible twenty-one. Hikmet Karaman took over as manager and guided the club to a 14th-place finish, two places above the relegation zone.
Ertuğrul Sağlam, former Samsunspor and Beşiktaş player, took over for Karaman at the end of the season. Sağlam led the club to fifth place in the league, and Gökhan Ünal won the "Gol Kralı" (top goal scorer) award after netting 25 goals in 32 matches. The club qualified for European competition for the first time. The club would go on to win the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup and qualified for the 2006–07 UEFA Cup, where they lost to AZ in the second round. Kayserispor finished fifth for the second time in a row at the end of the 2006–07 season. Sağlam moved to Beşiktaş over the summer, with Tolunay Kafkas being his replacement. Kafkas led the club to a third straight fifth-place finish, as well as the club's first Turkish Cup title in 2008. On 15 October 2012 Robert Prosinečki was assigned as manager of Kayserispor, Gordan Ciprić and Dragan Spasić assisted him. They finished 5th in the 2012–13 season. But, the next season Kayserispor relegated from the Süper Lig, finishing as last, despite assigning three managers during the season to change its faith. Fortune changed in the 2014-15 season; manager Cüneyt Dumlupınar led the club to the championship, earning the club ones again a spot in the Süper Lig.
As of January 2019 the club's name changed into İstikbal Mobilya Kayserispor because of a sponsordeal. In January 2020 the club's name changed to HES Kablo Kayserispor as result of a sponsordeal.
End 2019, Berna Gözbaşı, a member of the club board, was elected president of the football club, becoming the first woman president of a football club playing in the Turkish top-level men's league.
Kadir Has Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kayseri, Turkey. It is part of a complex of sports venues that are planned on the outskirts of the city, as part of the Atatürk Sport Complex. It replaced Kayseri Atatürk Stadium, which had been in use since 1964. It was completed in early 2008, and has primarily been used to host the home matches of Kayserispor and Kayseri Erciyesspor. The stadium has a capacity of 32,864 (all-seated) and is covered. The stadium contains several restaurants, cafes, and VIP areas for fans. Two shopping centres are also located nearby, and the parking lot holds 1,785 cars. The light-rail system of Kayseri, Kayseray, passes near the stadium complex, allowing the fans an alternative to traveling by car or bus.