List of Turkish football champions

The Turkish football champions are the annual winners of the highest association football competition in Turkey. Brought to the country by Englishmen, the sport had first taken root in Istanbul, where the Istanbul Football League was founded and became the first football league in Turkey. Other regional and local leagues followed in other major cities, such as Ankara (1922), Adana (1924), Eskişehir (1924), and İzmir (1924).

Turkish football championships
Founded1924
CountryTurkey
ConfederationUEFA
Number of teams20
Level on pyramidLevel 1
Current championsTrabzonspor
(2021–22)
Most championshipsFenerbahçe (28 titles)
Current: 2021–22 season

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[1][2] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues. At the end of the 1924 edition, Harbiye were the first club to be crowned champions after completing their fixture unbeaten.[3] They are also the only club who have ever changed their name after winning a championship title, changing their name to Harp Okulu after the first of their three titles. Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition and was held until 1950.[4]

A few years later, in 1959, the professional nationwide league was introduced, currently known as the Süper Lig (Super League). The league is contested on a double round-robin basis and the championship is awarded to the team that is top of the league at the end of the season. The league originally contained 16 teams. Today the Süper Lig is contested by 20 teams. Of the founding clubs in the league, only Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, and Galatasaray have not been relegated to date. Galatasaray are the most successful Süper Lig club with 22 titles. Fenerbahçe are the most successful club including championships before the start of Süper Lig (1959), having won 28 titles in total so far.[5][6]

HistoryEdit

Early history and former championshipsEdit

 
Turkish newspaper Cumhuriyet announcing the Turkish championship title of Fenerbahçe on its front page on 11 November 1933.

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Turkish Empire).[7] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, a regional league for Istanbul clubs which took place for the first time in the 1904–05 season. Shortly after the foundation of the Turkish Republic and the Turkish Football Federation (TFF), several other regional leagues were officially established (or gained official status as some were already founded earlier) in various major cities: Ankara (1922), Adana (1924), Bursa (1924), Eskişehir (1924), İzmir (1924), and Trabzon (1922).[8]

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[2] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of the country's top regional leagues. In some of the early years, the championship could not be held due to insufficient funds.[9]

Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was a national league competition between the strongest clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir, which hosted the strongest regional leagues in those decades. The league lasted until 1950.[10] From 1940 to 1950, both top-level championships existed at the same time, which resulted in there being two national champions within a year. Since the National Division was based on a league format, with home and away matches on a regular basis and a higher number of matches overall, it was more popular and competitive than the Turkish Championship and overshadowed it.

Introduction of professionalism and Süper LigEdit

In 1951 the TFF introduced professionalism in Turkish football. Shortly after, the top-level Istanbul League and the clubs playing there adopted professionalism, while the Ankara and İzmir clubs followed some years later in 1955. After that point the Turkish Football Championship was no longer open to professional clubs, hence the professional departments of the Istanbul clubs could no longer participate in the championship. As a result the former Turkish Football Championship lost its first level status. Since there was no top-level national champion in the period from 1952 to 1955, the Turkish federation sent Galatasaray, winners of the 1955–56 Istanbul League, to the European Cup in the 1956–57 season.

Protests of some Ankara and İzmir clubs regarding this decision, as well as UEFA deciding to only accept national champions to the European Cup from that season on induced the TFF to establish the Federation Cup in 1956. The competition took place as a knock-out tournament to decide a national champion. The Federation Cup was held for two years until it was replaced by the Süper Lig (then known as Millî Lig) in 1959. Beşiktaş won both editions and earned the right to represent Turkey twice in the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the Turkish Football Federation failed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[11][12]

After some years of preparation and planning, the professional nationwide league called Millî Lig (National League) was finally introduced in 1959. Eligible for the newly established nationwide league were the top clubs of the regional Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir leagues. The inaugural season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958–59, since the regional leagues leading to qualification took place in 1958. The clubs competing in the first season were Adalet, Beşiktaş, Galatasaray, Beykoz, Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, İstanbulspor, Vefa (all from Istanbul), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Gençlerbirliği, Hacettepe (all from Ankara), Altay, Göztepe, İzmirspor, and Karşıyaka (all from İzmir). The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay.[13]

The 2. Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the National League (Millî Lig) became known as the 1. Lig (First League). After the creation of a new second division in 2001, from then on known as 1. Lig, the formerly titled 1. Lig became the current Süper Lig.[14]

ChampionsEdit

Turkish Football Championship (1924–1951)Edit

The numbers in parenthesis indicate the number of titles won in total since 1924.

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[5][15] Runners-up[5] Leading goalscorer[16] Goals
1924 Harbiye (1) Bahriye not available
1925–26 Not held due to insufficient funds.
1927 Muhafızgücü (1) Altınordu not available
1928–31
Not held due to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam and insufficient funds.
1932 İstanbulspor (1) Altınordu not available
1933 Fenerbahçe (1) İzmirspor   Zeki Rıza (Fenerbahçe) 10
1934 Beşiktaş (1) Altay not available
1935 Fenerbahçe (2) Altınordu not available
1936–39 Not held due to the introduction of the National Division.
1940 Eskişehir Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1941 Gençlerbirliği (1) Beşiktaş not available
1942 Harp Okulu (2) Göztepe not available
1943 Not held
1944 Fenerbahçe (2) Harp Okulu not available
1945 Harp Okulu (3) İzmit Harp Filosu not available
1946 Gençlerbirliği (2) Beşiktaş not available
1947 Ankara Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949 Ankaragücü (1) Galatasaray not available
1950 Göztepe (1) Gençlerbirliği not available
1951 Beşiktaş (5) Altay not available

National Division (1937–1950)Edit

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[5][10] Runners-up[5] Third place[17] Leading goalscorer[16][18] Goals
1937 Fenerbahçe (3) Galatasaray Beşiktaş   Said Altınordu (Üçok) 13
1938 Güneş (1) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1939 Galatasaray (1) Ankara Demirspor AS-FA Gücü   Cemil Erlertürk (Galatasaray)
  Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
13
1940 Fenerbahçe (4) Galatasaray Muhafızgücü   Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 23
1941 Beşiktaş (2) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe   Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş) 18
1942 Not held as a result of the weather conditions and the delayed conclusion of the Istanbul League.
1943 Fenerbahçe (5) Galatasaray Beşiktaş   Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1944 Beşiktaş (3) Fenerbahçe Göztepe   Kemal Gülçelik (Beşiktaş)
  Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
15
1945 Fenerbahçe (7) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 17
1946 Fenerbahçe (8) Beşiktaş Kayagücü   Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 12
1947 Beşiktaş (4) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   İsmet Artun (Vefa)
  Şükrü Gülesin (Beşiktaş)
12
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949
Not held due to the Mediterranean Cup.
1950 Fenerbahçe (9) Galatasaray Beşiktaş   Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe) 14

Federation Cup (1956–1958)Edit

(not recognised by TFF until 2002)

Season Winners[5][19] Runners-up[17] Third place[17] Leading goalscorer[16][20] Goals
1956–57 Beşiktaş (6) Galatasaray Altay   Nazmi Bilge (Beşiktaş) 8
1957–58 Beşiktaş (7) Galatasaray   Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe)
  Metin Oktay (Galatasaray)
10

Süper Lig (1959–present)Edit

Season Winners[5][19] Runners-up[17] Third place[17] Leading goalscorer[16][21] Goals
1959 Fenerbahçe (10) Galatasaray   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 11
1959–60 Beşiktaş (8) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 33
1960–61 Fenerbahçe (11) Galatasaray Beşiktaş   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 36
1961–62 Galatasaray (2) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Fikri Elma (Ankara Demirspor) 21
1962–63 Galatasaray (3) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 38
1963–64 Fenerbahçe (12) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Güven Önüt (Beşiktaş) 19
1964–65 Fenerbahçe (13) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1965–66 Beşiktaş (9) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği   Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 20
1966–67 Beşiktaş (10) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 18
1967–68 Fenerbahçe (14) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Fevzi Zemzem (Göztepe) 19
1968–69 Galatasaray (4) Eskişehirspor Beşiktaş   Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1969–70 Fenerbahçe (15) Eskişehirspor Altay   Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 13
1970–71 Galatasaray (5) Fenerbahçe Göztepe   Ogün Altıparmak (Fenerbahçe) 16
1971–72 Galatasaray (6) Eskişehirspor Fenerbahçe   Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 20
1972–73 Galatasaray (7) Fenerbahçe Eskişehirspor   Osman Arpacıoğlu (Fenerbahçe) 16
1973–74 Fenerbahçe (16) Beşiktaş Boluspor   Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 14
1974–75 Fenerbahçe (17) Galatasaray Eskişehirspor   Ömer Kaner (Eskişehirspor) 14
1975–76 Trabzonspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe)
  Ali Osman Renklibay (Ankaragücü)
17
1976–77 Trabzonspor (2) Fenerbahçe Altay   Necmi Perekli (Trabzonspor) 18
1977–78 Fenerbahçe (18) Trabzonspor Galatasaray   Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 17
1978–79 Trabzonspor (3) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe   Özer Umdu (Adanaspor) 15
1979–80 Trabzonspor (4) Fenerbahçe Zonguldakspor   Mustafa Denizli (Altay)
  Bahtiyar Yorulmaz (Bursaspor)
12
1980–81 Trabzonspor (5) Adanaspor Galatasaray   Bora Öztürk (Adanaspor) 15
1981–82 Beşiktaş (11) Trabzonspor Fenerbahçe   Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 16
1982–83 Fenerbahçe (19) Trabzonspor Galatasaray   Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 19
1983–84 Trabzonspor (6) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Tarik Hodžić (Galatasaray) 16
1984–85 Fenerbahçe (20) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor   Aykut Yiğit (Sakaryaspor) 20
1985–86 Beşiktaş (12) Galatasaray Samsunspor   Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 33
1986–87 Galatasaray (8) Beşiktaş Samsunspor   Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 25
1987–88 Galatasaray (9) Beşiktaş Malatyaspor   Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 39
1988–89 Fenerbahçe (21) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 29
1989–90 Beşiktaş (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor   Feyyaz Uçar (Beşiktaş) 28
1990–91 Beşiktaş (14) Galatasaray Trabzonspor   Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 31
1991–92 Beşiktaş (15) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 25
1992–93 Galatasaray (10) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor   Tanju Çolak (Fenerbahçe) 27
1993–94 Galatasaray (11) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor   Bülent Uygun (Fenerbahçe) 22
1994–95 Beşiktaş (16) Trabzonspor Galatasaray   Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 27
1995–96 Fenerbahçe (22) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş   Shota Arveladze (Trabzonspor) 25
1996–97 Galatasaray (12) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe   Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 38
1997–98 Galatasaray (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor   Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 33
1998–99 Galatasaray (14) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe   Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 19
1999–2000 Galatasaray (15) Beşiktaş Gaziantepspor   Serkan Aykut (Samsunspor) 30
2000–01 Fenerbahçe (23) Galatasaray Gaziantepspor   Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 23
2001–02 Galatasaray (16) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Arif Erdem (Galatasaray)
  İlhan Mansız (Beşiktaş)
21
2002–03 Beşiktaş (17) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği   Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 24
2003–04 Fenerbahçe (24) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş   Zafer Biryol (Konyaspor) 25
2004–05 Fenerbahçe (25) Trabzonspor Galatasaray   Fatih Tekke (Trabzonspor) 31
2005–06 Galatasaray (17) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Gökhan Ünal (Kayserispor) 25
2006–07 Fenerbahçe (26) Beşiktaş Galatasaray   Alex (Fenerbahçe) 19
2007–08 Galatasaray (18) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Semih Şentürk (Fenerbahçe) 17
2008–09 Beşiktaş (18) Sivasspor Trabzonspor   Milan Baroš (Galatasaray) 20
2009–10 Bursaspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray   Ariza Makukula (Kayserispor) 21
2010–11 Fenerbahçe (27) Trabzonspor Bursaspor   Alex (Fenerbahçe) 28
2011–12 Galatasaray (19) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor   Burak Yılmaz (Trabzonspor) 33
2012–13 Galatasaray (20) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Burak Yılmaz (Galatasaray) 24
2013–14 Fenerbahçe (28) Galatasaray Beşiktaş   Aatif Chahechouhe (Sivasspor) 17
2014–15 Galatasaray (21) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş   Fernandão (Bursaspor) 22
2015–16 Beşiktaş (19) Fenerbahçe Konyaspor   Mario Gómez (Beşiktaş) 26
2016–17 Beşiktaş (20) İstanbul Başakşehir Fenerbahçe   Vágner Love (Alanyaspor) 23
2017–18 Galatasaray (22) Fenerbahçe İstanbul Başakşehir   Bafétimbi Gomis (Galatasaray) 29
2018–19 Galatasaray (23) İstanbul Başakşehir Beşiktaş   Mbaye Diagne (Galatasaray) 30
2019–20 İstanbul Başakşehir (1) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş   Alexander Sørloth (Trabzonspor) 24
2020–21 Beşiktaş (21) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe   Aaron Boupendza (Hatayspor) 22
2021–22 Trabzonspor (7) Fenerbahçe Konyaspor   Umut Bozok (Kasımpaşa) 20

PerformancesEdit

Over the history of the Turkish football championships 15 different clubs have won the title. The most successful club are Fenerbahçe with 28 titles to their credit, most of those coming in Süper Lig competition. They are also the most successful pre-Süper Lig club with 9 titles overall in that era, 6 of them won in the National Division and 3 in the former Turkish Football Championship.

All-time performance (1924–present)Edit

In the table below all national championship titles since 1924 are included, including the former Turkish Football Championship and National Division, which are denied and not recognised by the Turkish Football Federation, even though they were official championships organised by the TFF itself.

Club Winners[5] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Fenerbahçe 28 27 1933, 1935, 1937, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1959, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 2000–01, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2010–11, 2013–14 1940, 1944, 1947, 1947, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18, 2021–22
Galatasaray 23 19 1939, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2017–18, 2018–19 1937, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1949, 1950, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2013–14, 2020–21
Beşiktaş 21 19 1934, 1941, 1944, 1947, 1951, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2008–09, 2015–16, 2016–17, 2020–21 1938, 1941, 1945, 1946, 1946, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1973–74, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2006–07
Trabzonspor 7 9 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84, 2021–22 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11, 2019–20
Harp Okulu 3 1 1924, 1942, 1945 1944
Gençlerbirliği 2 1 1941, 1946 1950
İstanbul Başakşehir 1 2 2019–20 2016–17, 2018–19
Ankara Demirspor 1 1 1947 1939
Göztepe 1 1 1950 1942
Muhafızgücü 1 1927
İstanbulspor 1 1932
Güneş 1 1938
Eskişehir Demirspor 1 1940
MKE Ankaragücü 1 1949
Bursaspor 1 2009–10

Performance since 1957Edit

Only six clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Süper Lig in 1959: Galatasaray 22 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 16 times (with an additional two titles counted for star purposes, see note below), Trabzonspor 6 times, and Bursaspor and Başakşehir once.

Club Winners[19] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Galatasaray
22 13 1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2019 19571, 19581, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1975, 1979, 1986, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2014, 2021
Fenerbahçe
19 23 1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2014 1960, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2018, 2022
Beşiktaş
16 14 19571, 19581, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2016, 2017, 2021 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2007
Trabzonspor
7 9 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 2022 1978, 1982, 1983, 1995, 1996, 2004, 2005, 2011, 2020
Başakşehir 1 2 2020 2017, 2019
Bursaspor 1 2010
Eskişehirspor 3 1969, 1970, 1972
Adanaspor 1 1981
Sivasspor 1 2009

1 Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish championship titles to the Turkish Football Federation. The Cup was established in 1956 to find a national champion to represent Turkey, after UEFA decided that only national champions could participate in the European Cup.[5] Beşiktaş had therefore earned the right to represent Turkey in the 1957–58 and 1958–59 seasons of the European Cup.[12] However, since the Turkish Football Federation failed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[11] The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Federation Cup will be considered as national championship titles.

Star rating systemEdit

The honor of Golden Stars was introduced to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. In Turkey clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest for every five national championships won. For the 2018–19 season Galatasaray are permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.[22]

Performance by city (1924–present)Edit

Location of Turkish football champions

The 15 clubs that have won the championship are from a total of 6 cities:

City Number of titles Club(s)
Istanbul 76 Fenerbahçe (28), Galatasaray (23), Beşiktaş (21), Harbiye (1), İstanbulspor (1), Güneş (1), Başakşehir (1)
Ankara 7 Harp Okulu (2), Gençlerbirliği (2), Muhafızgücü (1), Ankara Demirspor (1), MKE Ankaragücü (1)
Trabzon 7 Trabzonspor (7)
Bursa 1 Bursaspor (1)
Eskişehir 1 Eskişehir Demirspor (1)
İzmir 1 Göztepe (1)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  21. ^ "Ligin Gol Kralları". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  22. ^ "15. şampiyonluk, 3 yıldız" (in Turkish). Eurosport. 28 May 2017. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
Sources

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